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cultivation of waste land, which was not titheable when in the public funds, or on mortgage; and, in fact, could not be made titheable by any other means.

Some of the great and good effects which I imagine would arise from a commutation of tithe for land are,

1st. That the cultivation of the waste land which would in consequence take place, would produce so much work for the laboring poor, and would create such a competition for their labor, that their wages would be raised by natural means to such a pitch as would once more enable them to live without parochial assistance; which might again restore that independence of mind and character which has so long been absent from them, and which alone can produce emulation and exertion. And I most sincerely hope, that if ever that independence should again be restored, it may be preserved and fostered by education and encouragement.

2dly. That the additional farm produce which would be obtained by the new and improved cultivation of our land, would give support even to an increased population; and with the due attention of the Legislature of our country to its agricultural interests, this might once more become an exporting instead of an importing nation: whereby the alarms of scarcity would not again be heard of; and the immense sums in cash which have been annually sent out of the country for corn, thereby encouraging the cultivation of foreign soils, would be kept at home, and go into the pockets of our own laborers and mechanics. Added to which, foreign cash would be brought home by our exportations, and expended on our own land.

3dly. And the last good effect of the commutation which I shall here name, and which is not the least in my

estimation; it would remove that interference in property, which has caused more law-suits, more ill-will amongst men, and more defection from the Church to which it is attached, than any other human institution could possibly have effected.

It will be seen that the foregoing ideas have been hastily written down; but the writer hopes that they may be thought worthy of the inspection and attention of the Society to which they are addressed: and has the honor to remain their most obedient servant,

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LETTER

TO THE

REV. HERBERT MARSH, D.D.F.R.S.

MARGARET PROFESSOR OF DIVINITY IN THE

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE,

IN CONFUTATION OF HIS OPINION,

That the DISSENTERS are aiming at the Subversion of the RELIGIOUS ESTABLISHMENT of this Country, in order to possess its Honours und

Emoluments, and to establish their own Forms of Worship.

BY A PROTESTANT DISSENTER

and a Layman.

THE TESTIMONY OF OUR CONSCIENCE."

2 Cor. 1. 12

1813.

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IN

your answer to the Rev. Peter Gandolphy, the Roman-catholic Clergyman, you have imputed certain sentiments to Protestant Dissenters, which they, most assuredly, do not hold. I had hoped that some one, more able, would have stepped forward for the purpose of disavowing those principles ; but, as nearly two months have elapsed since the publication of your Letter, and no answer having appeared, I think they ought no longer to be passed over without animadversion, lest our silenee should be considered as an admission of their truth.

I shall confine myself chiefly to the opinion you entertain, that the Dissenters are aiming at the subversion of the present Ecclesiastical Establishment of this country, in order to make way for their own peculiar forms, and consequently to possess the honours and emoluments which you now enjoy.

This position I think fairly and legitimately deduced from the following language, interspersed in different parts of your Postscript. You say, (pp. 21, 22) “ But all men, without exception, who differ from the Established religion, must in their hearts be desirous of new-modelling that religion according to their own opinions.”..........". In this respect there is no practical difference between Dissentients of one kind and Dissentients of another; an Anti-episcopalian Protestant must be adverse to our Episcopal Establishment, as well as those who are attached to the religion of Rome; and it is a fatal mistake to suppose, that, because a Protestant Dissenter has not a foreigner for the head of his own church, he has therefore no temptation to overturn the Established Church.” Again, (p. 23.) you speak of “ the desire, which all Dissentients possess, of making their own the established religion.” Also, (p. 24.) « But when the making and the administering of the laws in this country shall be equally extended to all religious parties, it is easy to foresee, that the honours and emoluments, which are now exclusively enjoyed by the ministers of the Established Church, but which all parties are equally desirous of obtaining, would then be demanded by all parties.”

Here, Sir, in order to come to your conclusion, you appear, in the operation of your mind, to confound various parties very distinct from each other-the Protestant Dissenters of the present age, with the Presbyterians in the time of the Commonwealth : because they sought for the establishment of Presbyterianism, Dissenters are now aiming at the same thing : or, because the Independents, under Cromwell, by violent measures overturned Episcopacy and the Establishment, Dissenters entertain similar views, and are engaged in the same pursuit. These, however, we entirely and fully disclaim; and I shall appeal to our Principles, and to the Constitution of our Societies, for a refutation of them.

1. It is very evident that you, in common with many other Churchmen, do not understand our principles as Protestant Dissenters. This is a very remarkable fact. Though we live among you, and surround you on all sides, yet, I repeat it, you do not appear to understand our principles. The great body of Protestant dissenters, with few exceptions, profess the same leading doctrines, and regulate their lives and conduct by the same general precepts, as defined by your Church, in its Articles and Homilies : such doctrines, for instance, as, the Fall of Man, the Death of Jesus Christ as a Sacrifice for Sin, the Agency of the Holy Spirit, &c. Thus, you see, we are agreed, in the main, as to the Truth of your religion : here we have no controversy with you. The grand difference between us is, as to the Mode, the Forms and NO. XII. Pam. VOL. VI.

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