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Britain could be benefited.” This reasoning, it is presumed, cannot be maintained: it evidently arises from a mistaken view of the subject : the commerce of Great Britain, as compared with it in time of peace, having greatly increased in the last war, before the system of suspension was acted upon. From 1785 to 1790 the imports were

£17,077,000 and the exports

17,213,000 From 1792 to 1796 the imports were

21,025,000 and the exports

25,971,000 And in the wars of 1742 and 1756 the trade of the country likewise increased to a very great extent, and, as before mentioned, it has generally done so in periods of war, with the exception of the American war, which is to be attributed to the peculiarly disastrous circumstances attending it.

It is also observed, “if, as Lord Sheffield professed to deem necessary to our salvation as a commercial and naval nation, Britain had rigidly adhered to the navigation system of the 17th century, the consequence would have been that we should have had much less than half the commerce and revenue to meet the arduous contest in which we were engaged."" To show how unwarranted this statement is, as applicable to the commerce of the country, it is only necessary to refer to the following comparison of foreign and British ships employed; which must convince even those persons who believe there exists a necessity of permitting, in time of war, the employment of neutral ships, in the trade of Great Britain, in breach of the navigation laws, that it is an erroneous conclusion, and cannot be maintained. It has already been stated, the revenue did not profit in the most trifling degree by the employment of neutral carriers, except in the articles to and from the countries of the enemy. The home consumption was not increased by neutral vessels being employed in the trade to neutral nations ; and the statute of the 36 Geo. 3. c. 76, which extended generally the provisions of the Dutch property acts, having passed in May 1796, it could not of course have had any extensive effect, indeed it is so admitted, until after 1.799. STATEMENT of Foreign and British Ships, which entered

inwards, with their repeated voyages in the following

years: viz.

In 1797



British. 1,121,000 war 1,289,000 1,375,000 1,379,000

i Mr. Cock's Answer, p. 29,

2 Ibid. p. 27.

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1801 780,000


1,794,000 peace.
The other observations in support of the new system are equally
incorrect : for instance, “this immense rise in our trade, and finan-
cial resources, while our shipping interest was promoted more than
ever ; our mercantile sailors more numerous than ever ; affords
the strongest proofs of the wisdom of that change of laws which
accommodates itself to circumstances. Can that be unwise policy
which has so much increased private and public wealth, the grand
objects of political economy; and under which our chief bulwark
of strength has become powerful beyond all example ?". Surely
the employment of neutral ships in the trade to countries, where
British ships could have gone, cannot tend to increase British ships,
or British seamen, or countervail the loss of freight to the Ship-
ping Interest: under these circumstances, it is apparent the new
system has not produced those advantages which its advocates an-
ticipated and have been so desirous to prove and establish ; but on
the contrary, the most serious evils have resulted from their adop-
tion, which, in the course of these observations, it is presumed will
be most clearly shewn, although it is stated ? « that the number
and tonnage of British ships employed since the acts in question
have s not been diminished, but greatly increased." It however
appears, that,
In 1796 the tonnage of British ships employed in the Tons.

trade of Great Britain (exclusive of coasters,) was 1,474,000 That in the succeeding year, 1797, it decreased to 1,121,000 And in 1801, the British tonnage em- Tons ployed, only amounted to

From which should be deducted, to

make a comparison, the increase of
British shipping in the trade of the
British colonies and the captured
islands, in the interval between 1797
and 1801 l; because the trade to those
colonies could not have been affected
by the suspending acts, which are so
highly commended by the advocates
of the new system, as the act of the
37th Geo. 3. c. 3. which passed in
1797 extended the privileges of Bri-
tish ships to those vessels which were
taken, and belonged to the captured
islands; and which, of course, ex-
Ibid. p. 29.

Ibid. p. 24. 3 Mr. Cock's Answer, p. 24.



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tended considerably, during this period, the quantity of British tonnage



British tonnage employed in 1796

1,474,000 in 1801

1,254,000 Decrease in the employment of British shipping,

under the suspending system, between 1796 and 1801, at the close of the last war

Tons 220,000

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He restitution of the Order of Jesuits took place on the 7th August, 1814, by a Bull of the present Pope, which is well worth consulting. It sets forth the duty of the Pope to employ all his

power to relieve the spiritual wants of the Catholic world'recites the revival of the Order in Russia, in 1801, on the prayer of the Emperor Paul, and in Sicily, in 1804, on that of King Ferdinand it then states that the Pope would deem himself guil• ty of a great crime towards God, if, amidst the dangers of the • Christian republic; he should neglect to employ the aids which the • special providence of God had put in his power, and if, placed

in the bark of St. Peter and tossed by continual storms, he should • refuse to employ the vigorous and experienced rowers who volunteer their services.' It then declares that the Pope in virtue of the plenitude of Apostolic power, and with perpetual validity, had decreed that the concessions made to the Jesuits in Russia and Sicily should extend to all his ecclesiastical states, and to all other states. All necessary powers are then granted to the present General of the Society in order that the said states may freely receive all who desire to be, or shall be, admitted into the

Order; and power is granted to the members to apply themselves « to the education of youthto direct colleges and seminariesto

hear confessions, to preach, and administer the sacraments ;' the several colleges, houses, and members of the Order and all who shall join it are then taken under the protection of the Holy See, which reserves the power of prescribing and directing all « that may be necessary to consolidate the Society more and more; "to render it stronger; and to purge it of abuses SHOULD THEY • EVER CREEP IN.' The Society and all its members are then recommended strongly to temporal Princes and Lords, to Arch

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