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iridaceae

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iron

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I-rlcV-I-ttm, s. [Gr. irw=tho rainbow, and eidos= form, appearance.]

1. Chem.: A tetrad metallic element, symbol Ir.; atomic weight 198; discovered by Descotils in 1803, and by Teunant in 1804, in the black powder which remains when crude platinum is dissolved in nitrohydrochloric acid. This powder is an alloy of iridium aud osmium, called iridosmine or osmiridium. To separate the iridium from the alloy, the black powder is mixed with an equal weigh tot dry sodium chloride, and heated to redness in a glass tube, through which a stream of moist chlorine gas is transmitted. The further end of the tube is connected with a vessel containing ammonia. Iridium chloride and osmium chloride are formed; the former remains in the tube in combination with the sodium chloride, while the latter, being a volatile substance, is carried forward into the receiver where it is decomposed intoosraic and hydrochloric acids, which combine with the^ ammonia. t The iridium and sodium chloride left in the tube is dissolved in water, mixed with an excess of sodium carbonato and evaporated to dryness. The residue, after ignition in a crucible. isTeducod by hydrogen at a high temperature, ana treated successively with water and concentrated hydrochloric acid, by which all impurities are removed, and the metallic iridium left in a finely divided state. Iridium is a white, brittle, very hard metal, fusible with groat difficulty, in tho- flame of the oxy-hydrogen blowpipe. It is insoluble in all adds, but when roduced by hydrogen at a red heat it oxidizes slowly and dissolves in oitro-bydrochloric acid. Iridium forms four oxides —IrO, Ir^Os, lrOj, and IrO^. Tho monoxide, or hypo-iridVms oxide, IrO, is but little known. Tho sesquioxide, or iridious oxide, Ir>Oa, is unstable, having a groat tendency to absorb oxygen ana become dioxide. Tho dioxide, or iridic oxide, IrOj, is the most easily prepared and the most stable. It is prepared by boiling a solution of iridic chloride with an alkali. The trioxide, or periridic oxide, ItOk. is unknown in tho free state, but is found in combination with potash as a black crystalline powder, when iridium is fused with niter. Iridium forms four chlorides—IrOl, lri%, Ir-Cle, and IrCIf— but only twoof thorn have been obtained in dofinito form—viz., tho trichloride, or iridious chloride, Ir2Cl6, and tho tetrachloride, or iridic chloride, Irvl*. Iridious chloride combines with other metallic chlorides, forming compounds, called iridosochlorides, which are all olive-green pulverulent

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Iris.

salts. Iridic chloride also unites with alkaline chlorides, forming iridio-chlorides, which are all of dark brown color. There aro three iodides of iridium analogous to tho chlorides, and three sulphides analogous to the first throe oxides. Iridic solutions givo, with ammonium or potassium chlorido, a crystalline precipitate, which is distinguished from tho platinum precipitate by its roddish-brown color.

2. Min.: Tho Nativo Iridium of Jameson is Iridosmine (q. v.).

I-rId-5iJ'-mIlie, «. [Modern Latin irid(ium); osm(ium), with puff, -ine (Min.) {q. v.).]

Min.: A hexagonal opaque mineral of tin-white or light steel-gray color and metallic luster. Hardness, 6-7; specific gravity, 19*30-21'12. Composition: Indium, 43'2S-70'40; osmium, 17-20-40'85, Ac. Found withplatinum in Chocoin South America, also in tho Ural Mountains and in Australia. Varieties Nowjanskito and Sissorskite. (Dana.)

1-rlB (pi. I'-rl-dSs), 8. [Lat. £n'a=Gr. trt'«-rainbow. J

I. Ord. Lang.: Tho rainbow.

II. Technically:

1. Anat.: The colored portion of theeyosurroundingthe black central pupil. It consists of three layers, an anterior epitholial layer, a posterior layer of pigment called the uvea, and a middle fibrous layer.

2. Bot.: Tho typical gonus of tho order Iridaceae (q. v.). Tho perianth is regular, its segments unequal; sepals large, stipulate, roflexod; petals smaller, sub-erect, stipulate; stigmas three, very broad, petaloid. About

forty-eight aro known, all from tho north temperate zone. The roasted seeds of 1. pseudaconis are liko coffee. It is a diuretic purgative and emetic, as aro /. tuberosa. I. versicolor, and /. vema. J. florentina furnishes tho violet-scented orris-root, which is slightly stimulating. It is used in the preparation of the swoet-scented otto of roses. /. ensata has been supposed to furnish the irisa root of India. Dr. Stewart says that it is used externally ia the treatment of rheumatism. In Chumba the root and leaves aro given in fover. Tho purple flowers of I. germanica and I.sibirica, treated with lime, furnish a green color. /. sibirica is anti-syphilitic; I. fcetidissima is said to bo a cure for scrofula.

IT Tho Peacock Iris is tho genus Viousseuxia, the Scorpion Iris /. alata, and tho Snako's-hcad Iris /. fu/»ero*a,or Hermodactylus tuberosus. The name iris is given to tho genus because of the variety and beauty of the colors in tho flowers.

3. Astron.: [asteroid, 7.] Iris-diaphragm, s.

Optics: A contractile diaphragm, simulating the action of the natural iris, to regulate tho size of the aperture in a microscope through which light passes.

iris-disease, s. A skin disease (herpes iris), appearing generally on the back of tho hands, and especially affecting children and fair women. It extends in a radiated manner in different shades of red, whence tho name iris.

iris-root, s.

Bot. dt Comm.: Tho same as Orris-root (q. v.).

I -rlfl-&t-8d, a. [Eng. iris; -ated.] Exhibiting the prismatic colors; resembling tho rainbow.

I -rI-Bc6pe, 8. [Gr. irw=tho rainbow, and skopeO — to behold.]

Mach.: An instrument invonted by Dr. Rcade for exhibiting tho prismatic colors. It consists of a plate of polished black glass, having its surface smeared with a solution of soap, and dried by wash-leather. If the breath be directed through a tube upon tho glass, tho vapor will bo deposited in colored rays.

1 -rlsed, a. [Eng. iris; -ed.] Containing colors like thoso of tho rainbow.

Ir'-ish, a. & s. [A. S. yrisc. J

A. As adjective:

1. Pertaining to Ireland or its inhabitants; liko an Irishman.

2. Pertaining to the Highlands of Scotland. [erse.]

B. As substantive;

1. A native of Ireland; in the pi., the poople of Ireland.

2. Tho Irish language.

*3. An old game resi>mbling backgammon. Irish Church, s. [ciiuecii Of Ireland.] Irish-elk, s. [elk.]

Irish-elm, *. t

Bot.: Ulmus montana nigra.

Irish famine-fever,«. [FAmtxe-feveR.

Irish-furze, *.

Bot.: Vlex strictus.
Irish-heath, s.

Bot.: Menziesia polifolia.
Irish-moss, s. [caraohhex.]
Irish Presbyterian Church, *.

Ecclesiol, <fc Ch. Hist.: A Presbyterian Church, formerly called tho Synod of Ulster, as having its strength mainly within that province of Ireland. Its members are mostly descended from the Scotch Presbyterians, who came over by invitation of James I., between 1609 and 1612, to colonize Ulster. [irish Society.] Tho Church still remains identical in doctrino with the Lxrottish Establialiment,

Irish Society, s.

English Hist.: Acommitteoof citizens belonging to twelve London Companies, invited by James X. in 1613 to take part in cultivating the confiscated lands in Ulster, which, to tho extent of 511.465 acres, had becomevestea in theCrown. Thesociety in largo measure built Londonderry, though walls and bastions had been erected there as early as 1609. They largely colonized the county of the same name, which was bestowed in honor of the twelve Loudon companies. The full title of the society is the Honorable Irish Society.

Irish-whin, s. [irisii-furze.]

ir'-Ish-Iam, s. [Eng. Irish; -ism.'] A mode of expression or idiom peculiar to tho Irish; an irici^m.

Ir ish man, s. [Eng. Irish, and man.] A native or naturalized inhabitant of Ireland.

ir'-ish-ry\ [Eng. Irish; -ry.] Tho people of Ireland^ as opposed to the English settlers, known as the Englishry.

"Chooalng rather to trunt tho winds and waves than the exasperated lrtshry."—Macaulay; Hist. Eng., ch. xiL

ir Ite, s. [Lat. trta=:Gr.ir£8=tho rainbow; suff. Hte (Min.) (q. v.).] Min.: A variety of Chromato (q. v.).

I-rt'-tli, I-rld I -tls, s. [Gr. iris (genit. iridos); suff. -itis (q. v.).]

Path.: Inflammation of tho iris, accompanied by vascularity, change in color and appearance, irregularity and immobility of the pupil, with a visible f and varying amount of lymph deposited in, on, and round the iris.

Irk, *lrk>en, *yrke, *irk-yn, v. U & i. TSw. yrka=to urge, to press, from the same root as tcoris and urge.]

A. Trans.: To tire; to weary; to be irksome or wearisome to. (Now only used impersonally.)

B. Intrans.: To grow or become tired or weary. Trk -some, *yrke some, a. [Eng. irk; -some.} 1. Wearisomo, tiring, tedious; tirosomo by long

continuance or repetition. *2. Sorrowful, sad, weary. *3. Weary; tired.

Irk'-s6me-ly\ *Irk'-Bdm-ly\ adv. [Eng. irksome; -ly.] In an irksome, tedious, wearisome or tiresome manner.

Irk -some-ness, *yrke-som-nesse, s. [English irksome; -ness.) The quality or state of being irksome; tediousness, weari somen ess.

Iron (as I-Srn), *lren, *yren, *yrene, *yron, *yrun, *yzen, 8. & a. [A. S., as subst., iren, yren, Isen, irsern, as adj., iren, yren, isen, isern; O. S. isarn; O. H. Ger. Isarn, Xsan, isen; M. H. Ger. isen; N. H. Ger. eisen; Out. ysen; f-Joth. eisam; lcel. jam; Dan. & Sw. jern; Ir. iarran, earran, iarun; Gael., as subst., tarttinn, iaruach, as adj., taruinn, iaruach; Wei. haiarn; Arm. houarn,.}

A. As substantive;

1. Ordinary Language; t. Literally:

fl} In the samo sense as II. 5. (2) An article made of iron ; spec., one for ironing clothes.

2. Fig.: Anything strong, hard, or unyielding. II. Technically:

1. Bot.: A minute quantity of ferric oxide, F02 O2, is nocossary to the healthy growth of plants.

2. Chem.: Furrum, a metallic tetrad element, symbol Fe, atomic woight 56", specific gravity of pure iron 7*8. Iron occurs nearly pure or alloyed with nickel in meteorites, but is generally found iu combination with oxygen and as a carbonate. It is widely diffused in rocks, aud often forms tho chief coloring matter of clays and sands. It also occurs combined with sulphur. The chief ores used for the manufacture of iron are Magnetite, Hematite, Brown oxide. Spathic ore, and Clay iron iron-shod

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iron-sheathed

ironstone. The ore is first calcined, to expel the water and carbonic acid and most of the sulphur, and to convert tho oxides to peroxido, which prevents the waste of iron in the form of slay. The calcined ore is then smelted, with tho addition of coko and limestone; the limestone unites with the silica present and forms a fusiblo slag, while the oxide of iron is reduced by tho action of thocarbon monoxide. [blast-furnace.] The iron thus obtained is called castor pig iron, and is very impure. Pure iron is prepared by placing four parts of fine iron wire, cut in pieces, and one part of black oxido of iron in a Hessian crucible, and covering it with a mixture of white sand, lime, and potassium carbonate in tho proportions used for glass-making; a cover is then closely applied and the crucible oxposed to a very high temperature. Iron is a soft, tough, tenacious, malleable, ductile, white metal, not acted upon by dry air; but it rusts in moist air containing carbonic acid, forming a hydrate of tho sosquioxide. When heated to redness in the air, it is coated with black magnetic oxide, Fe^O*. It burns in oxygen gas, black oxide being formed. Red-hot iron decomposes water, hydrogen being

given off. Iron is magnetic; it is soluble in dilute ydrochloric acid and in dilute sulphuric acid with evolution of hydrogen. Iron unites with oxygen, forming ferrous oxide FeO and ferric oxide tesOsIntermediate oxides are also known. Tho salts of iron have already been described. Tho alchemists represented it by the symbol of Mars &. [ferkouh, Ferric, Wrought-iron, Steel.]

3. Geol.: Iron is widely diffused through the rocks. Many are colored red by its oxides It is also deposited from ferruginous springs. [ironOre; Bog Iron-ore.]

4. Hist.; Iron is mentioned in tho Biblo as early as Gen. iv. 22. Tubal Cain is described as having been an " instructor of every artificer in brass (copper) and iron." On tho sepulchers of the Egyptian Thebes, butchers aro depicted as sharpening their knives on a round bar of metal which, from being blue, is assumed to be iron. The steel weapons in the time of Barneses III. are also painted blue. There aro with them tho representations of bronze weapons, which are painted red. [iron Age (2).] Iron ore is said to have been discovered in Mount Ida about B.C. 1406. The Romans early knew it. Thore is so much iron ore in India that it must havo been known from remote times. Iron mines came into operation in Britain B. C. 54. The exportation of iron was prohibited by tho British Government in 1354, and iu 14811 the importation of such manufactured iron goods as could bo made at home was forbidden. In 1713 Darby introduced tho general uso of coal instead of wood as fuel, a process which had been practiced by Lord Dudley in 1619. In 1783 Cort obtained a patent for rolling, and in 1784 for

Saddling iron. The hot blast was discovered by •alton in 1827, and the Bessemer process for converting crude iron into manufactured iron and steel in 1856.

5. Min.: Native iron is found in masses or smaller portions in meteorites. It is nearly pure, still it contains one to twenty per cent, of nickel with traces of cobalt, manganese, tin, copper, chromium, phosphorus, &c. Whether uumeteoric native iron exists is doubtful. Specimens of ore so puro as to admit of direct forging into horseshoes have been mined at Shepherd's Mountain, in tho Iron Mountain district of Missouri. [meteorite.]

6. Pharm.; In the ha?matm or coloring matter of the blood 6£ per cent, is iron. When anaemia occurs, tho administration of iron is of much use. It acts also on the nervous system. It often, however, causes constipation, and sometimes also stains the tongue and the teeth. It may bogivenin the form of reduced iron lozenges, sacchariue carbonate of iron, compound mixture of iron, a pill of carbonato of iron, iodide of iron, &c.

H (1) Iron Alum = Halotrichito; Iron and Manganese Tungstate=Wolfram j Iron Antimonial Sulphuret = Berthiorite; Iron Apatite = Zwieselite; Iron Arsenate^ (1) Pharmacosidorite, (2) Scorodite; Iron Arsenide = Lolingito; Iron Borate = Ludwigito or Lagonite; Iron Carbonato = Chalybite or Siderito; Iron Chromate = Chromito; Iron Gymnito = Hydrophite; Iron Magnetic Oxide = Magnetite; Iron Phosphate= (1) Vivianite, (2) Ludlamito; Iron Pyrites = Pyrites, or Pyrito (q. v.); Iron Sosquioxide = (1) Ha?matito, (2) Gothite, (.3) Limonito, (4) Turgito; Iron Silicato=Lievrite; Iron Siuter=Pitticito: Iron Sulphate=Melanterite; Iron Sulphide = (1) Pyrites, (2) Marcasitot (3) Pyrrhotite; Iron Tungstate = \Volfram; Iron \ itriol = Melanterite.

(2) Carburet of Iron = Graphite; Chloride of Iron = Molysite; Columbato of Iron = Tantalite; Cupreous Arsenatoor Arseniate of Iron=Scoroditc; Diarsenate of Iron = Pittacite; Magnetic Iron-ore = Magnetite; Meteoric or Native Iron [II. 5]; Olagist Iron=Heematite ; Oxalate of Iron = Humboldtmo; Oxide of Iron = Hfematito: Oxydulated Iron= Magnetite; Iron Sulphate= Melantorito; Tantalato of lron=Tantalite; Titaniferous Iron = Menaccanite.

B. As adjective i

1. Lit.: Made of iron; consisting to a greater or lesser extent of iron.

2. Figuratively:

(1) Resembling iron in hardness. [iron-bound.]

"Though aged, hewns so iron of limb,
Few of our youth could cope with him."

Byron; Siege of Corinth, Xxt.

(2) In hardness and inflexibility.

"While Erin yet Strove 'gainst the Saxon's tnm bit."

Scott: Rokeby, iv. 6.

(3) In heaviness; in mental dullness. [ironWitted. ]

"Him Death's iron sleep oppressed.*'— Philips.

(4) In power of endurance, in permanence.

5) In absenco of feeling.

6) In wickedness. [ikon-age, 1.]

7) In wretchedness.

. (1) Inirons: With iron fetters on tho hands, the feet, or both.

(2) To have many iron* in the fire; To carry out many projects at the samo time.

iron age,«.

1. Class. My thai.: Tho last of the four great ages of the world described by Hesiod, Ovid, &c. It was supposed to bo characterized by abounding oppression, vice, and misery.

2. Scientific archa*ol.: An age, tho third in succes sion,in which weapons and many other implements began to be made of iron, stone having been used for these purposes in tho tir^t, and bronze in the second. As the advancement of each tribe orpeoplo is not necessarily at tho samo rate as that of their neighbors, tho Iron Age probably did not begin everywhere simultaneously. In Denmark, and perhaps some of tho adjacent regions, it may have commenced about tho Christian era.

Iron-bark, iron-bark tree, s.

Bot.; (1) Various Eucalypti: E. resinifera, E. leucoxylon, E. melanaphloia, &c; (2) Sideroxylon.

iron-block, s. A tackle-block with an iron shell and snap.

iron-boat, *. A boat made of iron sheets, riveted together.

iron-bottle, «. An iron bottle with a scrow-plug, for holding quicksilver. It is made by swaging and drawing from a disc of tough wrought-iron. After being brought by swaging to tho form of an openended cylinder, it is put on a stoel mandrel and driven through holes of decreasing dimensions till it becomes a long cylinder. The neck is pressed and twisted into shape, and fitted with a screwstopper.

iron-bound, a.

1. Lit,: Bound with iron.

2. Fig.: Surroundod or bounded with rocks; as, an iron-bound shore.

iron-cage,«.

Hist.; A cage of iron for tho confinement of criminals. Louis XI. of Franco imprisoned the Cardinal do Baluo in one of eight feet square for an act of treachery and ingratitude.

iron-cased, a. Cased with iron; ironclad.

iron-chamber, s.

Puddling: That portion of tho puddling-furnaco in which the iron is worked; the roverboratorychamber, the charge-chamber.

iron-chlorides, s. pi. Lfkrric-chloride; FerRous-chloride.]

iron-cross, #. A cross of iron.

If Order of the Iron Cross:

Her.<t Hist.: A Prussian order of knighthood, instituted iu 1813,

Iron-framed, a. Made or framed of iron; hardy^ iron-froth,«.

Min.: A variety of Haematite, iron-furnace, s.

Metal.; A furnace in which iron-ore or the metal is exposed to heat. The purposes and construction are various.

iron-glance, s.

Min.: A crystallized variety of Haematite. Called also Specular Iron (q. v.).

iron-gray, a. & s.

A. As adj.: Of a grayish hue, approximating to the color of freshly-fractured iron.

B. As suhat.: A gray hue, approximating to the color of freshly-fractured iron.

*iron-handed, a. Harsh, severe, cruoL

iron-hat, a.

Old armor: A head-piece of iron, made in the form of a hat, and worn from the twelfth to the seventeenth century; a steel-hat.

Iron-hearted, a. Hard-hearted, harsh, unfeeling, cruel.

"Think, ye masters iron-hearted,
Lolling at your jovial boards."

Cowper; Seyro'a Complaint.

iron-horse, *.

1. A railway-engine.

2. A bicycle, or other velocipede.

"Mr. 8. started on his third day's journey of the 650 miles ride on his 'iron-horse.'"Echo, Oct. 29, 1875.

iron-iodide, s,

1. Chem.: Fei or Fel2.

2. Pharm.; It may be made into a syrup and a pill. Given in scrofula, phthisis, &c.

iron-liquor, s. Acotato of iron; used as a mordant by dyers and calico-printers, iron-lord, s. A great ironmaster, iron-man, s.

Cotton Manuf.: A name applied to the self-acting; mule invented initio by Roberts, of Manchester.

iron-mask,«.

Hist.: A mask, not really of iron, but of black velvet, worn by a mysterious state prisoner in France in t he seventeenth century. Who ho was is an unsolved historical problem.

Iron-natrolite, s.

Min.: A dark-green, opaque variety of Natrolite. having a fourth of the alumina replaced by oxide of iron.

iron-ocher, a.

Min.: A variety o_ Haematite.

Iron-ore, s.

Min.: Various minerals containing st> large an amount of iron in their composition as to bosuitable for smelting. The chief aro haematite, limonito, and clay-ironstono, which are found in extensive deposits in various parts of t he world.

If Argillaceous Iron-oro=Clny Ironstone (q. v.) v Arsenicated Iron-ore=Pharmacosideritc; Axotomous Inm-ore = Meuaccanito; for Bog Iron-ore. see Bog; Brown Iron-oro=(l) Limonito, (2) Gothite; Calcareous Iron-ore = Siderite: Clay Iron-oro = ( J«y Ironstone; Green Iron-ore=Dnfrenite; Jaspery Iron-ore=a jaspery-looking red variety of Clay Ironstone, and Lenticular Iron-ore=one with minute* flattened concretions; Magnetic Iron-ore = Magnetite; Micaceous Iron-ore=IImmatite; Ochorous Iron-orc= (1) Haematite, (2) Gothite; Octahedral lron-ore=Magnetite; Pitchy lron-ore= Pitticite; Red 1 ron-oro = Haematite; Sparry lron-ore = Siderite; Specular Iron-oro= Hfpmatito; Titaniferous Iron-oro= Menaccauite. (Dana,) iron-paper, s. A name given to extremely thin

iron-crqwn. «. A crown of gold sot with jewels, iron.paper s. A uanie g.vnn ro extremely emu made ongmallyjor^ the kings of Lombards and. Bheet-iron, which has boon rolled thinner than the

finest tissue-paper.

deriving its name from tho fact that it inclosed within its round a circlet of iron, said to havo been forged from one of the nails used in the crucifixion of Christ. It was supposed to confer upon the holder sovereignty over all Italy. 1TN

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Iron-crown.

. apoleon I. was crowned with it at Milan on May 20, 1805. iron-earth, *. [blue Iron-earth.] Iron-fiddle, «. A number of pieces of iron wire, of different lengths, fixed at one end, by whose vibration notes are produced. (Rosxiter.)

iron-fisted, a. Close-fisted, niggardly, covetous, miserly.

iron-founder, s. One who makes iron castings, iron-foundry, iron-foundery, a. A placo where iron castings aro made.

Iron-pipe, s. A pipe or tubo made of iron.

iron-pyrites, s. [menaccantte.]

If Magnetic Iron-nyrites= (1) Pyrrhotite, (2) Troilite; Prismatic, or White Irou-pyrites = Marcasite.

iron-rations, s. pi. This term is applied to thesupplies taken and carried by the troops themselves^ on service beyond tho sea, when detached from their transport. Tho ordinary iron rations for two days should bo 2 lbs. of preserved moat and 2 lbs. of biscuits, supplemented in such a manner as circumstances admit. {Voyle.)

iron-rutile, s.

Min.: Tho ferriferous variety of Rutile (q. v.). iron-sand, s.

Min.: (1) Mcnaccanite; (2) Magnetite, iron-sheathed, a. Sheathed or cased in iron; iron-cased, ironclad.

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irradiate

Iron-shod, a. Shod with iron, iron-shrub, s.

Bot.: Sauvagesia erecta.

iron-sulphates, s. pt. [fekric-stjlphate, FERROUS-:: O L, PH ATE.]

iron-sulphides, a. pi. [ferrous-sulphide.] iron-tree, s.

Bot.: (1) Siderodendron, (2) Parrotia persica.

iron-weed, s.

Bot.: The genus Vernonia.

•iron-wltted, a. Unfeeling, inflensiblo.

"I will convene with iran-witted fools.'*

Shake* f..- Kichard III., It. 2.

iron (as I-Srn), v.t. [iron,*.]

1. To furnish or arm with iron.

2. To shackle or fetter with irons; to handcuff.

3. To smooth with a smoothing-iron.

"Little starched Johnny Crown at hid elbow he found, His cravat-gtring new ironed.'*

liuchester: Trial of the Poet* for the Bays.

iron-clad (iron as 1-5m), s. & a. [Eng. iron, and clad.]

A. As subst.: A naval vessel protected by iron plates.

If The system of plating ships with iron was first tried on borne of the French flouting batteries used at Kin burn in 1855; but, though the results were satisfactory, no advance was made until 1858, when the French again took the lead with the " Gloire," but were quickly followed by the first English* armored'vessels of the " Warrior" class, to which were added, to strengthen the ironclad fleet, altered wooden lino-cf-battlo Bhips, such as the "Royal Alfred," which were cut down and plated. All the early vessels were constructed of wood, but the later specimens have been built of iron framing, and few of the modem ships are alike. Tho first crucial test to which ironclad vessels were subjected, however, was reserved for the American navy to apply. An old wooden steam vessel, the '* Herri mac," was razeed by the Southrons, and covered with iron (railroad rails, &c.)( the sides sloping up to an apex like the acute angle formed by an old-time house roof. In addition to the iron plating thus applied, the ship was armed with a spur or point for the purpose of ramming the enemy's snips. Operations were begun against the federal war vessels in Hampton Roads, Virginia, in the early part of the year 1862, and as a result several of them were either sunk, battered, or run aground in their endeavors to escape from the formidable foe. After the *' Cumberland" and "Congress'* had been irretrievably injured and the Minnesota" run aground,the " Monitor,"the first turreled ironclad over used in active warfare, the production of Capt, John Ericsson, a Scandinavian denizen of the United States, appeared in the roadstead, and then began the first naval duel between ironclad vessels. Neither the "Virginia," as the ''Morrimac" had been rechristened, nor the "Monitor" was much injured in t he fight, but owing to the less draught of the " Monitor'* the Southern vessel was rendered practically useless and obsolete, and in a few days thereafter was run down the James River to Crane* Island and sunk by Lieut. Chas. H. Hasker, an English naval officer who had immigrated to this country and joined the Confederate service. The " Virginia " was commanded by Capt. Frank Buchanan, while Lieut. John L. \Vorden commanded the "Monitor." During the engagement between the two vessels Lieut. Worden was seriously injured by fragments of a projectile which struck a grating through which ho was looking, the flakes of iron Hying into his face and blinding him. The success of the "Monitor " gavo rise

to numerous vessels of tho same type, the salient features of which were a low free board and a revolving turret, and practicallyrovolutionized naval warfare. After honorable service the "Monitor" foundered off the North Carolina coast, along which she was being towed to one of the Southern ports. The "Warrior" had 4%-inch iron plates tapering off to 3 inches toward bow and stern, but her steering gear was unprotected, and she had a projecting bow. Tho next pattern was protected throughout with armor of the same thickness, which covered the steering gear, and in these models the bow was made vortical orincliniug inward. At first the plates were bolted on teak, with a thin inner skin of iron, but later on this was strengthened by angle iron, and tho plates havo been steeled. The thickness ranges from 4'-2 inches, with the " Warrior" class, tapering to 3 inches at stem and stern, to about 3 feet with the Italian "Ouilio." The next change was to thicken the belt along the water-line, and in front of a central gunbattery, the ends of which were also armored and pierced on tho upper dock to fire fore and aft. In other cases the guns were held in turrets, either movable or fixed, on each side of the central line of the ship. In most instances the guns fire through

port-holes in the battery, but in others they fire over it en barbette. A few ships havo been constructed as sea-going vessels without masts or sails, their armor being 16 to 18 inches thick, and others reprosent the simple coast-defenso type. There has boon a tendency to reduce the number and increase the size of the guns carried, and to confine them in a central battery, while the ship is protected by a belt of armor along the water-lino, above which is an iron-plated dock some inches thick. The ironclads of the American navy are varied in type, most of them being armored cruisers of extreme speed, and depending more upon celerity of movement than on heavy armor or armament. The French began with 4' i inches of armor, gradually increasing the thickness to 22 inches with tho ''Admiral Duperre;" but tho classes of war ships continually vary. Germany has gun boats of tho "Wespe" class, carrying one gun, firing over a shield in the bows, but otherwise thinly plated ; corvettes of tho "Hansa" class, and frigates like the "Kaiser" with 10-inch armor. Russia's ironclads are not remarkable, except the circular "Popoffs," which, armored all round and flat-bottomed, are barely seaworthy. Italy has taken the lead in ships of the "Italia" type, which are low-freeboara vessels with turrets plated with 36 inches of iron, and a deck plate 2% inches thick.

B. As adj.: Armor-plated; strengthened with plates of iron to resist artillery.

iron-3r (iron as I'-Srn), «. [Eng. iron, v.; -en] One who irons.

*iron-flInt (iron as r-Srn), *. [Eng. iron, and flint.]

Min.: Ferruginous quartz.

iron-heads (iron as I'-Srn), s. pi. [Eng. iron, and tie ad x. ] Bot.: Centaurea nigra.

I-r6n'-Ic, I-r5n'-Ic-al, a. [Fr. ironique. from Low Lat. ironicus, fromGr.etroniAos=dissembliug; Ital. & Sp. ironico.]

1. Pertaining to, containing, or of the nature of irony; saying one thing and meaning another.

2. Addicted, to or using irony. I-r5n'-Ic-al-ly\ adv. [Eng. ironical; -ly.] In

an ironical manner; with irony.

I-r5n'-Ic-al-nSss, s. [Eng. ironical; -nest.'] The quality or state of being ironical.

Iron ing (iron as I'-Srn), pr. par., adj. Sc subst. [ikon, v. J

A. & B. As pr, par, particip. adj.: (See tho verb.)

C. As subst.: The act of smoothing clothes, <fcc, with an iron.

ironing-board, s.

Domestic: A board for laundry ironing, sometimes having a special shape, as for shirt-fronts, &c. [sleeve-board. J

ironing-lathe, *.

Hat-making: A machine having mandrels carrying blocks on which hats are mounted for ironing.

ironing-machine, subst. A machine for ironing clothes, <fec. Specific forms are made for laundry work, for hat-ironing, for hosiery, and for tailors.

iron-Ish (iron as I'-Srn), a. [Eng. iron; -ish.] Somewhat resombling iron.

I'-rbn-Ist, s. [Eng. iron(y); -tst.] One given to using irony; one who deals in irony.

"To send to the metaphorist for hi* allegories, to the ironist for his sarcasms, Ac."—Martinus ScriOlerus: Art of Sinking, ch. xiii.

iron-mas-tSriiron as I'-Srn), t. [Eng. iron, and master.] A manufacturer of iron.

iron-mold (iron as I-3rn), s. [Eng. iron, and mold.] A spot on cloth caused by iron rust.

lron-mdld (iron as I'-Srn), v. t. [ironmold, e.) To spot or stain cloth, Ac., by touching it with iron rust.

Iron-mdn-gSr (iron as I'-Srni, s. [Eng. iron, and monger.] One who deals in ironwares or hardware.

lron-mdn-gSr-y (Iron asI'-Srn), s. [Eng. ironmonger; -y. I Ironware; hardware; such iron goods as are usually kept for sale in shops.

iron-sick (Iron as I'-Srn), a. [Eng. iron, and sick.]

;V«uf:: A term applied to a ship when tho bolts and nails havo become so corroded or eaten with rust that she begins to leak.

iron-side (iron as I'-Srn), s. [Eng. iron, and side.] Originally one of tho veteran soldiers of Cromwell's army; a hardy veteran.

iron-smith (Iron as I'-Srn),ft. [Eng. iron, and smith.'] One who works in iron, as a blacksmith, locksmith, dice.

iron-st6ne (iron as I'-Srn), s. [Eng. iron, and) stone.]

Min.: A " stone" or mineral into the composition

of which iron largely outers.

IT (1) For Clay Ironstone, see C-lat.

(2) Blue Clay Ironstone—Viviauite; Brown Clay Ironstone exists in compact masses, or in concretionary nodules; it may bo pisolitio or oOlitic(Dana.)

ironstone-china, s. One of the contributions of Wedgwood to the ceramic art. The materials of the Staffordshire [English] ware are calcined flintsand clay. Tho flints are burned in kilns, and then, while hot, plunged into water, by which they arocracked through their whole substance. They are then ground with water, in mills resembling thearrastra, to the consistence of cream. The clay, from Dorsetshire and Devonshire, is mixed with water, and in this state, as well as the flint, is passed through fine sieves tosoporateth.egrosserparticlep. The flint and clay are now mixed by measure, and the mixture is passed again through a sieve for better incorporation. In this state it is called slip, isevaporated to a propor consistence, and tempered in the pug-mill. Cups, pots, basins, and other round articles aro turned rough on the horizontal potter's-wheel, and when half dried are again turned in a lathe. They are then fully dried in a stove, and polished up with coarso paper.

iron-ware (Iron as I'-Srn), s. [Eng. iron, and toare.J Tools, utensils, &c, made of iron.

Iron-wood (Iron as I'-Srn),«. [Eng. iron, and wood.]

Bot.: (1) Sideroxylon (Loudon); (2) various species of Diosnyros (ebony); (3) Metrosideros vera. That of North America (1) Ostrya virginica, and (2) Carpinus americana^that of Jamaica Erythroxylon areolaturn; that of New South Wales Argyrodendron trifoliatum; that of Tasmania, Notelaia ligustrina. Bastard ironwood is Xanthoxylon pterota. Black ironwood Olea undulata, and White* Vepris lanceolata. {Treat, of Bot.)

"After this I made a great heavy pestle or beater of the* wood called ironwood."—De Foe; RohinsoSi Crusoe, pt. i.

iron-work (iron as I'-Srn), s. [Eng. iron, and tcork.]

1. Anything made of iron; a general term for those parts of a structure, vessel, carriage, dec., which are mado of iron.

"The smashing of some of the ironwork, and the complete disablement of the steamer."—London Daily News.

2. (PI.): An establishment where iron is manufactured, wrought, or oast into heavy work, as cannons, rails, &c.

iron-wSrt (iron as I'-Srn), s. [Eng. iron, and tcorr.]

Bot.: (1) Siderites; (2) Oaleopsis ladanum.
IT Yellow ironwort:
Bot.: Oaleopsis villosa.

Iron-? (iron as I'-Srn), a. [Eng. iron; -y.]

1. Made or consisting of iron; containing iron.

"The frony particles carried off."—Woodward: On Fossils.

2. Resembling iron in any of its qualities or characteristics; as, an irony taste.

I'-ron-y^j s. ^Fr. ironic, from Lat. ironia, from. Gr. eiroWia=dissimulation, irony, from eiron—ek. dissembler; properly the pr. par. of e£ro=to speak £ Sp., Port., & Ital. ironia.] A mode of speech in wnich tho^ meaning is contrary to the words. The> intention is mildly to ridicule undue pretensions or absurd statements while nominally accepting them unquestionably.

*ir -OUS, a. [Eng. tr(e); -ous.] Angry, wrathful, choleric, passionate.

"An irons man, God send him lite! might."

Chaucer; C. T.t 7,697.

*Trp, *Irpe, s. [Etym. doubtful.] A grimace; s> contortion of tho body.

*Irp, adv. [ikp, s.) With grimaces or contortions.

Ir-ra'-dl-ance, Ir-ra'-dl-an-cy\ s. [Lat. »>radians, pr. par. of irradio—U> irradiate (q. v.).]

1. The quality or state of being irradiant; the act of irradiating; emission of rays of light upon any object.

2. That which irradiates or renders irradiant; that which is irradiated.

Ir-ra'-dl-ant, a. [Lat. irradiant, pr. par. of irradio.] Emitting beams of light; irradiating.

Ir-ri'-dl-ate, a. [Lat. irradiatus, pa. par. of irradio=to cast beams on: tr-=j«-=on, upon, and radius = a ray.] Irradiated, illumined; madebrilliant or bright.

Ir-ra'-dl-ate, v. t. & i. [Fr. irradier; Sp. irradiar; Ital. irrudiare.]

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A. Transitive:
L Literally;

1. To illuminate or shod a light npon by casting beams on; to brighten; to make bright or brilliant.

"Such, poets feign, irradiated all o'er
The son's abode on India's utmost shore."

Cowper: Elegy Hi. (Transl.)

2. To radiate into; to penetrate by radiation.

"Ethereal or solar heat must digest, influence, irradiate, and put those more wimple parts of matter Into taotion."—Hale; Origin of Mankind.

II. Figuratively;

1. To enlighten intellectually; to illuminate. "So much the rather thou, celestial light,

Rhine inward, und the mind through all her powers

Irradiate." Milton: P. L., fii. 62.

2. To brighten up, to cheer; to make to appear bright.

"Such beauty did his looks irradiate."

Sherburne; Hope of Helen.

3. To decorate, to adorn.

"No weeping orphan saw his father's store
Our Murines irradiate, or im blaze the floor."

Pope: Klo'isa to Abelard, 186.

B. Intrans.: To emit rays, to shine.
Ir-ra-di-a -tion, s. [Fr.t from Lat. irradiatus,

pa. par. of irradio—to irradiate (q. v.J.j
I. Ordinary Language:

1. Literally:

(1) The act of irradiating or emitting beams of light.

"Probably, therefore, it is, that the moon Is illuminate vjy the bright irradiation and shining beams of the sun." —P. Holland: Plutarch, p. 953.

(2) Illumination, brightness, irradiauce. "Sooner may a dark room enlighten itself, without

the irradiation of n candle."—South: Sermons, vol. viii., cer. 13.

2. Fig.: Intellectual illumination or light.

"The means of Immediate union of these intelligible objects to the understanding, are sometimes divine and eupernatura), as by immediate irradiation or revelation." —Hale: Origin of Mankind.

II. Technically:

Optics, Astron., etc.: A curious phenomenon, in virtue of which a star or any bright object appears larger than it really is. If a thin platinum wire bo intensely heated by tho passage or an electric current, it seems to a person distant about fifty feet to be as thick as a pencil. In this way tho sun's <Uameter looks larger than it is in the sky.

tlr-T&d'-I-cate, v. f. [Lat. fr-for <n-=in, on, and radicatus, pa. par. of radicor=to take root; radix (gen it. radicis)=u root.] Tofixby tho root; to fix firmly.

Ir-r&'-tion-al, a. & s. [Latin irrationalis, from ir- for in-=not, and raf tonali*=rational (q. v.) ; Fr. irrationel; Sp. irrational; Ital. irrazionale.j

A. As adjective:

I, Ordinary Language:

1. Void of reason or understanding.

"Discord first. Daughter of Sin, among the irrational Death introduced." Milton: P. L., x. 708.

2. Not according to reason; contrary to reason; Absurd.

"It is equally irrational and unjust to deny them the power of improving their minds as well as their fortunes." —Burke; On the Penal Laws against the Catholics.

II. Math.: Any quantity which cannot be exactly expressed by an integral number, or by a vulgar fraction: thus, y 2 is an irrational quantity, because wo cannot write for it either an integral number or a vulgar fraction; we may, however, approximate to it as closely as may be desired. In general, every indicated root of an imperfect power of the degree indicated is irrational. Such quantities are often •called surds.

B. Assubst.: A person devoid of reason or underetanding.

"Forthepoorflhiftlessirrationals."Derham.- PhysicoTheology, bk. iv., ch. xii.

IT Irrational is not so strong a term as foolish: it Is applicable more frequently to the thing than to tho person, to the principle than to tho practice; foolish on the contrary is commonly applicable to tho person as well as the thing; to the practice rather than the principle (Crabh: Eng. Synon.)

Ir-rfc-tion-W-I-ty, s. [Eng. irrational; -Hy.] The quality or state of being irrational; want of reason or understanding.

•'Which would bring on us the charge of irrationality." e-lieattie; Moral Science., pt. iv., ch. ii.

Ir-ra'-tion-al ly\ adv. [Eng. irrational; dy.] In an irrational manner; without reason; contrary to reason; absurdly.

"It may not irrationally be doubted."—Doyle: Work*. **. 105. ,

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are divided into eight somewhat inoro positively opposed to religion; an

....—^-> - irreligious book is not merely ono in which there ia

no religion, but that also which is detrimental to religion, such as skeptical or licentious writings: the profane in this case is not always a term of reproach, but is employed to distinguish what is expressly spiritual in its nature, from that which is temporal: the history of nations is profane, as distinguished from the sacred history contained in the Bible. On the other hand, when we spenk of a profane sentiment, or a profane joke, profane lips, ana the like, the sense is personal and reproachful; impious is never applied but to what is personal, and in the worst sense. (Crabb: Eng. Synon.) Ir-re^H$irious-lyt, adv.

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that are inherent in our tongue."—Johnson; Eng. Diet
(Pref.)

2. That which is irregular; that which deviates _ _ from the rest; an inequality; as, an irregularity

Ir-re-fut'-a-ble, Ir-rSf-u-ta-ble, a. [Pref. ir- on the surface.

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3. A deviation from law, human or divine, or from moral rectitude; irregular, disorderly, or immoral practices.

"He . . . had been distinguished there only by his irregularities."—Maeaulay.- Hist. Eng.,ch. xix.

4. An impediment to taking holy orders. (Wharton.)

Ir reg-u laT-ly*, adv. [Eng. irregular; -ly.]

Ir-rS-fcSn-Sr-a-tlon, s. [Prof. tr-=in-(2) Eng. regeneration (q.v.).] The qnality or state of being regenerate; an irrogenerate state.

Ir-rfigf'-u-lar, a. & s. [Lat. irregularis: ir-=in= not, and regu/aria^according to rule; regula—s. role; Fr. irrigulier; Sp. irregular; Ital. irregoiare. ]

A. As adjective;

I. Ordinary Language:

1. Not according to rule or common form; as, an irregular building.

2. >ot according to established rules, principles, customs, or usage; as, irregular proceedings at a meeting.

3. Not according to the rulos or principles of art; as, an irregular verso.

4. Not in conformity with the law; not strictly legal.

"The Declaration of Right, an instrument which was Indeed revolutionary and irregular." -•■Maeaulay; Hist. £ng., ch. xi.

5. Not conformable to naturo, or tho usual course of natural laws ; unusual.

6. Not in conformity with the laws of moral roctitude; immoral, vicious; as, an irregular lifo.

7. Notstraight, not direct.

8. Not uniform; as, irregular motion. II. Technically:

1. Bot. (of a corolla* etc.): Having its symmotry destroyed by some inequality of parts, as the corolla of the horse-chestnut, that of the violet, Ac.

2. Geom.: Applied to a figure, whether piano or solid, whoso sides as well as angles are not all equal and similar among themselves.

3. Gram.; Deviating from tho common or regular form in respect to the inflectional terminations.

4. Music: Applied to a cadence which docs not end upon the tonic chord.

5. Mil.: Undisciplined; not embodied according to regular form; as, irregular cavalry.

6. Sat. Science: Not symmetrical; not according to the typical form of tho species, genus, ordor, &c, to which it belongs.

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regular, marks merely the absence of a goodqual ity; disorderly* that is literally out of order, marks the presence of a positively bad quality. What is irregular may be so from the nature of tho thing: -what is disorderly is rendered so by some external circumstance. Things are planted irregularly for want of design; tho best troops are apt to be disorderly in a long march. Irregular and disorderly are taken in a moral as well us a natural scuso. Irregular-bones, s. pi.

Anat.: Bones of a complex figure, as vertebra?. Generally they are situated along the median lino of the body. Called also mixed bones.

lrregulax-echinoids, s. pi.

1. ZoUl.: Echimndea cxocyclica,oneof twogroups of Echinoidea (Sea-urchins). They are generally oblong, pentagonal, heart-shaped, or discoidal, having no masticatory apparatus; they have tho anus outside the apical disc, and but four genital plates.

boll, boT; po*ut, Jowl; cat, cell, chorus,

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ated by principles of religion are irreligi

fa-nity and impiety are, however, of a still more
iieinous nature: they consist not in the mere absence
of regard for religion, but in a positive contempt of
it, and open outrage against its laws. When ap-
plied to things, tho term irreligious seems to be

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