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In the present Work the aim has been to give ALL the words in the English language now in use, with their several significations re-investigated, re-classified, arranged afresh, and illustrated by examples, a large number of them having been brought together by independent research.
In addition to these, a very large number of obsolete words have been introduced, which, it is hoped, will afford readers much assistance in the perusal of Old English authors. Obsolete spellings and significations of existing words have also been given, the laiter chronologically arranged, so as, if possible, to show the process by which the present meaning has arisen. Obsolete words and significations are marked with an asterisk,*; those which have not dropped altogether out of use, but are only rarely found, with an obelisk, f.
Special attention has been given to scientific and technical terms.
COMPOUND WORDS in which complete adhesion has taken place between the two or more constituents have been arranged as independent words; while those still so loosely united as to be usually connected by hyphens, have been placed under the first word of the compound.
The PRONUNCIATION is indicated by diacritical marks, a key to which will be found at the foot of the several pages. The division into syllables has been made solely with reference to pronunciation, and with no reference to the etymology of the word. In syllables wherein two or more vowels come together, not forming diphthongs, only that one of them which gives its sound to the syllable bears a diacritical mark, the others being treated as mute. Thus, in brčad, sēa, Aðat, the a is mute, the syllables being pronounced as if spelled brěd, sē, fot. Words of more than one syllable bear a mark upon the accented syllable, as âl-těr.
The ETYMOLOGY will be found enclosed within brackets immediately following each word. To understand the plan adopted, let it be noted (1) that retrogression is made from modern languages to ancient; and (2) that when after a word there appears such a derivation as this—"In Fr. .... Sp. .... Port. .... Ital. .... from Lat. ....," the meaning is, not that it passed through Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and French before reaching English, but that there are or have been analogous words in French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian, all derived, like the English, from a Latin original.
The illustrations are intended not for the purpose of embellishment merely, but also to impart a conception of the objects represented clearer than any mere verbal definition could afford.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS WORK.
a., or adj. adjective.
A. N. Anglo-Norman,
der. derived, derivation.
* Obsolete words.
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*In-trēas-Ore (8 as zh), v. t. (ENTREASURE.) "That high and serene intrepidity which is the virtue "A gentleman of the Inns of Court, and a deep item In-trēat', *in-treate, v.t. & i. (O. Fr. entraiter,
of great commanders." -Macaulay: Hist. Eng , ch. xvi. triguer."-Tatler, No. 193. from Lat. tracto=to handle.)
In-trēp'-Id-ly, adv. [Eng. intrepid; -ly.) In an in-trig'-uēr-, 8. (Eng. intrigue; -ry.) The act, intrepid, fearless, or dauntless manner.
art, or practice of intriguing. A. Transitive:
"Orlando, determined to pursue his parpose, rushed *in-trîg'-uěss, s. (Eng. intrigu(e); -ess.] A schem1. To treat, to use. forward intrepidly with his lifted shield."--Hoole: Or. ing woman.
“The wife, for her part ... was a compleat intrig"He shall gather the lambeg together with his arme. lando Furioso, bk. xix. (Note 3. ) and carye them in hys bosome, and shall kyndlye intreate *in'-tric-a-ble, a. (Lat. intric(o)=to entangle, tess."-North: Examen, p. 197. those that beare yonge."-Esaye, xl. (1551.) and Eng. -able.) Entangling, perplexing.
|| Miss Edgeworth (Manoeuvring, ch. i.) regrets 2. To treat of, to discourse of.
that"a word used in the days of Charles II., and
În'-tric-a-cý, s. (Eng. intrica(te); -cy.] 3. To entreat, to beg, to implore.
still intelligible in our times, should have become 4. To persuade ; to gain over by entreaties.
1. The quality or state of being intricate or obsolete." "All this her weeping sister does repeat
tangled; perplexity, complication, involution. ... In-trig'-ulóg, pr. par., a. & s. [INTRIGUE, v.]
2. An intricate or perplexing situation; a diffi. To the stern man, whom nothing could intreate."
A. & B. A8 pr. par. & particip. adj.: (See the Waller: Virgil's Æneid, iv. culty or perplexity.
verb.) B. Intransitive:
"As perplexing that fable with very agreeable plots and C. As subst.: The act or practice of plotting; inintricacies." -Addison: Spectator, No. 273.
trigue. 1. To treat, to discourse. (Followed by of.)
| For the difference between intricacy and com . In-trẬg-ung-lý,,ad. [Eng. intriguing; -ly.] " Stephyn Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, preached plexitu, see COMPLEXITY.
In an intriguing, plotting, or scheming manner; at Paules Crosse, and there intreated of the Gospell of that daie.”-Hall: Henry VIII. (an. 35.)
in-tric-ate, a. (Lat. intricatus, pa. par. of with intrigues or secret plots. intrico=to perplex, to embarrass: in-=in, and
| In-trig-BIsh, a. [Eng. intrigu(e): -18h.] Con
Yurianten 2. To beg, to entreat, to implore. (Foliowed by
ring intrimulel. wiehl Can. trica=hindrances, wiles: Ital. intricato.) for.)
1. Ord. Lang.. Entangled, involved, complicated,
ted nected with plots or intrigues, (North: Examen, *in-trēat-a-ble, a. (Pref. in- (2); Eng. treat, perplexing, obscure; difficult to unravel or under
1: p. 193.)
P. and suff. -able.) Implacable, inexorable. stand.
*In-trinse', *in-trinçe', adj. (INTRINSIC.) En. "The sense is intricate, 'tis only clear
tangled, intricate, complicated. (Shakesp.: Lear, *in-treat-ançe, *in-trēat-aunce, *in-trēat
What vowels and what consonants are there."
ii. 2.) měnt. (ENTREATANCE, etc.)
Dryden: Hind and Panther, ii. 385.
*In-trin-8ě-cate, *in-trin'-si-cate, a. (Latin *In-trēat'-fol. a. (Eng. intreat: ful(1).] Full 2. Bot.: The same as ENTANGLED (q. v.).
*in'-tri-cāte, v. t. (INTRICATE, a.) To involve, TRINSIC.) Entangled, perplexed, complicated, in
intrinsecus; Ital. intrinsecato, intrinsicato.] [INof entreaties.
to complicate, to perplex, to make obscure. In-trěnch' (1), v. t. (Pref. in. (1), and English
tricate. (Shakesp.: Antony and Cleopatra, v. 2.)
"This by-path of cunning doth's embroil, trench, s. (q. v.))
And intricate the passage of affairs." 1. To make furrows or hollows in.
Daniel: To Lord Henry Howard.
In-trin-sic, in-trin'-sic-al, *in-trin-se-cal, "His face In-tric-ate-1ỹ, adv. [Eng. intricate; -ly.). In
In *in-trin-sick, *in-tryn-cic-all, a. & 8. (O. Fr. Deep scare of thunder had intrenched, and care an intricate manner; with perplexity, complica.
intrinseque, from intrinsecus=inward, from in-= Sat on his faded cheek."
Milton: P, L., i. 601,
in, into, and secus, from same root as sequor=Sp. & 2. To surround or inclose with trenches, as in "By certain marks or notes intricately knotted."
Port, intrinseco, Ital. intrinsico, intrinseco.] fortification; to fortify with intrenchments; as, to Warburton: Divine Legation, bk. iv., 4.
A. As adjective: intrench a camp.. 3. To lodge within intrenchments; to place in a
In'-tric-ate-nēss, s. (Eng. intricate; -ness.] I. Ordinary Language:
The quality or state of being intricate, complicated, strong and fortified position. or involved; intricacy.
*1. Inward, internal; also, domestic. **Intrenched before the town both armies lie: While night, with sable wings, involves the sky."
in-tri-cā'-tion, s. (Latin intricatus, pa. par. of *2. Intimate, close, familiar. Dryden: Virgil's Æneid, xi. 1,378. intrico = to entangle.] Entanglement, intricacy, 3. Real, genuine, true, inherent, not accidental; complication.
as, the intrinsic value of gold or silver. *4. To protect or defend in any way. *In-trēnch' (2), v. i. (Pref. in. (1), and English
In-trigue', 8. [Fr. intrigue: Sp. intriga: Ital. *4. Intricate, complicated.
intrigo. j (INTRIGUE, v.) trench, v.) To trench; to encroach on that which
1. Intricacy, complication. belongs to another. (Followed by on or upon.)
Anat. (of muscles): Attached wholly to the "Though this vicinity of ourselves to ourselves cannot “We dare not on your privilege intrench,
give us the full prospect of all the intrigues of our nature. bones of the limbs and their arches. Or ask ye why ye like them? they are French." yet we have much more advantage to know ourselves, than Dryden: Prol. to Arviragus and Philicia. to know other things without us."-Hale: Orig. of Man.
*B. As subst.: A genuine or essential quality. *In-trench-ant, a. (Pref. in. (2), and English kind.
In-trin-si-căl-Y-tý, s. (Eng. intrinsical; -ity.] trenchant (q.v.).] Not to be cut: indivisible, invul. 2. The act of intriguing or plotting by secret and The quality or state of being intrinsical; essenDerable.
anderhand ways or means; a plot or scheme of an tiality. “As easy may'st thou the intrenchant air
intricate or complicated nature, intended to effect In-trin-sic-al-18, *in-trin-sec-al-ly, adverð. With thy keen sword impress, as makes me bleed." some object by secret arts.
(Eng. intrinsical; -ly.)
*1. Internally, within. In-trěnch'-měnt (1), 8. (English intrench (1);
Pomfret: The Choice.
“ Tul it be thrust by some other body from without, or ment.)
3. The plot of a play, romance, fable, &c.; a com- intrinsioally moved by an immaterial self-active sub I. Literally:
plicated scheme of actions and events intended to stance."-Bentley: Bovle Lectures.
excite the interest of the reader or audience, and 1. The act of intrenching.
2 Really truly, in reality. make them look forward eagerly to the developu Their method of intrenchment was of Latin origin." ment of the plot.
“Lumps of base metal, nominally worth near a million Macaulay: Prophecy of Capys. (Introd.)
"As causes are the beginning of the action, the opposite
sterling, intrinsically worth about a sixtieth part of that
à eum, were in circulation."-Macaulay: Hist. Eng. ch. 2. A defensive work, consisting of a ditch or designs against that of the hero are the middle of it, and
form that difficulty or intrigue which makes up the greattrench, and a parapet made from the excavated
xii. earth. est part of the poem."-Pope. (Todd.)
in-trin-sic-al-ně88, 8. [Eng. intrinsical; -ness.) « Cæsar forced some of their strongest intrenchments;
4. Illicit intimacy between persons of different The quality or state of being intrinsical; intrinsi
cality. and then carried the war directly into the territories of sexes: a liaison; libertinism. Oassibelan."-Burke: Abridg. Eng. Hist., bk. i., ch. i.
“Nor yet the swarms that occupy the brain,
in-tro-, pref. (Lat.) A Latin adverb, signifying II. Fig.: Any defense or protection.
Where dreams of dress, intrigue, and pleasure reign." within, used as a prefix to English words. in-trēnch-měnt (2), 8. (English intrench (2);
Cowper: Retirement, 642.
In-tro-çěs'-sion (sion as shon), s. (Lat, intro-= ment. The act of trenching or encroaching on triquer. From Lat. intrico=to entangle, to intricate the property or rights of others; an encroachment.
Med'. A going or shrinking of the parts inward. In-trēp-id, a. (Lat. intrepidus, from in-=not, "A
(q.v.); Sp. intrigar; Ital. intrigare.]
to and trepidus = fearful, timid; Fr. intrépide, Ital. &
Trans. : Tod
tin-tro-cũrved', a. (Pref. intro-, and English
curved.) Sp. intrepido.] Fearless, bold, brave, daring, un B. Intrans.: To form, enter into, or carry on plots Bot.: The same as INTROFLEXED (q. v.). daunted, dauntless.
or schemes, usually of a complicated nature, with a yn-tro-du'ce, v. t. (Lat. introduco, from intro"He was intrepid, strong. fleet. patient of cold of view to effect some object by secret or underhand
=within, and duco=to lead; Fr. introduire; Ital. hunger, and of fatigue.”-Macaulay: ist. Eng. ch. xiii. artifices; to plot, to scheme.
"The cardinal of York was not satisfied to be intriguing For the difference between intrepid and boldfor the popedom after his death."-Burnet: Hist. Reform.
introdurre ; Sp. introducir.)
1. To bring or lead in; to usher in. see BOLD. (an. 1527.)
" Introduced her to the parks and plays." In-trě-pid-1-tý, s. (Fr. intrépidité, from intré- in-trig'-uēr, s. (Eng. intrigu(e); -er.) One who
Pope: The Basset Table, 63. pide; Ital. intrepidità.] The quality or state of intrigues; one who forms or enters into secret or 2. To pass or put in; to insert; as, to introduce a being intrepid; fearlessness, boldness, courage. underhand plots; a plotter; a schemer.
finger into a crevice. boil, boy; pout, Jowl; cat, çell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, aş; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = f.
3. To insert, to interpolate.
in some cases they are taken from other portions of 2. To turn or direct to one's own heart or thoughts. "Anything that is afterward to be introduced in a Scripture, and occasionally from uninspired writers. in-trude'. v. i. &t. [Lat. intrudo, from in-=in, more proper place."-Blair, vol. ii., Lect. 30.
The old English word is office, which corresponds to in
the Latin officium, by which name the Introit is 4. To bring into use or practice.
into, and trudo=to push, to thrust; Ital. intrudere.] known in the Mozarabic, Carthusian, Dominican, A. Intransitive: “A custom or habit introduced by the necessity of trade
nelite missals. At High-mass and in a 1. To thrust or push one's self forward into any among them." -Temple: United Provinces, vol. 11., Lect. 80. Missa Cantata the Introit is sung by the choir, as place or position: to push in; to force one's way. 5. To bring forward with preliminary or prefa- the priest commences the Mass.
2. Specif.: To thrust or push one's self forward tory matter; to bring into notice; to make known; 2. In the Anglican Church: A short anthem, psalm, into any place or position; to force one's self upon as, to introduce a subject with a preface.
or hymn, sung while the minister proceeds to the others; to enter or put one's self forward unwel6. To bring before the public by writing or exhi- table to commence the Communion service. For comely or without invitation; to obtrude. bition; as, to introduce a character on the stage. merly, in some English cathedrals, the Sanctus was 7. To make personally known; as, to introduce a sung as an Introit.
3. To intervene; to be interposed.
This practice arose probably gentleman to a lady. from the fact that the Communion Service soon
“Where half the convex world intrudes between." 8. To produce; to cause to exist; to induce. after the Reformation ceased to be performed cho
Goldsmith: Deserted Village, “Whatsoever introduces habits in children deserves rally, a proof of which is found in the fact that for 4. To encroach; to trench. the care and attention of their governors."-Locke: On nearly two centuries-namely, from 1660 to 1840-the
B. Reflex.: To push or thrust one's self forward. Education.
Sanctus was never set to music except as an Introit,
în-tro-It-ús, s. [INTROIT.]
1. Ord. Lang.: To force or cast in; to push or “Without the introducement of new or absolute forms
thrust forward unwarrantably; as, to intrude one's
In-tro-mis'-sión (sion as shon), s. (Lat. intro- conversation upon people. or terms, or exotio models." -Milton: Way to Establish a missio, from intromissus, pa. par. of intromitto: 2. Geol. : To force in, as a volcanic rock may into Free Commonwealth. intro-=within, and mitto=to send.]
sedimentary strata. [INTRUSIVE.] In-tro-dūç'-ēr, 8. [Eng. introduc(e); -er.] One *I. Ordinary Language:
In-trad-ěd, a. (Eng. intrud(e); -ed.] who or that which introduces,
1. The act of sending in; the act of admitting; Geol.: Intrusive (q. v.). “The introducer of those divisions into English poetry.” admission. Johnson: Proposal to Print the Works of Shakespeare. 2. The act of introducing or inserting: insertion. in-trud'-ēr, s. [Eng. intrud(e); -er.] One who *in-tro-důct', v. t. [Lat. introductus, pa. par. of II. Scots Law: The act of intermeddling with h
th intrudes; one who thrusts himself in or enters where
he is not wanted, or where he has no business. introduco=to introduce (g. v.). To bring in; to the property or effects of others, whether legally introduce. (Hacket: Life of Williams, i. 29.) or without authority; also the dealing of a factor
“Hence, vain intruzr! haste away,
Wash not with unhallowed brine in-tro-dúc-tion, *in-tro-duc-ci-on, s. [French or agent with the money of his employer.
The footsteps of my Celia's shrine." introduction, from Lat. introductionem, accus. of in-tro-mịt, v. t. & i. (Lat. intromitto, from
Carew: To my Rival. introductio ; from introductus, pa. par. of introduco intro-=within, and mitto=to send.]
TA man is an intruder who is an unbidden guest =to introduce (q. V.); Sp. introduccion; Ital. intro A Transitise.
at the table of another; he is an interloper when he duzione.]
joins any society in such manner as to obtain its I. Ordinary Language:
1. To send in, to let in, to admit.
2. To allow to enter: to be the medium by which privileges without sharing its burdens. Intruders 1. The act of introducing, bringing, or leading in; anything enters.
are always offensive in the domestic circle; interthe act of inserting; insertion.
lopers in trade are always regarded with an evil
B. Intranstive: 2. The act of introducing or bringing into use,
eye. practice, or notice. " Scots Law: To intermeddle, to interfere.
în-trû'-drėss, s. [Eng. intruder; -ess.] A female 3. The act of making personally known to each "Where the saia officer or officers may not lawfully intro. who intrudes. other; the state of being made known personally to mit or intermeddle."--Hackluyt: Voyages, i. 271.
fin-trŭnk', v. t. (Pref. in.(1), and Eng. trunk each other.
in-tro-mit-tent, a. (Lat. intromittens, pr. par. (q. v.).) To encase, to enwrap, to inclose. 4. That part of a book, treatise, or discourse which precedes the main part, and' in which the of intromitto.] Sending or conveying in or into. În-tro-sion, s. (Fr., from Lat. intrusus, pa. par. author gives a general account of its object, plan, in-tro-mit-tēr, 8. (Eng. intromit; -er.] One of intrudo=to intrude (q. v.).] or subject; a prefatory or preliminary discourse. who intromits, an intermeddler.
I. Ordinary Language: 5. A treatise more or less elementary, on any
*yn-tro-prēs'-sion (sion as shon), 8. (Lat. in branch of study; a treatise introductory to more
1. The act of intruding or thrusting one's self elaborate or scientific works on the same subiect: tro--within, and pressio=a pressing, pressure; pres-forward unwarrantably and unwelcomely where
sus, pa. par. of presso=to press (q. V.).] Pressure one is not wanted. as, an introduction to geology.
acting within; internal pressure. II. Bib. Science: A department of Biblical science,
2. The act of encroaching or infringing; an enthe objects of which are stated by Prof. K. A. Cred- in-tro-reçěp-tion, s. (Pref. intro-, and Eng. croachment. ner, D. D., to be fivefold: (1) The origin of the reception (q. v.).) The act of receiving within; II. Technically: individual books received into the sacred canon; admission within.
1. Geol.: The operation of forcing through or into (2) the history of the canon and the origin of the
in-tror'se, a. (Lat. introrsum and introrsus, sedimentary strata. (Used of volcanic rocks.) [IN. collection of Scripture books; (3) the history of the several translations. &c. : (4) the history of the adverb =(1) toward the inside, inward, into, (2) TRUSIVE-ROCKS. within.)
2. Law: An unlawful entry into or upon lands and text, and (5) the history of interpretation. It is divided into Introduction to the Old and Intro
Bot.: Turned toward the axis to which it apper- tenements void of a possessor, by one who has no
tains. (Used specif. of anthers when the line of right to the same. duction to the New Testament.
dehiscence is on their inner side facing the pistil.) 3. Scotch Ch.: The settlement of a minister in a în-tro-duc-tive, a. [Fr. introductif; from Lat.
church or congregation against the will or without introductus, pa. par. of introduco=to introduce within : intro-=within, and specto=to look.]
În-tro-spěct', v. t. (Lat. introspecto=to look
the consent of the congregation
To (q. v.).] Serving or tending to introduce; intro
The term was frequently used during the ten ducing or bringing forward; introductory. * look into or within; to view the inside of.
years' ecclesiastical controversy which culminated | In-tro-dắc-tive-1ỹ, adv. [Eng. introductive; .
tỉn-tro-spěc-tion, s. (Lat. introspectio, from in the disruption of the Scotch Church in 1843.
introspectus, pa. par. of introspicio=to look within oly.) in a manner serving to introduce; introduc
win-tra-gion-al. a. [Eng. intrusion; -al.] Per. torily.
intro-=within, and specio=to look.] The act of
taining to intrusion; noting intrusion. In-tro-důc'-tõr, s. [Lat., from introductus, pa. terior; examination of one's own thoughts or feel- in-trů -sion-ist, 8. [Eng. intrusion; -ist.] Ono par, of introduco=to introduce (q. v.).] An intro- ings.
who favors the intrusion or settlement of a minister ducer. in-tro-důc'-tõr-1-1ğ, adv. [Eng. introductory;.
tin-tro-spěc-tion-Ist, 8. [Eng. introspection; in a church or congregation contrary to the will or -ly.] In an introductory manner; by way of intro- the
-ist.] One given to introspection; one who studies without the consent of the congregation. duction. the operations of his own mind.
In-trü -sive, a. (Lat. intrusus, pa, par, of inIn-tro-dúc-tor-ř. a. (Low Lat. introductoring. tin-tro-spěc-tive, a. [Eng. introspect; -ive.] trudo=to intrude (q. v.).] Tending or apt to infrom introductus, pa. par. of introduco=to introLooking within : viewing inwardly : examining trude; thrusting or entering without invitation or
welcome; obtrusive. duce (q. v.); Sp. introductorio.] Serving to intro- one's own thoughts or feelings. duce : serving as an introduction to something win-tro-süme'. v. t. r Lat. intro-=within. and trusive-rocks, 8. pl. further; previous, prefatory, preliminary.
sumo=to take.] To take or receive in; to absorb. Geol.: Rocks of igneous origin which have forced in-tro-dūc-trēss, s. (Eng. introductor; -ess.]
their way through crevices or rents in sedinentary
In-tro-sūs-çěp-tion, s. [Pref. intro-, and Eng. strata, or have broken them up. A female who introduces. susception (q. v.).)
Intrusive sheets of eruptive rock may be disin-tro-flěxed', a. (Pref. intro-, and Eng. flexed *1. Ord. Lang.. The act of taking or receiving in tinguished from true lava-flows which have been or within.
subsequently overlaid conformably by sediloentary Bot. : Flexed or bent inward; curved inward; 2. Anat.: The same as INTUSSUSCEPTION (4.v.). strata, by the fact that the rocks, both above and introcurvod.
below the intrusive sheets, are altered at the conÎn-tro-grēs'-sion (sion as shon), 8. [Lat. intro- veniens, pr. par. of venio=to come.] Coming in or
tacts, while in the case of lava-flows the rocks over gressio, from introgressus, pa. par. of introgredior: between : entering
which they ran have been altered, but the deposits intro-=within, and gradior=to go, to walk.] The
above them show no trace of metamorphism.
in-tro-vē -ni-úm, 8. [Pref. intro- (q. v.), and act of going in or entering; entrance. Lat. vena=a vein.]
In-tra-sive-lý, adv. [Eng, intrusive; -ly.] In in-tro-It, în-tro-It-ŭs, s. (Lat. introitussa "Bote. The obscuration of the venation by the an intrusive or intruding manner. going in, from introeo= to go in: intro-=within, and abnormally developed parenchyma, as in Hoya, &c. In-trů -sive-nēss, 8. [Eng. intrusive; -ness.] The
1. In the Roman Church: Words recited by the in-tro-vēr-sion, s. (Lat. intro-=within, and quality or state of being intrusive. priest in saying Mass, after the Confiteor, as soon
soon versio=a turning, from versus, pa. par. of verto=to In-trůst', *ěn-trūst', v. t. [Pref. in. (1), and
turn. as he has ascended the altar. The custom of recit.
The act of introverting: the state of being Eng trust lo ing the Introit is of early origin, and has been introverted.
1. (Of things): To give in trust; to commit or con. attributed to Gregory the Great. The words are fin-tro-vērt', v. t. [Latin intro-=within, and fide to the charge of a person; to commit with usually from some psalm, formerly recited entire, verto=to turn.)
confidence. (Followed by to before the person and have an antiphon, and are followed by a Gloria; 1. To turn in or inward.
charged.) fāte, făt, färe, amidst, whãt, fâll, father; wē, wět, hëre, camel, hēr, thêre; pine, pit, sïre, sir, marine; gó, pot,
going in: Fr. introit.)
. Words recited by the versio