Abbildungen der Seite
[ocr errors]


Ir r6-pr6ach -a-bly*, adv. [English irreproaehab(le); -/#.] In an irreproachable manner: in a manner beyond reproach or blame; blamelessly; faultlessly.

"From this time, snyB the monk, tho bear lived irreproachably."Addison: Switzerland.

Ir rS prSv-a-ble, a. [Fr.] Not deserving or calling for reproof or censure; blameless, unblamable, irreproachable.

"Not only oil other ways are dangerous nnd unpassnble, and this irreprovable, but also that there is direct evidence enough to prove it solid and rational."—Ulanvill: Preexistence of Soul*, ch. v.

Ir-re prdV-a-ble IieSS, «. [Eng. irreprm'nble; -ness.] Tho quality or stato of Umuu' irreprovable; freedom from blame, censure, or reproof; blame


Ir re-prdv -a-bly\ adv. [Eng. trreprovab(le); -ly.] In an irreprovable or irreproachable manner.

flr-rSp-U-tlOUS, a. [Lat. irrepto, freq. from irrepo— to creep in: ir-= tn-=into, and repo= to creep.] Crept in; secretly or privately introduced; surreptitious.

Ir-re*p'-y.-ta-ble, a. [Pref. ir-=in- (2), and Eng. reputable (q. v.J.J Not reputable; disreputable.

"It's very imputable for a young woman to gad about to men's lodgings."—Female Tatler, No. 4.

Ir-rS-Bll'-I-ent, a. [Pref. ir-=in- (2), and Eng. resilient (q. v.) .J Not resilient.

ir-rS-BlBt -ance, s. [Pref. ir-=in- (2), and Eng. resistance (q. v.).] Forbearanco to resist; nonresistance; passive submission or obedience.

tlr-re-BlBt-I-bll'-I-tyS*. [Eng. irresistible; -ity.] The quality or state of being irresistible.

"In what bold colors has the Poet drawn his impetuosity and irresistibility!"—Lewis; Statius, bk. x. (Note.)

Ir-r6-sIst'-I-ble, a. [Prof. t>- = in-=(2),andEng. resistible _(q. v.).l No resistible; that cannot bo resisted ; incapable of being successfully resisted or withstood ; superior to opposition or resistance.

"But James supposed that tho primate was struck dumb by the irresistible force of reason."—Macaulay: Hist. Eny., ch. vi.

Ir-r5-slst -I-ble-nS8B, *. [English irresistible; •ness.'] The quality or stato of being irresistible.

"For the remoteness, violence, irrca/stibleness of the blow, are the enemies of the church described by the spear and dart." — Bp. liall: Defeat of Cruelty.

Ir-rS-sUt-I-bly\ adv. [Eng. irresistib(le); -/y.]
In an irresistible manner; in a manner or degree
not admitting of resistance.

"For irresistibly their power presides
In all events, and good and ill divides."

M'ilkie: Epiyoniad, bk. vii.

*Ir-r5-gIst -lSss, a. [«- (intens.), and Eng. resistless (q. v.).] Resistless; incapable of being resisted or withstood; irresistible.

"When beauty in distress appears,

An irresistltis charm it beurB."
Yatden: In Allusion to Horace, bk. ii., ode 4.

Mr-re's. -6-lU-ble, a. [Pref. tr-=£n- (2), and Eng.
resoluble (q. v.).J

1. Incapable of being resolved or dissolved; incapable of resolution into parts; indissoluble.

"I know it may be here alleged, that the productions of chemical analyses are nimplo bodies, and upon that uccount (rresolubte."Boyle: Works, iv. 74.

2. Incapable of being released or relieved, as from guilt.

"The second is in the irrrsnlublc condition of our souls after a known sin committed."—lip. Hall: C\tses of Conscience, dec. y, case y.

Ir-rSs -6-lU ble-Iie3S, «. [English irresoluble; •w*s.] The quality or state of being irresoluble; resistance to separation of parts.

"Quersetanus has this confession of the irre.solubleness
of diamonds."—Boyle: Works, i. 6H.

Ir-rfi«'-6-lflte, «. [Pref. ir-=in- (2), and English
resolute (q.v.).] Not resolute; not firm or con-
stant in purpose; not decided or determined;
wavering, hesitating, vacillating, undecided.
"Weak and irresolute is man."

Cowper: Human Frailty.

Ir-rSs -o-Hlte-ly1, adv. [English irresolute;
In an irresoluto, hesitating, or wavering manner;
with hesitation.

"Between the incompatible objects on which his heart
was set, he, for n time, went irresolutely lo and fro."—
Macaulay: Hist. Eng., ch. iv.

Ir-res. -6-lflte-ness, s. [Eng. irresolute; -ness."] Tho quality or stato of bring irresolute; want of firmness of purpose; hesitation, irresolution.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]




[ocr errors]

I. Ord. Lang.: In the same sense as II. 1.

II. Technically:

1. Agric.: Tho act of watering land by causing a stream to flow and spread over it.

"This way of irrigation may by a cheap nnd easy mechanical contrivance be very much improved."—Boyle.: Works, iii. 447.

Millions of acres of land in tho Wostern States have been reclaimed and fitted for cultivation by means of irrigation, nnd thero exists a United States statute fixing a price of 25 cents per acre on all lands so reclaimed, provided record of entry of them, under the "Desert Lands Act," is made at the nearest United States land office.

2. Med.: Tho art or operation of making water trickle over an inflamed wound or other portion of the body morbidly affected.

*Ir-rIg-U-0US, a. [Latin irrigniw=irrigating, from irrigo=to irrigate; Ital. irriguo.]

1. Watery, watered.

"The flow'ry Inp
Of some irriguous vulley spread her store.'*

Milton; P. L., iv. 255.

2. Penetrating gontly, as water into tho earth.

"RashKlpenor . . . thought
To exhale his surfeit by irriguaus sleep."

Philips: Cider, bk. 1L

*Ir-ris'-I-ble, a. [Pref. ir--in- (2), and Eng. risible (q.v.).] Not risible; not capable of laughter.

Ir-rl'-sion, s. [Fr., from Lat. irrisioncm, acc. of <rrwio = a laughing at, from irrisus, pa. par. of trrideo=to laugh at: t/i-~at.and r*'deo=to laugh; Sp. irrision; Ital. irrisione.] Tho art of laughing at or mocking another; mockery, derision.

"Then he againe, by way of irrisinn, Ye say very true indeed."—P. Holland; Suetonius, p. 212.

Ir-rlt-Vbll -I-tf,«. fFr. irritability, from Lat. irritabilttatem, acc. of irritabilitas, from irrttabilis = irritablo (q. v.); Sp. irritabilidad; Ital. irritabititu.]

I. Ord. Lang.: Tho quality or state of boing irritable or easily provoked or irritated; susceptibility to irritation; petulance.

"During some hours his gloomy irritability kept his servants, nis courtiers, even his priests, iu terror."— Macaulay: Hist. Eng., ch. xxi.

II. Technically:

1. Jnat. (of a muscle.): Vital contractibility, the property of visibly contracting, even after death, on tho application of a st imulus. It varies in duration according to tho muscle irritated. Tho right auricle has been found irritable for sixteen and a half hours after death. A voluntary nuiBclo has boon found irritable twenty-four hours after death. Tho great physiologist Albert Von Haller directed much attention to tho subject of irritability.

2. Bot.: Excitability of an extreme chnrncter, in which an organ exhibits movements different from those commonly met with in plants. Its known causes aro three—atmospheric pressure, spontaneous motion, nnd tho contact of other bodies. Thus plants sloop, tho compound leaves, where such exist, folding together; so also tho sensitivo plant shrinks from touch.

3. Pathol, (of any organ): Morbid excitement or excitability, often with pain. Thus thore may bo irritability of tho bladder.

Ir'-rit-a-ble, a. [Fr., from Lat. irritabilis, from trrito=to irritate (q. v.); Sp. irritable; Ital. irritabile.]

I. Ordinary Language;

1. Easily irritated or oxaspera ted; petulant, fretful.

"His irritable and imperious nature was constantly impelling him toquarrel with both."—Macaulay: Hist. Eng., ch. xvil.

2. Susceptible of being worked into a heat or painfulness; as, an irritable sore.

II. Technically:

1. Anatomy;

(1) Gen.: Capable of being acted upon with effect by stimuli.

(2) Spec, (o/ muscles): Capable of contracting under tho influence of stimuli. [irritability, II. 1.]

2. Bot.: Capable of being excited to motion under tho influence of certain stimuli.

Ir'-rlt-flL-ble-ness, «. [Eng. irritable; -ness.'] Tho quality orstateof being irritable; irritability.

Ir'-rlt-a-blyS adv. [Eng. irritab(le); -ly.] In an irritable manner; with irritation.

Ir'-rit an-c? (1), s. [Eng. irritant (1); -cy.] Tho quality or stato of being irriUmt or irritating.

Ir'-rlt-BJl-cJ? (2),«. [Eng. irritan(i) (2); -cy.]

ScotsLaw: Tho quality or state of being irritant or of no force or effect; the stato of being null and void.

Ir'-rlt-ant (l),a. &s. [Fr., from Lat. irritans

fgenit. irritantis), pr. par. of irrito— to provoke, to enrage, stimulate, incite, or oxcite.J

A. As adj.; Exciting irritation; producing excitement ; causing pain, heat, or tension by mechanical injuries,chemical action. &c.

B. As substantive:

1. Pharmacy:

(1) Sing.: Thatwhich produces irritation or excitement of any muscle, nerve, or other organ or part of the body.

(2) PI.: Garrod makes Irritants the first order of hi.s second division, that of external remedies. Ho includes under it threo groups—(1) Rubefacients, (2) Epispastics, Vesicants, or Blistering Agents, and Pustulants.

2. Toxicology: An irritant poison (q.v.).

#ir Pure irritant: A poison producing inflammation without corrosive action on the tissues, irritant-poison, «.

Toxicol.: A poison which produces inflammation with or without corrosive action on the tissues, aa arsenic,mercury, or other mineral poisons.

Ir'-rlt-ant (2), a. [Lat. irritans, pr. par. of t'rrt7o=to invalidate: fn-=not, and rafuj*=ratifled1 valid.] Rendering null and void; invalidating.

irritant-clause, s.

Scots Lair: A clause in a deed declaring null and void certain specified acts if they aro done by the party holding under the deod. It is supplemented by tho resolutive clause.

Ir'-rl-tate (1), v. t. & i. [Lat. irritatus, pa. par. of irrito— to irritato.J

A. Transitive:

I. Ordinary Language:

1. To excite, to stir up, to inflame.

"Dydde with vncleane motions or countynances irritate the myndes of the dauueers."—Sir T. Etyot: The Governor, bk. L, ch. xix.

2. To excite heat, redness, and inflammation iu; to inflame, to fret; as, to irritate a sore.

3. To excite anger or displeasure in; to vox, to annoy, to oxasperato.

"The persecution which the separatists had undergone lisn been severe enough to irritate, but not severe enough to destroy."—Macaulay; Hist. Eng., ch. i.

4. To give groater force or energy to; to increase; to heighten.

"Air, if very cold, trritateth the flame, and maketh it bnrn more fiercely."—Bacon.

5. To excite, to heat, to stimulate.

"Cold maketh the spirits vigorous, and irritateth them."—Bacon.

II. Technically:

1. Physiol.: To excite irritation in; to excite the irritability of. [irritability.]

2. PatlufL: To cause morbid excitement in.

B. Intrans.: To oxcito, to heat, to inflamo.
"Musio too , . . is tempered by the law;

Still to her plan subservient melts iu notes,
Which cool and soothe, not irritate nnd warm."

Glover: Lconidas, bk. ii.

*Ir'-rI-tate (2), v.t. [Lat. irritafus, pa. par. of <m"fo=to invalidate; t'r-=m-=uot, and ratus-- ratified, valid. ] To invalidate; to make of none effect; to render null and void.

♦Ir'-Tl-tate, adj. [irritate (1), v.] Excited, heightened, iuflumcd.

"When thpy are collected, the heat becometh more violent and irritate.'"Bacon: Hat. Hint.

Ir-rl-ta'-tion, s. [Fr., from Lat. irritationem, nccus. of irritatio, from irritatus, pa. par. of irrito to irritate (1); Sp. irritacion; Ital. irritazione.]

I. Ordinary Language:

1. The act of irritating, provoking, exasperating, or vexing.

2. The state of being irritated; anger, vexation, annoyance, exasperation,

3. Tho act of exciting heat or inflammation.

"It will often happen, that the fibres or motive organs of the stomach, bowels, nnd other parts will, by that irrU tatinn,be brought to contract themselves vigorously."— Boyle: Works, v. 212.

II. Technically:

1. Pathol.: An abnormally potent sensation or action, or both together, produced by mechanical or chemical agents, or other causes. Even hunger will produce this nction, simulating that produced by strength,but tho reaction with increased weakness is great and immediate.

2. Physioioay:

(1) Gen.: The normal action, both in charncter and. amount, produced by appropriate stimuli on any portion of the bodily frame.

(2) Spec: Tho contraction of the muscles under tho operation of appropriate stimuli.

[ocr errors]




Ir -rl-ta-tlve, a. [En*. irritat(e); -it*?.]

1. Serving or tending to irritate or excite.

2. Accompanied with or produced by increased action or irritation ; as, an irritative fever.

*Ir -rl-ta tfa-f, a. [Eng. irritat(e); -ory.'] Irrifating; causing irritation.

"By reanon either of nome pnssion or of some trritatorg and troublesome humor in his behuvior."—Hale; Rem. Erring Christians.

*lr-rlte , r. f. [ft. irriter, from Lat. (rrito—to irritate (1).] To irritate, to exasperate, to influence, to provoke.

"Irrlting and provoking men unto anger."—Grafton: Edte. V. (an. 1).

Ir'-rbr-ate, v. t. fLatin trroratus, pa. par. of irroro, from ir-=in-—on, upon, and roro—to distill dew; ros (genit. rorit) = dew.] To moisten witb dew; to bodew.

*Ir rbr a -tlon, subst. [irrorate.] Tbo act of bedewing; the state of beiug bedewed.

Ir-ru brlc-al, a. [Pref. ir-=in- (2), and Eng rubrical (q. v.).] Not rubrical; not accordiug to the rubric.

*Ir -rugate, v. t. [Latin irrugatus, pa. par. of irrugo: in- (intent*.), and rugo to wriuklo.J To wrinkle.

Ir rupt -Sd, adj. [Latin irruptus, pa. par. of irrum;io=to break into: i a-= in, into, and rumpo— to break.] Broken violently and with great force.

Ir-rup -Won, s. [Fr., from Latin irrupfionem, accus. of irruptio, from irruptus, pa. par- oi irrumpo; Sp. irrupcion; Ital. irruzione.]

1. A breaking in; a bursting in; an attack.

"With terrible fmtption bursting o'er
The marble cliff*." Falconer: Shipwreck, Hi.

2. A sudden invasion or incursionin to a country I an inroad.

fir rfipt'-Ive, a. [Lat. irrupt(us), pa. par. of irrumpo; Eng.adj. suff. -iuc.] Rushing or bursting in or upon. Ir -Vlng-Ites, s. pi. [For otym. see def.] Ecclesiol. Ch. Hist.: Tbo followers of the Rev. Edward Irving, who was born at Annan, Scotland, on August 15,1792: in 1S19 became assistant to tbo celebrated Dr. Chalmers, in St. John's Church, Glasgow: in July, 1*23, was chosen pastor ofa small Scottish Presbyterian congregation in Loudon, and attracting thither crowds of eminent people, had built for him a lino cluirch in Regent Square, to which ho removed in 1829. On October 16,1831, the

gift of speaking i n unknown tongues was alleged to avo boon bestowed upon some people, most of them females, in bis congregation, the same phenomenon having arisen on a limited scale before in Glasgow. Irving believed that the miracle recorded in Acts ii. 4-11 had occurred again, and that'Pentecostal times had returned. The more sober minded of his Hock and his ministerial brethren thought differently, and were strongly influenced by the consideration that no human being of any nationality recognized the new tongue as his own. Irving's viows regarding tho human nature of Christ were also doomed erroneous. On May 3, 1832, It was decided that Mr. Irving was unfit to retain tho pastorate of Regent Square Church, and on March 15. 1833, tho Presbytery of Annan, which had licensed him as n preacher, deposed him from the ministry. He died December 8,1834. His followers are often popularly termed Irvingites, but the official designation of tho denomination which he founded is tho Holy Apostolic Church. They use a liturgy framed in 1842 aud enlarged in 1853. They have au altar on which candles are lit, and they burn incense (q. v.). As church officers they have apostles, angels, prophets, Ac.

Is, v. [See def.] Tho third person sing., pres. indie, of the substantive verb to be. It represents the Sausc. asti, Goth, ist, Lat. est. Or. esti. Is-, pre/. [Iso-.]

Is -a-bel, s. [From Isabelle. Generally referred to Isabelle of Austria, daughter of Philip II. of Spain, and wife of Archduke Albert of Austria, who, in A. D. 1601, mado a vow not to change her linen until her husband had taken Ostend, which ho was besieging. The town, however, hold out till A. D. 1604, by which time her linen had assumed a dingy hue.] A pale brownish-yellow color, dull yellow with a mixture of gray and red.

isabel-bear,«. [isabellixe-bear.]

Isabel-color, Isabella-color, «. The same as Isabel (q. v.).

Ifl-a-beT-llne, <*. [Modorn Latin isabellinus.'] [isabel.]

lsabelllne-bear, s.

ZooL: Ursus isabellinus^ a lighter variety of tho Syrian bear. It is of a yellowish-brown color, but tho hue varies according to tho season of tho year.

[ocr errors]

[Pref. and Eng. abnormal

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

IS-&1 lyi-ene, a. [Eng. is(atis) fallyh and suff.

Chem.: Chj'c'chj. A gaseous hydrocarbon, isomeric with allylene, prepared by the electrolysis of potassic itaconate. It combines directly with bromine, forming a crystalline isallylene tetrabromide, CII2Br*CBr2CH2Br. It gives no precipitate with ammoniacal solutions of silver salts.

Is-am -lc, a. [Eng., <fcc, is(atis); am(monia\ and suff. -tc] (See tho compound.) isamic-acid, s.

Chem.: C1AH13N3O4. Imasatic acid. Produced by the action of warm ammonia on isatine. It crystallizes in glistening rhombic plates of the color of red iodide of mercury, which are slightly soluble in boiling water, forming a bright yellow solution, but very soluble in hot alcohol and in ether. It dissolves in hydrochloric acid with a beautiful violet color, but is violently attacked by bromine, forming indelibromo CiAHgBriNjOi. By boiling with dilute acids it is decomposed into ammonia and isatine. Ammonium isamate, CifiHiafNH^NsO^ crystallizes in microscopic needles. Potassium isamate, CmHiaKN'aOU. is a very stable compound, and may be boiled without decomposing. Is-am -lde, s. [Eng., &c, is(atis), and amide.} Chem.: CieHuN«Os. Amasatin. A bright yollow powder produced by heating ammonium isamate till water is driven off, and washing the residue with water. It is insoluble in water and ether, but moderately soluble in boiling alcohol containing ammonia.

Is-ap 5s t5l' Ic, a. [Pref. is- (a. v.), and Eng. apostolic. Cf. also Gr. isapostolos.}

1. (Of persons): Equal in sanctity or devotednossor in success to tho apostles.

2. Of laws or customs: As bindingon thoChristian Conscience as if they had been instituted by apostles.

1-sar-I-R-, *. [From Gr. i«o«=:equal to, the same as: fern. sing. adj. suff. -aria.]

Bot.: Tho typical genus of the sub-order Isariacei (q. v.). It consists of filamentous molds, parasitic, somo on insects, especially Hymenoptora, on dead pupa*, spiders' nests, and partly upon various vegetable substances. (Berkeley.)

I-sar I-e-I (pi. I-sar-I-a-9S-1), s. [Mod. Lat. isaria; Lat. mas. pi. adj. suff -ei, -acei.J

Bot*: A sub-order of Hyp homy cetous fungi. The fertile threads are compacted, and have deciduous pulverulent spores at their free apices. British genera, Isaria, Anthina, and Ccratium.

I-sas -trava, s. [Pref. is-, and Mod. Lat. astrcea (2) (q.v.).]

Palap.ont.: A genus of fossil Actinozoa, family Astneidro. It is from the Oolite. Is -a tan, s. [Eng., <fcc, isat(ut); -an.} Chrm.: CisHigNaOs. A white compound produced! by boiling disulphisatyde with acid ammonium sulphate. It dissolves in boiling alcohol, and deposits on cooling in the form of rectangular crystals. When strongly heated it yields a mixture of isatine and indine. Boiling nitric acid decomposes it, with the formation of a violet powtlor, somewhat resembling uitrindin. Is -a tate, *. [Eng.. &c, isat(is): -ate (Cfiem.).J Cttcm.: A salt of isatic-acid (q. v.). I-sat-Ic, a. [Eng., <fcc, isat(ig); -ic.] See the compound.

isatic-acid, s. By boil ing a solution of potassium isatine, it is converted into potassic isatate. CsHftN'KOs, which, on tho addition of plumbic acetate, gives a precipitato of plumbic isatate. When this is suspended in water, decomposed with sulrhe standpoint in this third section is that phureted hydrogen, and the filtrate evaporated in Babylonian captivity, ami Cyrus, who sot vacuo, a white flocculont deposit of isatic acid or


is a go& -Ics, s. [isagooic]

Theol.. <tc.: Introduction (q. v.); tho preliminary investigations regarding tho sacred books, «fcc., boforo reachiug hermoneutics and exegesis.

I-sa-g6n, *. [Gr. taos=equal, and gonia = au angle; Fr. isagone.~]

Math.: A figure whoso angles are equal.

I-sa -I-ah, Is-a -iah (las7), s. [Heb. Yesha. yahu=tha salvation of Johovah, i. e., tiio salvation effected by Johovah ; Gr. Hcsaias.]

Script. Hist.; One of the greatest of the Hebrew prophets. Ho was the son of Amos, whom some of tho fathers supposed to bo tho prophet Amos, the names being identical in Greek; in Hebrew, howover, they aro different, the prophet being Amos, and Isaiah's father Amots. Asm the vision recorded in Isaiah vi,, tho prophet is represented as being in the court which none but tho descendants of Aaron might enter, ho wafe perhaps a priest. He was born probably betwoen B. C. TSH and 783. He married a woman to whom, as to him, prophotic gifts worn given (Isa. viii. 3). One of his sons was called Shoar-jashub=aremnant returns,ora romnantwill return (vii. 3); another Maher-shalal-!msh-baz=: hasten to tho spoil, quickly carry off tho prey. Isaiah exertod great influence at the court of Jerusalem under Ahaz, anil yet more under Hezekiah. He was contemporary with Amos, Hosea, Micah, and perhaps with Joel. Besides his prophecies, ho wroto also biographies or histories of Usziah (2 Chron. xxvi. 22). and Hezekiah (xxxii. 32), Tradition says that he was sawn asunder by ordt-r of King Manasseh, his trade fate, it is supposed, being alluded to in Heb. xi. 37. [11J

If The Prophecies of Isaiah:

Scripture Canon: The first and most important of tho prophetic books. It is headed *'The vision of Isaiah, the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of ITzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, Kings of Judah." If chapter vi. is chronologically the earliest of any, and describes his first call to tho prophet ic office, his utterances would commence in B. C. 758, 757, or 756. If tho prophecies are arranged in tho order of time, then chapters i.-v. would belong o an earlier period. Omitting these writiugsof uncertain date, the next utterances are in the reign of Ahaz, none apparently belonging to tho sixteen years of Jotham's reign. He continued at least till the fourth year of King Hezekiah, B. C. 712, n period of 44 to 46 years. This is the minimum span of his prophecies; the maximum is much greater.

The book naturally dividositself into three parts: (1) chapters x. to xxxv., the earlier prophecies; (2) ch. xxxvi. to xxxix., an historic appendix or intercalation; and (3) ch. xl. to lxvi. tho later prophecies, of tho ~

the two tribes free, is mentioned by name (xliv. 28. xlv. 1). Hence Koppe (A. D. 1771M7S1) supposed a Becond author, a view adopted by Doderlein, Eichhom, Justi, Paulus Do Wotto, Gesenius, Ewald, and nearly all rationalistic critics.^ On the other hand Hengstenborg, Havernick, KeiL Sec, have maintained the integrity' of Isaiah. Viewed as a poetic composition the book of Isaiah exhibits genius of a very high order. There are numerous quotations from or references to Isaiah in tho New Testament, ch. liii. and other prophecies {vii. 14; ix. 1, 2; liii. 4; lxiii. 1-3) being considered Messianic and applied to Jesus. Hence Jerome considered that Isaiah should rather bo called an evangelist than a prophet, and he is frequently called tho fifth Evangelist.

Inaiah i. 9= Rom. ix. 29; vi. 9, 10=Mat. xiii. 14. 15. Acts xxviii. 25-27; vii. 14 = M»t. i. 22, 23; viii. 14 =Rom. ix. 33; ix. l, 14-16; x. 22 ^ Horn. ix. 27, 28; xl. 3=Mat. iii. 3, Mark 1.3; xlii. 1-3= Mat. xlii. 17-20; xliv. 25=1 Cor. i. 19,20; liii.l. = Bom. x. 16; liii. 4 = Mat viii. 17; liii. 7-8

trioxindol is obtained. Ammonium isatate is capablo of existing only in solution. Barium isatate. CsHeBaNOj, produced by the action of baryta water on isatine, crystallizes in scales. Tho silver salt, (\HflAgNO-i, crystallizes in fine yellow prisms, which aro very soluble in water. Isatic acid unites with bromine and chlorino forming bromisatic and chlorisatic acids.

I-S&t'-I-dae, s. pi. [Lat. isat(is); fem. pi. adj. suff. -irfo-.l

Bot.: A family of Brassicaceae, tribe Notorhizeae.

Is -a-tine, subst. [Eng., &c, isati(s); -ine.) Obtained by suspending finely powdered indigo in threo times its weight of boiling w atert and adding gradually nitric acid of specific gravity 1'35 untU tho blue color has disappeared. On cooling, crude isatine is deposited, and may bo purified by dissolving in potash, precipitating with hydrochloric acid, and crystallizing from alcohol. It crystallizes in the form of brilliant yellowish-red prisms, which

[ocr errors]

fare, amidst,

[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]




dissolve readily in boiling water, in alcohol, and in ether. It may also be produced synthetically by the action of oxidizing agents on aniido-oximlol, or by the reduction of orthonitro-phonyl glyoxalic acid in alkaline solution. Isatine does not unite with acids, but rather plays the part of an acid. It dissolves in potassic hydrate, forming a dark violetcolored solution of potassium isatine, which, on addition of argentic nitrate, gives carmine-red crystals of argentic isatine, CsH^NO'Ag. It also yields crystalline compounds, with alkaline hydric sulphites. Boiling with concentrated nitric acid, it is converted first into nitro-salicylic acid, and finally into trinitro-phenol. When strongly heated, isatine fuses and sublimes in part unchanged.

Is-a-tls, s. [Lat. isatis, from Gr. isatis— a plant, Isatis tinctoria (?), producing a dark dye-wood. (Def.)]

Bot.; Wood. The typical genus of the Cruciferous family Isatidro (q. v.). It consists of tall, erect, annual or bicnuial branched herbs, with equalsepals and one-celled indehiscent pods, oblong, ovate, or orbicular, thickened in the middle, the wing or margin very broad. Species twenty-five to thirty.

I-sa-td-Bul-phttT -Ic, a. Isatis. [Eng. ixat(i#\; o connective and Eng. sulphuric] (See the compound.)

isatosulphuric-acid, s.

Chem.: CsH&NO-ySOs. Prepared by boiling indigo-carmine with sulphuric acid, and decolorizing by means of acid chromate of potassium. On adding nitrate of potassium to the hot filtered solution, potassium isatosulphate is deposited in the form of a brownish-yellow sandy powder. By dissolving this powder in not barytu water, and decomposing the barium salt formed, with au equivalentquantity of sulphuric acid, isatosulphuric acid is obtained in the free state. It is a strong acid, separat- removing ischuria

[ocr errors]

ing even some of the mineral acids from their salts, When evaporated in vacuo, it yields a yellow, silky, crystalline mass, which does not alter on exposure to the air. It is soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol, but insoluble in ether and in benzene. It forms two classes of salts, monobasic and dibasic,

B. Assubst.: A medicine fitted to mitigate or remove ischuria.

laethionic-acld, s.

Chem.: This acid, which is isomeric with sul

Jihovinic acid, was discovered by Magnus in 1833. t is obtained most readily by adding sulphuric anhydride to anhydrous ether, cooled by a mixture of ice and salt. The resulting thick, oily liquid is diluted with water, boiled for several hours in order to decompose the ethionic acid, and then saturated with baric carbonate. The liquid, filtered at the boiling point, yields, first crystals of bario metnionate, and afterward, on further evaporation, baric isethionato (HO'CHi'CH/SOvO^Ba. On decomposing the baric salt with sulphuric acid, and evaporating the filtrate, isethionic acid is obtained in the form of deliquescent needles. The> isethionates, which can bo prepared by decomposing the baric salt with solutions of the respectivemetallic sulphates, are all soluble in water, and slightly soluble in alcohol. They crystallize well* and often can be heated to 8501 without decomposition. Ammonium isethionate, CsH^NH^SO*, crystallizes in well-defined octahedrons, which do not lop© weight at 120". Potassic isethionate, CfHsK'SOit forms rhomboidal prisms, which melt between 3d)' and 350*. The copper salt, C2H.iCu*SO«» forms pale-green prisms with rhombic base; at 140* to 150° it turns white, and gives off twenty per cent, of water of crystallization. -Ish, suff. [See def.]

1. An adjectival suffix, representing A.S. -isc,-yscf Dan. -isk, Ger. -itch. Ft. -^sc/ue^partaking of tho nature of, as fool, foolish, Dane, Dani's/i, &c. Suffixed to lessens the signification, as white, whitMh=somewhut white; sweet, sweetts/i = rather sweet.

2. As a verbal suffix it is derived from tho Latin inchoative suffix -esc, as in flore*co=to begin to flower or flourish, from florto—to flourish. It is generaly found in verbs which have come through the French, and which retain tho influence of that suffix in some of their tenses, as finir,finissant. Eng. finish; jmnir, punissantt Eng. punish, &c.

Ish, ische, s. [A corruption of issue (q. v.).] Issuo; liberty or right of going in and out. V Ish and entry:

Scots Law: A term in a charter implying a right > all ways an<*" necessary to k

d passages, in so far as they may be irk and market, through the adjacent

l8-Chtir'-I-a, is-chu-ry, a. [Lat., from Greek to all ways and

ischouria: ischo to hold or curb, and owron=urine.] nocessary to kii „

Pathol.: Suppression of urine occurs sometimes ffron*ids of the grantor, who is by the clause laid

the former of which are very stable compounds, re- in teething, in hysteria, or some morbid condi- Uut*er that burden.

taining their water of crystallization till heated tions of the blood, and is accompanied with pain, Ish'-ma-eMte s. [From Ishmael Heb Ishmael'

often severe. Loss complete suppression is called Sept. Ismaet * suff. -ite ]

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

obtained together with atropic acid by heating pteron=a wing, a fin; Lat. termination -us. Named tropic acid with hydrochloric acid. It crystallizes from tho size and strength of the fin.]

-' • .'I ,: *•• 1 1 1 Palwont.: A genus of fossil fished found in tho

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

I. Literally:

1. A descendant of Ishmael (Gen. xvi. 12).

2. An Iemaelian (q. v.)

II. Pig.: One resembling Ishmael, whoso hand was against every man and every mau's hand against him; one at war against society.

Ish ma-el it Ish, a. [Eng. Jshmaelit(e); -ish.l Like Ishmael; like an Ishmaelite.

I -Bl-ac, a. [Lat. Isiacus.] Of or pertaining to Isis.

Islac-table, s; A spurious Egyptian monument.

[ocr errors]

Palceont.: A family of Rodentia containing only iBiac-table, s. A spurious Egyptian monumont,

le species of Ischyromys (q. v.). consisting of a plate of copper bearing a reprosent

Vo A „ - , ationof most of tho Egyptian deities with Isis in

is-cnyr -0-mys (yr as ir), s. [Gr. ischyros^ the center, said to have been found by a soldier at

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

in 132E

I. [Lat. Isis (genit. Isidis), from

tho siege of Rom

I-sXd-I'-nte, s.p Gr. Isis.} [Isis. j

ZoOl. <t Palcp.ont.: A sub-family of Gorgonida?. Tho axis is flexible, horny, and only partly calcareous.

X-Sld'-l-ttm {pi. I-Bld'-J-a), [Loudon and Pax ton derive it from Gr. wos=equal, in allusion to the small difference existing between the podetia and the substance of tho frond. May it not be from Isis, Isidls, and Gr. eidos=form?]

1. A genus (?) of Crustaceous Lichens, Isidium westringii, is used in dyeing. (Lindley, &c.)

2. A corolla-like elevation of tho thallus of a lichen bearing a globule at its end. (Treas. of Bot.)

I'-flld-tfld, a. [Lat. Isis (genit. Isidis), and Gr. tidos—tovm

Botany (of a lichen): Covered with isidia [isidITJM, 2.]

i gin glass, s. [Corrupted from Eng. icing, and glass, i. e., iceglass.}

1. Ordinary Language:

L Tho dried swimming bladder of various species of Aciponser prepared and cut into fine shreds. It consists of a gelatinous tissue, which on boiling yields gelatine.

2. A popular name for sheets of transparent mica. II. Phar.: A solution of gelatine figures among

officinal preparations. islnglaBB-stone, s. [isinglass, 1.2.] f'-Bl6t 8. [Lat. Isis; Gr. I*is=(l) the Egyptian

goddess of fecundity and sister of Osiris, (2) a

planet or coral.]

[ocr errors]




1. A*tron.: [asteroid, 42.]

2. Zo6l.: A genus of corals, the typical one of tho •ub-faraily Isidinee (q. v.). 1 be sclerobasis consists of alternate calcareous and horny segments, the former giving rise to branches. Isis hippuris is from Amboyna, /. poly ant ha from tho American eeas, and /. coraUoidesfram those of India.

3. Palozont.; Found in tho Miocene beds.

I| -lam, *£s -lam, Is, -lam Ism, subst. [Arab. Ialam=(l) tho true or orthodox faith among tho Mohammedans, (2) obedience to tho will of God, submission, (3) the Mohammedan religion, (4) tho Mohammedan church or community.] t Catafago.] A name given to Mohammedanism (q. v. .

Is, -lam-Is,m, s. [Arab. Islam; -ism.] Mohammedanism.

Is lam Ite, a. [Arab. Islam; -i*fe.] A Mohammedan.

Is-lam-It -Ic, a. [Eng., Ac, I*lamit(e); -ic] Of or belonging to Islam; Mohammedan.

Is lam Ize, i*. t. & i. [Arab., <fec., Islam; sufi". -ize.]

A. Trans.: To render Mohammedan, to con vert to Mohammedanism.

B. Intrans,: To go over to tho Mohammedan faith.

Is-land (a silent), *i-land, *i-lond, *y land, •y-lond, s. & a. [A. S. {gland, from ig=an island, and £ana=land; I>ut. eiland; Icel. eyland; Sw. Ctand; Ger. eiland. The A. S. Ig, ieg, eg, also appears as -<••', •' v in English place-names, as m Anglesey, Batteraea, Ac, and in Icel. ey = &n island; Dan. &, Sw. 0; O. H. Gor. -area, -auwa, in composition; Goth, ahwa; O. H. Ger. ahe—tL stream; Lat. aqua; Eng. ait, eyot. Tho s in island is owing to a confusion with isle (q. v.).J

A. As substantive;

1. Apiece of land surrounded by water, as distinguished from mainland or continent.

"[They were] come vnto an Hand waste and voyd."

Spenser: F. Q., IL vi. 1L

2. Anything resombling an island; as a mass of floating ice.

B. As adj.: Of the nature of an island; situated on an island; as, an island home.

If (1) Island of Reil;

Aunt.: Tho central lobe within the fissure of Sylvius in tho cerebrum. It is a triangular eminence, forming a sort of delta between tho two divisions of the fissure.

(2) Islands of tlie Blest, Island of the Blest: Greek Mytliol.: Imaginary islands, situated in the West, thought to be tho abode of good men After death. Tho following passage from Cook's translation of Hosiod's Works and Days (i. 17U) shows the ancient belief as to the nature of tho enjoyment to bo found there:

"There in the Inland of the Blsattbmj find. Where Saturn reign*, an endless calm of mind , And there the choicest fruits adorn tho fields, And thrice the fertile year n harvest yields." This passage has boon amplified both by Homer (Odyss. iv. 563, sqq.) and Virgil (&n. vi. 637-44). The tamo idea of fertility occurs in tho Apocalypse 2.), and Bernard do Morlaix, in De Contemptu M ndi, says of the Celestial Country:

'Lux erlt aurea, terraque lactea, melle rednndans." is land (s silent), v. t. [island, a.]

1. To form into an island; to causo to become or Appear liko an island; to surround with water.

2. To dot, as with islands.

IS'-ltBd-tr (a silent), a. [Eng. island; -er.] An inhabitant of an island.

"Ye islanders, bound in the ocean's chain."

Drayton: Kotxrt, Duke of Xormandy.

Is'-Iand-y* (« silent), a. [Enc. island; -y.j Porta in iug to islands; full of islands.

Isle (1) (a silent), •ile, »yle, a. [O. Fr. isle (Fr. tie), from Lat. insuta = an island; Sp. isla; Ital. isola.] An island: chiefly used in poetry.

"In sight of Troy lien Tenedos, an isle
Kenownad for wealth."

Dryden: Virgil's Mnstd, ii. 27.

♦Isle (2) (a silent), a. [aisle.] A corruption of aisle.

Isle (a silent), v. f. [isle (1), a.] To form into an island; to cause to becomo or bo like an island; to isolate.

"Isled in sudden sea£ of light."

Tenttyxon: Fatima, S3.

•isles, -man (first a silent), a. [English isle, and ■ J An islander.

"The talesmen carried at their backs
The ancient Danish battle-axe."

Scott: Sfarmion, v. 6.

[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]


B. As subst.: A doctrine or theory, especially one of a pretentious or absurd character.

"Compared with any of the isms current."—Carlyle: Past and Present, bk. ii., ch. xv.

Is-ma.-8-Htes, I § m a - e' -II - an S, a. pi. [From an Ishmael (seo def.), and Eng., dec, pi. suff. -itts, •tans.]

Hist.: A branch of the Shiitos. Djafar Madeck, tho sixth Imam from Ali, having lost his elder son Ismael, appointed his younger son Mousa to be his successor. A schism followed among the Shiitos, one party contending that tho Imamship should have descended to the posterity of Ismael. The Fatimide dynasty were Ismaohte, so wore the Assassins (q. v.).

is nar di a, a. [Named after Antoino Danto Isnard, member of the Academy of Sciences.]

Hot.: A gomis of Onagraceee, tribe Jussiteere. Isnardia palustris is called, by Joseph Hooker, Ludwigia palustris. Tho root of /. alternifolia is said to be emetic.

I-fl6-, pref. [Or. taoa=equal to, tho samo as.]

1. Gen.: Equal to.

2. 2?of. (of an organ): Equal in tho number of its divisions or parts to another one. [isostemonous.]

I s5-anl'-yc-16ne, a. [Eng. iso(meric), and amylenf. ]

Clwm.: A mobile, colorless oil of peculiar odor, obtained by distilling isoamylic alcohol with zinc chloride. It has a specific gravity of '663 at 09, and boils at 35°. It is readily decomposed by an acid, even in tho cold, hydrochloric acid producing isoamylic chloride, and hydriodic acid isoamylic iodide.

I-so-ft-myT-IC, a. [Eng. iso(mcric); amy}, and snff. -ic] (See tho compound.) Isoamylie-alcohol, a. Isobutyl carbinol. [amyl


I-Sd ar'-Cfll, a. [Pref. tso- = oqual, aud Lat. area (q. v.).]

Palceont.: A genus of Arcadie. Fourteen species are known, from tho Lower Silurian to the Chalk.

I-sft-bar', fl so-bare , a. [Pref. iso-, and Greek &aroa=weight.]

Phys. Geog. Mrfeor. (pi.) .* Lines connecting places which have the same mean baromeiric pressure. Three modifications of them exist: thoso connecting places which have equal pressuro in January, those which possess it in July, and those in which it exists during the whole year. Tho closer tho isobars are the stronger tho wind, the further apart tho lighter the wiud.

I-So-bar'-Ic, a. [Eng., <fcc., isobar; -ic.]

Phys. Geog. Meteor.: Having equal barometric pressuro; or or belonging to isobars.

I'-sfr-bar-tym, *i SO-bar-ysm, a. [Eng. isobar; •ism.]

Phys. Geog. cfc Meteor.: Equality of barometric pressure.

I so bar-6-mSt -rlc, a. [Pref. t«o-=cqual, and barometric (q. v.).]

Phys. Geog. dt Meteor.: Tho same as Isobaric (q. v.).

I-Bd-brl-otis, a. [Pref. i«o--oqual, and Greek 6ria<)=to make strong, to bo strong. ]

Hot.: An epithet proposed by Oassmi for Dicotyledons because their force of development in connection with the embryo is equal on both sides.

I so bQ tane, a. [Eng. iso(meric); but(yl), and stiff. -ane.J

Chem.: (CHahCH. Trimethyl-methane.ormethylisopropyl. is formed by the action of zinc and hydrochloric acid on tertiary butyl Iodide, or by the action of zinc on tertiary butyl alcohol in presence of water. It is a colorloss gas which liquefies at 17*.

I-s6 bfl'-tftna, I so-bu -ty*l ene, a. [Eng. iso(meric); but(yl), and suff. -ene.]

Chem.: Produced by the action of alcoholic potash on isobutyl iodide, or on tertiary butyl iodide. It may also bo formed by passing the vapor of isoamylic alcohol through a red-hot tube. It is an unpleasant smelling gas. which condenses on cooling with a mixture of ico and salt, to a colorless liquid, which boils at -6*.

[ocr errors][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
« ZurückWeiter »