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Providence is said to be manifested in the unusual concurrence of circumstances, which he has, with the most consummate art combined to rear, and establish the military despotism under which the agonizing nations of Europe now groan. To what motive are such sentiments to be attributed? What tendency can they have, but to teach the people, that all resistance to his will is unavailing ;
that all Kings shall fall down before him : all nations serve him ;' and to render them dissatisfied and clamorous for
and so to humble Great Britain at the feet of France.
Alas! thy dazzled eye
soul with horror but to name 'em.' Upon the whole it is conceived, that the review which has been taken, in the preceding pages, of the resources of the British colonies in North America and of the depressed state of the Shipping Interest, will not be altogether without its use, in the consideration which the present crisis demands, of what measures should be taken not only to preserve our maritime ascendancy in its present high and palmy state, but to consider whether any of the indispensable articles we have hitherto imported from foreign countries can be raised or procured within the British empire. That his majesty's government have collected much important information on this subject, there can be no doubt : the nation, however, anxiously expects to reap the benefit of that knowledge, by seeing it concentrated and digested in such a shape as may render it generally and practically useful: and for this purpose, it is presumed a committee of the House of Commons, appointed to investigate into the state of the corn, timber, and a few other branches of trade, would be highly beneficial, and give great confidence to the country, by contriving the means that the encouragement which the present circumstances of the war certainly give to the improvement of the United Kingdom and the British dependencies, should be rendered permanant. All that is wanted, in that respect, is that there should be some legislative assurance, that protecting duties, in the event of peace, shall prevent any extension and increase of British industry being rendered nugatory.
From the preceding observations it is obvious, the British West
* Addison. Such is the character given by this admirable writer, of a Roman emperor: it applies with equal force to any other military despot, who disregards, like Buonaparte, the misery and desolation he creates. Gaudetque viam fecisse ruinâ.
India planters are equally interested in the revival of the ancient system, as the British American colonists, and the British shipowners; they have evidently one common interest, which they should consolidate, and by their mutual exertions endeavour to obtain a strict enforcement of our maritime rights, and a resumption of the navigation and colonial system, by which only they may hope to gain an amelioration of their present distressed condition. Any other means will prove inadequate, and the favorite scheme of admitting American,' or other neutral shipping generally, or even partially, into the British colonial trade, although it may afford a temporary relief to the planters, will render them more dependent on foreign nations; whilst it will ensure the serious injury of other great national interests, and ultimately produce depression on the naval power of the mother country.
The editor, having for many years studied to acquire a correct knowledge of the shipping of the country, their value and employment, observed with astonishment and regret, the inadequate return on capital so employed, and the growing decrease of British shipping ; which induced him to attempt, at different times, to recal the attention of the public to a subject so interesting and important; he trusts his endeavours have not been altogether unavailing; and that the danger which would have ensued from further concession, will now be avoided by a resumption of the former system, and a firm adherence to the measures recently adopted by his Majesty's government; which are calculated to make a strong impression on the continental powers and to induce them to be sincerely disposed to accede to terms of peace, consistent with the honor, welfare, and safety of the kingdom.
He likewise can truly state, he has not been influenced in the sentiments he has expressed by any unworthy or improper motive : that he is not interested in Shipping or connected with the British colonists of America; his only view in offering these observations to the public, is to remove any unfavorable impression which the misrepresentations on these subjects may have produced; he can therefore with propriety adopt the words of an honest and sensible man: 3 Most commonly such as palliate evils, and represent the state of things in a sounder condition than they truly are, do thereby best consult for themselves, and better recommend their own business and pretensions in the world: but he, who to the utmost
* Mr. Baring's Examination, 167--also Petition to Parliament 12th March, 1807, from the West India planters. Cobbett's Debates, 9th vol. p. 88.
2 See comparative statements of freights, out-fits &c. in Collection of Reports on le, Edition 1807.
3 Dr. Davenant on Trade.
of his skill and power, speaks the truth, where the good of his king and country are concerned, will be most esteemed by persons of virtue and wisdom; and to the favor and protection of such, these papers are committed.'
29th April, 1808,
The APPENDIX to the first Edition of this Tract con
tained, amongst many other papers, the following : No. 1.-A Report of the case decided in the Vice Admiralty
Court of New Brunswick, involving the claim of the United
States, to the Islands in Passamaquoddy Bay. No. 4.
The Declaration of the Commissioners of the Boundaries of the River St. Croix, dated the 25th October, 1798. No. 9.-The Treaty of 1806 between Great Britain and the
United States, which was not ratified by the President, Mr. Jefferson.
CAUSE OF THE DISEASE IN CORN,
CALLED BY FARMERS
The Blight, the wildew, and the Rust.
SIR JOSEPH BANKS, BART.
THIRD EDITION, WITH ADDITIONS ;
A LETTER TO SIR J. BANKS,
ON THE ORIGIN OF THE BLIGHT,
AND ON THE MEANS OF
RAISING LATE CROPS OF GARDEN PEASE.
BY T. A. KNIGHT, ESQ.
BLIGHT IN CORN, &c.
BOTANISTS have long known that the Blight in Corn is occasioned by the growth of a minute parasitic fungus or mushroom on the leaves, stems, and glumes of the living plant. Felice Fontana published, in the year 1767, an elaborate account of this mischievous weed,' with microscopic figures, which give a tolerable idea of its form : more modern botanists · have given figures both of corn and of grass affected by it, but have not used high magnifying powers in their researches.
Agriculturists do not appear to have paid, on this head, sufficient attention to the discoveries of their fellow-laborers in the field of nature ; for though scarce any English writer of note on the subject of rural economy has failed to state his opinion of the origin of this evil, no one of them has yet attributed it to the real cause, unless Mr. Kirby's excellent papers on some diseases of corn, published in the Tranasctions of the Linnæan Society, are considered as agricultural essays.
*Observazioni sopra la Ruggine del Grano. Lucca, 1767, 8vo.
? Sowerby's English Fungi, Vol. II. Tab. 140, Wheat, Tab. 139. Poa aquatica.