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2. Botany :

salts. Iridic chloride also unites with alkaline Irish-elm, 8. (1) Sing.: A member of the Iridaceæ (q. v.). . chlorides, forming iridio-chlorides, which are all of (2) Pl.: The name given by Lindley to the Irid. dark brown color.

Bot.: Ulmus montana nigra.

There are three iodides of aceæ (q. v.). iridium analogous to the chlorides, and three sul.

Irish famine-fever, 8. [FAMINE-FEVER. i-rid-ā-çě-æ, i-rid--æ, *I'-rid-ēs, 8. pl. (Lat. phides analogous to the first three oxides. Iridic Irish-furze, 8. iris (genit. iridis).] [IRID. solutions give, with ammonium or potassium

Bot.: Ulex strictus. Bot.: Irids, an order of Endogens, alliance Nar.

chloride, a crystalline precipitate, which is distin. cissales. It consists of herbs, or more rarely of guished from the platinuin precipitate by its red.

Irish-heath, 8. undershrubs, with tuberous or fibrous roots ; leaves dish-brown color.

Bot.: Menziesia polifolia. generally equitant or distichous: bracts spatha

2. Min.: The Native Iridium of Jameson is Irid. Irish-mosse ICARAGHEEN. 1 ceous; calyx and corolla adherent or colored : petals osmine (q. v.).

Irish Presbyterian Church, 8. three; stamens three; ovary three-celled, many- i-rid-og'-mine, 8. [Modern Latin iridium);

Ecclesiol. & Ch. Hist.: A Presbyterian Churclı, seeded; fruit capsular. Found at the Cape of Good osm (ium), with suff. -ine (Min.) (q. v.).]

formerly called the Synod of Ulster, as having its Hope, the temperato parts of Europe and in this Min.: A hexagonal opaque mineral of tin-white strength mainly within that province of Ireland. country. or light steel-gray color and metallic luster. Hardi

Its members are mostly descended from the Scotch i-rid--a, s. [Lat, iris, genit. irid is): fem. adj. ness, 6-7; specific gravity, 19'30-2112. Composition: Presbyterians, who came over by invitation of sing. suff. -ca.) Iridium, 43.28-70-40; osmium, 17-20-4085, &c. Found

James I., between 1609 and 1612, to colonize Ulster. Bot.: A genus of Rose-spored Algals, order Cer with platinum in Choco in South America, also in

TIRISH SOCIETY.) The Church still remains identi. amiaces, sub-order Ceramex, family Nemastomid the Ural Mountains and in Australia. Varieties

cal in doctrine with the Scottish Establishment. or ('ryptonemiaceæ Iridæa edulis is sometimes

Newjanskite and Sisserskite. (Dana.) called Dulse, though the genuine Scottish Dulse isi-ris (pl.i-ri-dēs), 8. (Lat. iris=Gr. iris=rain.

Irish Society, s. Rhodomenia palmata. bow.]

English Hist.: A committee of citizens belonging i-rid-al, a. (Lat. iris, genit, irid(is)=the rain.

to twelve London Companies, invited by James I. I. Ord. Lang.: The rainbow.

in 1613 to take part in cultivating the confiscated bow; Eng. adj. suff. -al.] Pertaining to or resembling the rainbow.

II. Technically:

lands in Ulster, which, to the extent of 511,465 i-rid-ěc-tome, 8. [Gr. iris (genit. iridos)=the;

1. Anat.: The colored portion of the eve surround. acres, had become vested in the Crown. The society

in large measure built Londonderry, though walls ing the black central pupil. It consists of three rainbow, the iris, and ektomēra cutting out; ek= layers, an anterior epithelial layer, a posterior layer

and bastions had been erected there as early as out, and temnõ=to cut.) Surg.: A knife for operations on the eye.

of pigment called the uvea, and a middle fibrous 1603. They largely colonized the county of the same

layer. i-rid-ěc-to-mỹ, s. (IRIDECTOME.)

2. Bot.: The typical genns of the order Iridacege London companies. The full title of the society is Surg.: The act or operation of cutting out a por. (q. v.). The perianth is regular, its segments un.

the Honorable Irish Society. tion of the iris for the purpose of forming an arti- equal; sepals large, stipulate, reflexed; petals Irish-whin, 8. [IRISH-FURZE.] ficial pupil.

smaller, sub-erect, stipulate; stigmas three, very Îr'-Ish-işm, 8. [Eng. Irish; -ism.) A mode of Ir-id-ěs-cence, s. [As if from a Lat. *iridescens, broad, peta loid. About

expression or idiom peculiar to the Irish; an forty-eight are known, all pr. par. of *iridesco=to become like a rainbow; iris

iricism. from the north temperate genit. iridis) =a rainbow. The quality or state of zone. The roasted seeds of

Ir-Ish-man, s. [Eng. Irish, and man.) A native being iridescent; exhibition of colors like those of I. pseudacorus are like cof.

or naturalized inhabitant of Ireland. the rainbow. fee. It is a diuretic pur

Ir -Ish-ry, 8. (Eng. Irish; -ry.) The people of Ir-id-ěs-cent, a. (IRIDESCENCE.) Prismatic, gative and emetic, as are

Ireland, as opposed to the English settlers, known rainbow-like; exhibiting iridescence. I. tuberosa, I. versicolor,

as the Englishry. i-rid-1-an, a. (Latin iris, genit. irid(is)=the and I. verna. I. florentina

“Choosing rather to trust the winds and waves than furnishes the violet-scented rainbow: Eng. adj. suff. -an.) Pertaining to the orris-root, which is slightly

the exasperated Irishry."-Macaulay: Hist. Eng. ch. xii. rainbow. (Annandale.)

ïr-ite, s. (Lat. iris=Gr.iris=the rainbow; suff, stimulating. It is used in l-rid-1-0-, pref. [IRIDIUM.] (See the compound.) the preparation of the

ite (Min.) (q. v.).] iridio-chlorides, s. pl. [IRIDIUM.]

sweet-scented otto of roses.


Min.: A variety of Chromate (q. v.). i-rid-1-0-scope, 8. I. ensata has been supposed

i-ri-tis, i-rid-1-tis, s. [Gr. iris (genit. iridos); [Gr. iris (genit. iridos)=a to furnish the irisa root of India. Dr. Stewart says suff. -itis (q. v.).) rainbow, the iris, and skopeo=to see, to observe that it is used externally in the treatment of rheu Path.: Inflammation of the iris, accompanied by An optical instrument which shows the inside of matism. In Chumba the root and leaves are given vascularity, change in color and appearance, irregthe eye, used to detect foreign substances and dis. in fever. The purple flowers of I. germanica and ularity and immobility of the pupil, with a visible; ease.

I. sibirica, treated with lime, furnish a green color. and varying amount of lymph deposited in, on, and i-rid-1-ăm, 8. [Gr. iris=the rainbow, and eidos= 1. sibirica is anti-syphilitic; 1. fætidissima is said round the iris. form, appearance.)

to be a cure for scrofula. 1. Chem.: A tetrad metallic element, symbol Ir.; The Peacock Iris is the genus Vieusseuxia, the

*irk, *irk-en, *yrke, *irk-yn, v. t. & i. (Sw. atomic weight 198; discovered by Descotils in 1803, Scorpion Iris I. alata, and the Snake's-head Iris?

brnion Iris 1. alata, and the Snake's-head'Iris yrka=to urge, to press, from the same root as work and by Tennant in 1804, in the black powder which I. tuberosa, or Hermodactylus tuberosus. The name

and urge.) remains when crude platinum is dissolved in nitro- iris is given to the genus because of the variety and A. Trans.: To tire; to weary; to be irksome or hydrochloric acid. This powder is an alloy of irid. beauty of the colors in the flowers.

wearisome to. (Now only used impersonally.) ium and osmium, called iridosmine or osmiridium. 3. Astron.: (ASTEROID, 7.]

B. Intrans.: To grow or become tired or weary. To separate the iridium from the alloy, the black iris-diaphragm. 8. powder is mixed with an equal weight of dry sodium

Irk-somne, *yrke-some, a. [Eng. irk; -some.] n Optics: A contractile diaphragm, simulating the chloride, and heated to redness in a glass tube,

1. Wearisome, tiring, tedious; tiresome by long through which a stream of moist chlorine gas is action of the natural iris, to regulate the size of the

continuance or repetition. transmitted. The further end of the tube is con- aperture in a microscope through which light

*2. Sorrowful, sad, weary. nected with a vessel containing ammonia. Iridium passes.

*3. Weary; tired. chloride and osmium chloride are formed; the for. iris-disease, s. A skin disease (herpes iris), ap

à Îrk'-some-1ğ, *irk-som-1ğ, adv. (Eng. irksome; mer remains in the tube in combination with the pearing generally on the back of the hands, and I Somey, 18k som9, aat. Ing.?kome, sodium chloride, while the latter, being a volatile especially affecting children and fair women. It ly. In an irksome, tedious, wearisome or tiresome substance, is carried forward into the receiver where extends in a radiated manner in different shades of it is decomposed into osmic and hydrochloric acids, red, whence the name iris.

îrk-some-něss, *yrke-som-nesse, 8. (English which combine with the ammonia. The iridium iris-root. s.

irksome; -ness.] The quality or state of being irkand sodium chloride left in the tube is dissolved in

some; tediousness, wearisomeness. water, mixed with an excess of sodium carbonato Bot. & Comm.: The same as ORRIS-ROOT (q. v.). and evaporated to dryness. The residue, after igni. i-ris-at-ěd, a. (Eng. iris; -ated.] Exhibiting

iron (as i-ērn), *iren, *yren, *yrene, *yron,

ng *yrun, *yzen, 8. & a. [A. S., as subst., iren, øren, tion in a crucible, is reduced by hydrogen at a high the prismatic colors; resembling the rainbow.

isen, irsern, as adj., iren, Ýren, isen, isern; 0. S. temperature, and treated successively with wateri -ri-scope, s. (Gr. iris=the rainbow, and skopeo isarn: 0. H. Ger. isarn, isan, isen, M. H. Ger. isen; and concentrated hydrochloric acid, by which all =to behold.

N. H. Ger. eisen; Dut. ysen: Goth. eisarn; Icel. impurities are removed, and the metallic iridium Mach.: An instrument invented by Dr. Reade for jarn: Dan. & Sw.jern; Ir. iarran, earran, iarun; left in a finely divided state. Iridium is a white, exhibiting the prismatic colors. It consists of a Gael., as subst., iaruinn, iaruach, as adj., iaruinn, brittle, very hard metal, fusible with great difficulty, plate of polished black glass, having its surface iaruach; Wel. haiarn, Arm. houarn.] in the flame of the oxy-hydrogen blowpipe. It is

smeared with a solution of soap, and dried by insoluble in all acids, but when reduced by hydrogen

A. As substantive: wash-leather. If the breath be directed through at a red heat it oxidizes slowly and dissolves in a tube upon the glass, the vapor will be deposited I. Ordinary Language: Citro-hydrochloric acid. Iridium forms four oxides ridium forms four oxides in colored rays.

1. Literally: -Iro. Ir.02. Ir02, and Ir03. The monoxide, or hypo-iridious oxide, 1r0, is but little known. The I-rised, a. (Eng. iris; -ed.] Containing colors (1) In the same sense as II. 5.

(2) An article made of iron; spec., one for ironing sesquioxide, or iridious oxide, Ir902, is unstable, like those of the rainbow.

clothes, having a great tendency to absorb oxygen and Ir-ish, a. & 8. [A. S. yrisc.]

2. Fig.: Anything strong, hard, or unyielding. become dioxide. The dioxide, or iridic oxide, IrO2, A. As adjective: is the most easily prepared and the most stable. It

II. Technically:

1. Pertaining to Ireland or its inhabitants; like is prepared by boiling a solution of iridic chloride 1

1. Bot.: A minute quantity of ferric oxide, Fe202, with an alkali. The trioxide, or periridic oxide, an Irishman.

is necessary to the healthy growth of plants.

2. Pertaining to the Highlands of Scotland.**2. Chem.: Ferrum, a inetallic tetrad element, Ir , is unknown in the free state, but is found in combination with potash as a black crystalline [ERSE.]

symbol Fe, atomic weight 56., specific gravity of powder, when iridium is fused with niter. Iridium B. As substantive:

pure iron 7.8. Iron occurs nearly pure or alloyed torms four chlorides-IrCl, Ir1), Ir.Clo, and Ircu

014 - 1. A native of Ireland; in the pl., the people of with nickel in meteorites, but is generally found in but only two of them have been obtained in definite Ireland.

combination with oxygen and as a carbonate. It form-viz., the trichloride, or iridious chloride, 2. The Irish language.

is widely diffused in rocks, and often forms the Ir C'le and the tetrachloride, or iridic chloride, *3. An old game resembling backgammon.

chief coloring matter of clays and sands. It also Irl. Iridious chloride combines with other metal

occurs combined with sulphur. The chief ores lic chlorides, forming compounds, called iridoso. Irish Church, s. (CHURCH OF IRELAND.]

used for the manufacture of iron are Magnetite, chlorides, which are all olive-green pulverulent Irish-elk, s. [ELK.)

Huematite, Brown oxide, Spathic ore, and Clay boil, boy; póūt, jówl; cat, çell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, aş; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = f. iron




ironstone. The ore is first calcined, to expel the B. As adjective:

iron-framed, a. Made or framed of iron; hardy, water and carbonic acid and most of the sulphur, 1. Lit.: Made of iron : consisting to a greater or and to convert the oxides to peroxide, which pre- lesser extent of iron.

iron-froth, s. vents the waste of iron in the form of slag. The 2. Figuratively:

Min.: A variety of Hæmatite. calcined ore is then smelted, with the addition of

(1) Resembling iron in hardness. (IRON-BOUND.]

iron-furnace, s. coke and limestone; the limestone unites with the silica present and forms a fusible slag, while the

“Though aged, he was so iron of limb,

Metal.: A furnace in which iron-ore or the metal oxide of iron is reduced by the action of the carbon

Few of our youth could cope with him."

is exposed to heat. The purposes and construction monoxide. [BLAST-FURNACE.

are various.

Byron: Siege of Corinth, xxv. The iron thus obtained is called cast or pig iron, and is very impure. (2) In hardness and inflexibility.

iron-glance, s. Pure iron is prepared by placing four parts of fine

"While Erin yet

Min.: A crystallized variety of Hæmatite. Called iron wire, cut in pieces, and one part of black oxide

Strove 'gainst the Saxon's iron bit."

also Specular Iron (q. v.). of iron in a Hessian crucible, and covering it with

Scott: Rokeby, iv. 6. a mixture of white sand, lime, and potassium car

iron-gray, a.& 8.

(3) In heaviness; in mental dullness. (IRON bonate in the proportions used for glass-making; a WITTED.)

A. As adj.: Of a grayish hue, approximating to cover is then closely applied and the crucible ex

the color of freshly-fractured iron. posed to a very high temperature. Iron is a soft,

"Him Death's iron sleep oppressed."-Philips.

B. As subst.: A gray hue, approximating to the tough, tenacious, malleable, ductile, white metal,

(4) In power of endurance, in permanence. color of freshly-fractured iron. not acted upon by dry air; but it rusts in moist air

(5) In absence of feeling. containing carbonic acid, forming a hydrate of the (6) In wickedness. (IRON-AGE, 1.]

*iron-handed, a. Harsh, severe, cruel. sesquioxide. When heated to redness in the air, it (7) In wretchedness.

iron-hat, a. is coated with black magnetic oxide, Fe30,. 'It . (1) In irons: With iron fetters on the hands,

tters on the nanus, Old armor: A head-piece of iron, made in the burns in oxygen gas, black oxide being formed.

the feet, or both. Red-hot iron decomposes water. hydrogen being (2) To have many irons in the fire: To carry out form of a bat, and worn from the twelfth to the

seventeenth century; a steel-bat. given off. Iron is magnetic; it is soluble in dilute many projects at the same time. hydrochloric acid and in dilute sulphuric acid with iron age, s.

iron-hearted, a. Hard-hearted, harsh, unfeelevolution of hydrogen. Tron unites with oxygen, 1. Class. Muthol.: The last of the four great ages

ing, cruel. forming ferrous oxide FeO and ferric oxide Fe203. of the world described by Hesiod, Ovid, &c. It was

“Think, ye masters iron-hearted, Intermediate oxides are also known. The salts of iron have already been described. The alchemists supposed to be characterized by abounding oppres

Lolling at your jovial boards." sion, vice, and misery.

Cowper: Negro's Complaint. represented it by the symbol of Mars 8. (FERROUS,

2. Scientific archæol.: An ago, the third in succes Iron-horse, s. FERRIC, WROUGHT-IRON, STEEL.]

sion, in which weapons and many other implements 3. Geol.: Iron is widely diffused through the began to be made of iron, stone having been used

1. A railway-engine.

2. A bicycle, or other velocipede. rocks. Many are colored red by its oxides It is for these

is for these purposes in the first, and bronze in the also deposited from ferruginous springs. (IRON

"Mr. S. started on his third day's journey of the 650 ORE; BOG IRON-ORE.)

advancement of each tribe or pe

miles ride on his 'iron-horse,'"-Echo, Oct. 29, 1875. is not necessarily at the same rate as that of their 4. Hist.: Iron is mentioned in the Bible as early neighbors, the Iron Age probably did not begin

begin iron-iodide, s. as Gen. iv. 22. Tubal Cain is described as having everywhere simultaneously. In Denmark, and per- 1. Chem.: Fe, or Fel2. been an "instructor of every artificer in brass (cop-haps some of the adjacent regions, it may have 2. Pharm.: It may be made into a syrup and a per) and iron." On the sepulchers of the Egyptian commenced about the Christian era.

pill. Given in scrofula, phthisis, &c. Thebes, butchers are depicted as sharpening their

iron-liquor, 8. Acetate of iron; used as a morknives on a round bar of metal which, from being iron-bark, Iron-bark tree, 8. blue, is assumed to be iron. The steel weapons in Bot.: (1) Various Eucalypti: E. resinifera, E.

creeinifera E dant by dyers and calico-printers. the time of Rameses III. are also painted blue. leucoxylon, E. melanophloia, &c.; (2) Sideroxylon. iron-lord, s. A great ironmaster. There are with them the representations of bronze weapons, which are painted red.

iron-man, s. iron-block, 8. A tackle-block with an iron shell

(IRON AGE (2).) Iron ore is said to have been discovered in Mount and strap.

Cotton Manuf.: A name applied to the self-acting Ida about B. C. 1406. The Romans early knew it. iron-boat, 8. A boat made of iron sheets, riveted mule invented in 1825 by Roberts, of Manchester. There is so much iron ore in India that it must have together.

iron-mask, s. been known from remote times. Iron mines came iron-bottle, s. An iron bottle with a screw-plug, Hist.: A mask, not really of iron, but of black into operation in Britain B. C. 54. The exportation for holding quicksilver. It is made by swaging and velvet, worn by a mysterious state prisoner in of iron was prohibited by the British Government drawing from a disc of tough wrought-iron. After France in the seventeenth century. Who he was is in 1354, and in 1483 the importation of such manu- being brought by swaging to the form of an open- an unsolved historical problem. factured iron soods as could be made at home was ended cylinder, it is put on a steel mandrel and iron-natrolite. 8. forbidden. In 1713 Darby introduced the general driven through holes of decreasing dimensions till use of coal instead of wood as fuel, a process which it becomes a long cylinder. The neck is pressed

Min.: A dark-green, opaque variety of Natrolite, had been practiced by Lord Dudley in 1619. In 1783 and twisted into shape, and fitted with a screw

having a fourth of the alumina replaced by oxide of

! Cort obtained a patent for rolling, and in 1781 for stopper,

iron. puddling iron. The hot blast was discovered by Dalton in 1827, and the Bessemer process for con

iron-bound, a.

iron-ocher, s.

Min.: A variety o. Hæmatite. verting crude iron into manufactured iron and 1. Lit.: Bound with iron. steel in 1856.

2. Fig.: Surrounded or bounded with rocks; as, iron-ore, s. 5. Min.: Native iron is found in masses or smaller an iron-bound shore.

Min.: Various minerals containing so large an portions in meteorites. It is nearly pure, still it iron-cage, s.

amount of iron in their composition as to be contains one to twenty percent. of nickel with Hist.: A cage of iron for the confinement of crim- suitab

t: A case of iron for the confinement of crim. suitable for smelting. The chief are hæmatite, limtraces of cobalt, manganese, tin, copper, chromium, inala Lonis phosphorus, &c. Whether unmeteoric native iron de Balue in one of eigbt feet square for an act of

"mium, inals. Louis XI. of France imprisoned the Cardinal onite, and clay-ironstone, which are found in extenof Frane

act of sive deposits in various parts of the world. exists is doubtful. Specimens of ore so pure as to treachery and ingratitude.

Argillaceous Iron-ore=Clay Ironstone (9.v.); admit of direct forging into horseshoes have been

Arsenicated Iron-ore=Pharmacosiderite; Axotomined at Shepherd's Mountain, in the Iron Moun- iron-cased, a. Cased with iron; ironclad.

mous Iron-ore=Menaccanite; for Bog Iron-ore, see tain district of Missouri. [METEORITE.)

iron-chamber, s.

BoG; Brown Iron-ore=(1) Limonite, (2) Gothite: 6. Pharm.: In the hæmatin or coloring matter of Puddling: That portion of the puddling-furnace

Calcareous Iron-ore=Siderite; Clay Iron-ore=Clay the blood 65 per cent. 1s iron. When anemia oc- in which the iron is worked

Ironstone; Green Iron-ore=Dufrenite; Jaspery are the ministration of iron is of much use in which the iron 15 worked ; the reverberatory

the reverberatory.

Iron-ore=a iaspery-looking red variety of Clav Iron. chamber, the charge-chamber. acts also on the nervous system. It often, however,

stone, and Lenticular fron-ore=one with minute causes constipation, and sometimes also stains the iron-chlorides, 8. pl. [FERRIC-CHLORIDE; FER flattened concretions: Magnetic Iron-ore=Magnetongue and the teeth. It may be given in the form of ROCS-CHLORIDE.

tite; Micaceous Iron-ore=Hematite; Ocherous roduced iron lozenges, saccharine carbonate of iron, iron-cross, 8. A cross of iron.

Iron-ore=(1) Hæmatite, (2) Göthite; Octahedral compound mixture of iron, a pill of carbonate of Order of the Iron Cross :

Iron-ore=Magnetite; Pitchy Iron-ore= Pitticite; iron, iodide of iron, &c.

Her. & Hist.: A Prussian order of knighthood,

Red Iron-ore=Hæmatite; Sparry Iron-ore=Sider(1) Iron Alum = Halotrichite; Iron and Man instituted in 1813.

ite; Specular Iron-ore=Hæmatite; Titaniferous ganese Tungstate=Wolfram; Iron Antimonial Sul

Iron-ore= Menaccanite. (Dana.) phuret = Berthierite: Iron 'Apatite = Zwieselite: iron-crown, 8. A crown of gold set with jewels,

with Jewens iron-paper, s. A name given to extremely thin Iron Arsenate=(1) Pharmacosiderite. (2) Scorodite! made originally for the kings of Lombardy, and

sheet-iron, which has been rolled thinner than the Iron Arsenide = Lolingite: Iron Borate = Ludwig

deriving its name from the
fact that it inclosed within

finest tissue-paper.
ite or Lagonite: Iron Carbonate = Chalybite or
its round a circlet of iron,

iron-pipe, 8. A pipe or tube mado of iron. Siderite: Iron Chromate=Chromite: Iron Gymnite = Hydrophite: Iron Magnetic Oxide = Magnetite: said to have been forged from

iron-pyrites, s. [MENACCANITE.] Iron Phosphate=(1) Vivianite, (2) Ludlamite: Iron one of the nails used in the crucifixion of Christ. It was

| Magnetic Iron-pyrites=(1) Pyrrhotite, (2) TroilPyrites = Pyrites, or Pyrite (q. v.); Iron Sesquiox. cruci

ite; Prismatic, or White Iron-pyrites=Marcasite. ide = (1) Hematite. (2) Gothite. (3) Limonite. (4) supposed to confer upon the Turgite; Iron Silicate=Lievrite'; Iron Sinter=Pit. holder sovereignty over all

iron-rations, s. pl. This term is applied to the ticite; Iron Sulphate=Melanterite; Iron Sulphide


Iron-crown. supplies taken and carried by the troops themselves = (1) Pyrites, (2) Marcasite, (3) Pyrrhotite: Iron

Napoleon I. was crowned

on service beyond the sea, when detached from

their transport. The ordinary iron rations for two Tungstate=Wolfram ; Iron Vitriol=Melanterite. with it at Milan on May 26, 1805.

days should be 2 lbs. of preserved meat and 2 lbs. of (2) Carburet of Iron = Graphite : Chloride of iron-earth, 8. [BLUE IRON-EARTA.]

biscuits, supplemented in such a manner as circumIron = Molysite; Columbate of Iron = Tantalite; iron-fiddle, 8. A number of pieces of iron wire,

e, stances admit. (Voyle.) Cupreous Arsenate or Arseniate of Iron=Scorodite; of different lengths, fixed at one end, by whose Diarsenate of Iron = Pittacite; Magnetic Iron-ore vibration notes are produced. (Rossiter.)

iron-rutile, s. ic or Native Iron (II.5]; Ola iron-fisted, a. Close-fisted, niggardly.covetous. Min.: The ferriferous variety of Rutile (q.v.). gist Iron-Hämatite: Oxalate of Iron Humboldt- mise boldt- miserly.

iron-sand, s. ine; Oxide of Iron=Hämatite; Oxydulated Iron= Magnetite; Iron Sulphate=Melanterite; Tantalate iron-founder, 8. One who makes iron castings. Min.: (1) Menaccanite; (2) Magnetite. of Iron=Tantalite; Titaniferous Iron = Menaccan- iron-foundry, iron-foundery, 8. A place where iron-sheathed, a. Sheathed or cased in iron; ite. iron castings are made.

iron-cased, ironclad. fāte, făt, färe, amidst, whãt, fâli, father; wē, wět, hëre, camel, hēr, thêre; pine, pit, sïre, sir, marine; gó, pot,




Iron-shod, a. Shod with iron.

port-holes in the battery, but in others they fire iron-stone (iron as I'-ērn), 8. [Eng. iron, and iron-shrub, s.

over it en barbette. A few ships have been con- stone. Bot.: Sauvagesia erecta.

structed as sea-going vessels without masts or sails, Min.: A“stone" or mineral into the composition

their armor being 16 to 18 inches thick, and others of which iron largely enters. iron-sulphates, s. pl. [FERRIC-SULPHATE, FER- represent the simple coast-defenso type. There has T (1) For Clay Ironstone, see CLAY. LOTSELPHATE,

been a tendency to reduce the number and increase (2) Blue Clay Ironstone=Vivianite; Brown Clay iron-sulphides, s. pl. [FERROUS-SULPHIDE.]

the size of the guns carried, and to confine them in Ironstone exists in compact masses, or in concreiron-tree, s.

a central battery, while the ship is protected by a tionary nodules ; it may be pisolitic or oolitic.

of armor along the water-line, above which is (Dana.) Bot.: (1) Siderodendron, (2) Parrotia persica. an iron-plated deck some inches thick. The ironclads of the American navy are varied in type, most

ironstone-china, 8. One of the contributions of iron-weed, 8. of them being armored cruisers of extreme speed,

Wedgwood to the ceramic art. The materials of Bot.: The genus Vernonia.

the Staffordshire (English) ware are calcined flints and depending more upon celerity of movement than on heavy armor or armament. The French

hand clay. The flints are burned in kilns, and then, *iron-witted, a. Unfoeling, insensible. began with 4

while hot, plunged into water, by which they are

inches of armor, gradually increas"I will converse with iron-witted fools."

cracked through their wbole'substance. They are Shakesp.: Richard III., iv. 2.

ing the thickness to 22 inches with the Admiral
Duperré:" but the classes of war ships continual

then ground with water, in mills resembling the iron (as 1 -ērn), v. t. (IRON, 8.]

arrastra, to the consistence of cream. The clay, from vary. Germany has gun boats of the “ Wespe 1. To furnish or arm with iron.

Dorsetshire and Devonshire, is mixed with water, class, carrying one gun, firing over a shield in the 2. To shackle or fetter with irons: to handcuff. bows, but otherwise thinly plated ; corvettes of the

and in this state, as well as the flint, is passed 3. To smooth with a smoothing-iron. "Hansa" class, and frigates like the “Kaiser".

through fine sieves to separate the grosser particles.

The flint and clay are now mixed by measure, and • Little starched Johnny Crown at his elbow he found, with 10-inch armor. Russia's ironclads are not re

the mixture is passed again through a sieve for betHis cravat-string new ironed." markable, except the circular “Popoffs," which,

ter incorporation. In this state it is called slip, is Rochester: Trial of the Poets for the Bays. armored all round and flat-bottomed, are barely

evaporated to a proper consistence, and tempered Iron-clăd (iron as i -ērn), 8. & a. (Eng. iron, "Italia " type, which are low-freeboard vessels

seaworthy. Italy has taken the lead in ships of the

1e in the pug-mill. Cups, pots, basins, and other and clad.] with turrets plated with 36 inches of iron, and a

round articles are turned rough on the horizontal A. As subst.: A naval vesscl protected by iron deck plate 24 inches thick.

potter's-wheel, and when half dried are again turned plates.

in a lathe. They are then fully dried in a stove, The system of plating ships with iron was first pla:

B. As adj.: Armor-plated; strengthened with and polished up with coarse paper. tried on some of the French floating batteries used SI plates of iron to resist artillery.

iron-wäre (iron as i'-ērn), s. (Eng. iron, and at Kinburn in 1855; but, though the results were iron-ēr (iron as i'-ērn), s. (Eng. iron, v.; -er.] satisfactory, no advance was made until 1858, when One who irons.

ware.] Tools, utensils, &c., made of iron. the French again took the lead with the “Gloire," *iron-flint (iron as I -ērn), s. [Eng. iron, and

iron-wood (iron as i'-ērn), 8. (Eng. iron, and but were quickly followed by the first English- flint.)

wood.) armored vessels of the Warrior" class, to whichM in.: Ferruginous quartz.

Bot.: (1) Sideroxylon (Loudon); (2) various spewere added, to strengthen the ironclad fleet, altered iron-heads (iron as I'-ērn), s. pl.

cies of Diospyros (ebony): (3) Metrosideros vera. wooden line-cf-battle ships, such as the "Royal

[Eng. iron, That of North America (1) Ostrya virginica, and (2)

and heads. Alfred." which were cut down and plated. All the

Carpinus americana, that of Jamaica Erythrory

Bot.: Centaurea nigra. early vessels were constructed of wood, but the

lon areolatum: that of New South Wales Argyrolater specimens have been built of iron framing , i-ron-ic, i-rõn'-ic-al, a. [Fr. ironique, from dendron trifoliatum; that of Tasmania, Notelæa and few of the modern ships are alike. The first Low Lat. ironicus, from Gr. eirõnikos=dissembling; ligustrina. Bastard ironwood is Xanthoxylon ptecrucial test to which ironclad vessels were sub- ltal. & Sp. ironico.]

rota, Black ironwood Olea undulata, and White jected, however, was reserved for the American. 1. Pertaining to, containing, or of the nature of Vepris lanceolata. (Treas. of Bot.) navy to apply. An old wooden steam vessel, the irony: saying one thing and meaning another.

"After this I made a great heavy pestle or beater of the "Merrimac," was razeed by the Southrons, and 2. Addicted to or using irony.

wood called ironwood."-De Foe: Robinson Crusoe, pt. i. covered with iron (railroad rails, &c.), the sides 1-rõn-Ic-al-1ỹ, adv. [Eng. ironical; -ly:] In iron-wõrk (iron as i'-ērn). .. SEng, iron, and sloping up to an apex like the acute angle formed an ironical manner; with irony. by an old-time house roof. In addition to the iron

work.) g. ironica

1. Anything made of iron; a general term for plating thus applied, the ship was armed with a spur or point for the purpose of ramming the quality or state of being ironical.

those parts of a structure, vessel, carriage, &c., enemy's ships. Operations were begun against the

which are made of iron.

iron-ing (iron as I'-ērn), pr. par., adj. & subst. federal war vessels in Hampton Roads, Virginia, in [IRON, v.

The smashing of some of the ironwork, and the comthe early part of the year 1862, and as a result A. & B. As pr. par. & particip. adj.: (See the

plete disablement of the steamer."- London Daily News. several of them were either sunk, battered, or run run verb.)

2. (Pl.): An establishment where iron is mandaground in their endeavors to escape from the for


C. As subst.: The act of smoothing clothes, &c., fac midable foe. After the “Cumberland” and “Con

factured, wrought, or cast into heavy work, as can.

othing clothes, alus nons, rails, &c. ress" had been irretrievably injured and the with an iron. " Minnesota" run aground, the "Monitor," the first

iron-wort (iron as i-ērn), s. [Eng. iron, and turreted ironclad ever used in active warfare, the

wort.) production of Capt. John Ericsson, a Scandinavian

_Domestic: A board for laundry ironing, sometimes Bot.: (1) Siderites; (2) Galeopsis ladanum. denizen of the United States, appeared in the road.

ad. having a special shape, as for shirt-frunts, &c. Yellow iron wort: stead, and then began the first naval duel between etween [SLEEVE-BOARD.)

Bot.: Galeopsis villosa. ironclad vessels. Neither the " Virginia," as the iron "bad been rechristened, nor the "Moni.

iron-ỷ (iron as i'-ẽan), a. [Eng. irom; -w.]

Hat-making: A machine having mandrels carry. tor" was much injured in the fight, but owing to

1. Made or consisting of iron; containing iron. the less draught of the " Monitor" the Southern 0 ing blocks on which hats are mounted for ironing.

“The irony particles carried off."- Woodward: On Fos. vessel was rendered practically useless and obso. ironing-machine, subst. A machine for ironing sils. lete, and in a few days thereafter was run down the clothes, &c. Specific forms are made for laundry James River to Craney Island and sunk by Lieut. work, for hat-ironing, for hosiery, and for tailors.

2. Resembling iron in any of its qualities or charchas H. Hasker, an English naval officer who had iron-ish (iron as i'-ērn), a. [Eng, iron; -ish.]

acteristics; as, an irony taste. immigrated to this country and joined the Con

1-rôn-. . (Fr. ironie, from Lat. ironia, from federate service. The " Virginia " was commanded i Somewhat resembling iron.'

Gr. eiröneia=dissimulation, irony, from eirõn=a be Capt. Frank Buchanan, while Lieut. John L. . 1'-rõn-Ist, 8. (Eng: iron(y), -ist.) One given to dissembler: properly the pr. par. of eirő=to speak; Worden commanded the "Monitor." During the using irony; one who deals in irony.

Sp., Port., & Ital. ironia.] A mode of speech in engagement between the two vessels Lieut. Worden “To send to the metaphorist for his allegories, to the which the meaning is contrary to the words. The was seriously injured by fragments of a projectile ironist for his sarcasms, &c."-Martinus Scriblerus: Art intention is mildly to ridicule undue pretensions or which struck a grating through which he was look of Sinking, ch. xiii.

absurd statements while nominally accepting them ing, the flakes of iron flying into his face and blind. in him. The success of the "Monitor gave rise iron-mas-ter(iron as ī'-ērn), 8. [Eng. iron, and unquestionably. to numerous vessels of the same type, the salient master.] A manufacturer of iron.

*ir-oŭs, a. (Eng. ir(e); -ous.) Angry, wrathful, features of which were a low free board and a re- iron-mõld (iron as i'-ērn), s. (Eng. iron, and choleric, passionate. volving turret, and practically revolutionized naval mold.] A spot on cloth caused by iron rust.

“An irous man, God send him litel might." warfare. After honorable service the “Monitor” itor iron-möld (iron as i-ērn), v. t. [IRONMOLD,

Chaucer: C. T., 7,697. fonndered off the North Carolina coast, along which she was being towed to one of the Southern

s.) To spot or stain cloth, &c., by touching it with *Irp, *irpe, 8. [Etym. doubtful.] A grimace; a iron rust.

contortion of the body. vorts. The **Warrior" had 4"-inch iron plates tapering off to 3 inches toward bow and stern, but iron-mon-gēr iron as i'-ērn), 8. [Eng. iron, *irp, adv. (IRP, s.) With grimaces or contorber steering gear was unprotected, and she had a and monger.] One who deals in iron wares or hard. tions. projecting bow. The next pattern was protected ware.

Ir-rã-di-ançe, ir-rā'-di-an-cý, s. (Lat. ir. throughout with armor of the same thickness, iron-mon-gêr-ý (iron as i'-ērn), s. Eng. iron. radians, pr. par. of irradio=to irradiate (q. v.).] which covered the steering gear, and in these models the bow was made vertical or inclining in

monger; -y.) Ironware; hardware; such iron goods 1. The quality or state of being irradiant; the act ward. At first the plates were bolted on teak, with as are usually kept for sale in shops.

of irradiating; emission of rays of light upon any a thin inner skin of iron, but later on this was iron-sick (iron as i'-ērn), a. (Eng. iron, and


2. That which irradiates or renders irradiant;: strengthened by angle iron, and the plates have sick.) been steeled. The thickness ranges from 4.4 inches, Naut.: A term applied to a ship when the bolts

that which is irradiated. with the " Warrior" class, tapering to 3 inches at and nails have become so corroded or eaten with ir-rā'-di-ant, a. (Lat. irradians, pr. par. of stem and stern, to about 3 feet with the Italian rust that she begins to leak.

irradio.] Emitting beams of light; irradiating. * Duilio." The next change was to thicken the belt

iron-side (iron as i'-ērn), s. [Eng. iron, and ir-rā'-di-äte, a. (Lat. irradiatus, pa. par. along the water-line, and in front of a central gun.

side.) Originally one of the veteran soldiers of irradio=to cast beams on: ir-=in-son, upon, and battery, the ends of which were also armored and

radius = a ray. Irradiated, illumined; made pierced on the upper deck to fire fore and aft. In Cromwell's army; a hardy veteran. other cases the guns were held in turrets, either iron-smith (iron as I'-ērn), 8. (Eng. iron, and

brilliant or bright. movable or fixed, on each side of the central line of smith.] One who works in iron, as a blacksmith, Ir-rã-di-āte, v. t. & i. [Fr. irradier; Sp. irra. the abin. In most instances the guns fire through locksmith. &c.

diar; Ital. irradiare.) boil, boy; pout, jowl; cat, çell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, aş; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = f.

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