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ansucceice of des sal the dire
lent to the last days of a session of Congress, we have the affections of her pengle are so closely enticined and so comnot time, did we deem it necessary, to enter upon a j pletely en fiired, and whose value is more highly appreciated, detailed statement of the reasons which force upon our
than ihai which we are now considering. minds the conviction that this project is by no means "It may not be improper here to romark that, during the abandoned : that a large portion of the country, inter: I last session of Congress, when a Senator from Mississippi proested in the continuance of Domestic Slavery and the posed the acknowledgment of Texan independence, it was Slave-trade in these United States, have solemnly and found, with a few exceptions, the members of that body were unalterably determined that it shall be speedily car
ready to take ground upon it, as upon the sulject of Slavery ried into execution, and that, by this admission of new
"With all these facts before us, we do not hesitate in be. Slave Territory and Slave States, the undue ascend
lieving that these feelings intiuenced the New England Senaency of the Slare-holding power in the Government tors, but one voting in favor of the measure ; and, indeed, Mr. Rhall be secured and riceted beyond all redemp. Webster had been bold enough, in a pullic speech recenlly kon!!
I delivered in New York, to many ihousand citizens, to declare That it was with these views and intentions that set
that the reason that intiuenced his opposition was his alber. tements were effected in the province, by citizens of the
rence of Slavery in the South, and that it might, in the event of
its recognition, become a slave holding State. He also spoke United States, difficulties fomented with the Mexican
of the efforts making in favor of Abolition, and that, being prefrovernment, a revolt brought about, and an Indepen dicated upon and aided by the powerful iutluence of religious dent Government declared, cannot nono admit of a feeling, it would become irresistible and overwhelming. doubt; and that, hitherto, all attempts of Mexico to re "This language, coming from so distinguished an individuel duce her revolted province to obedience have proved
as Mr. Webster, so familiar with the feelings of the North and ansuccessful, is to be attributed to the unlawful aid and
entertaining so high a respect for public sentiment in New
England, speaks so plainly the voice of the North as not to be assistance of des guing and interested individuals in the
misunderstood. United States, and the direct and indirect coöperation "We sincerely hope there is enough good sense and genuine of our own Gore nient, with similar view8, is not the love of country among our fellow.countrymen of the less certain and demonstrable.
States, to secure us final justice on this sulject ; yet we cannot The open and repeated enlistment of troops in several
consider it safe or expedient for the people of the South to en. States of this Unioni, in aid of the Texan Revolution; the
tirely disregard the efloris of the fanatics, and the opinions of
such men as Webster, and others who countenance such danintrusion of an American army, by order of the Presi gerous doctrines. dent, far into the te ritory of the Mexican Government, "The Northern States hare no interests of their own which ut a moment critical for the fate of the insurgents, under require any special safeguards for their defense, save only pretense of preventing Mexican soldiers from fomenting
Their domestic manufacuires ; and God knows they have Indian disturbances, but in reality in aid of, and acting
already received protection from Government on a nost in singular concert and coincidence with, the army of the
liberal scale ; under which encouragement they have im.
proved and flourished beyond example. The South has very Revolutionists: the entire neglect of our Government to peruliur inter eols to preserve : intertsis already violently asadopt any efficient measures to prevent the most un sailed and bollly threatened. warrantable aggressions of bodies of our own citizens, " Your Committee are fully persuaded that this protection 10 enlisted, organized and officered within our own borders,
her best interests will be afforded by the annuncaution of Teacle ; and marched in arms and battle ariay upon the terri
in equipoise of influence in the halls of Cong, ers u ill be seru, ed, tory, and against the inhabitants of a friendly govern
which u ill furnish us a permanent guaranty of protection.” ment, in aid of freebooters and insurgents, and the pre
The speech of Mr. Adams, exposing the whole system mature recognition of the Independence of Texas, by a
of duplicity and perfidy toward Mexico, had marked the snap vote, at the heel of a session of Congress, and that,
conduct of our Government; and the emphatic expressions too, at the very session when President Jackson had, by
of opposition which began to come up from all parties in special Message, insisted that "the measure would
the Free States, however, for a time, nearly silenced the De contrary to the policy invariably observed by the
clamors of the South for annexation, and the people of United States in all similar cases ;" would be marked
the North have been lulled into the belief that the prowith great injustice to Mexico, and peculiarly liable to
ject is nearly, if not wholly abandoned, and that, at the darkest suspicions, inasmuch as the Tewuns were
least, there is now no serious danger of its consummaalmost all emigrants from the United States, AND
tion. BOUGHT THE RECOGNITION OF THEIR INDEPENDENCE WITH THE
Believing this to be a false and dingerous security; AVOWED PURPOSK OF OBTAINING THEIR ANNEXATION TO THE
that the project has never been abandoned a moment, UNITED STATES. These occurrences are too well known
by its originators and abettors, but that it has been de and too fresh in the memory of all, to need more
ferred for a more favorable moment for its accomplish than a passing notice. These have become matters
ment, we refer to a few evidences of more recent deof history. For further evidence upon all these and
velopment upon which this opinion is founded. other important points, we refer to the memorable
The last Election of President of the Republic of Texas, speech of John Quincy Adams, delivered in the House of
is understood to have turned, mainly, upon the question Representatives during the morning hour in June and
of annexation or no annexation, and the candidate July, 1838, and to his address to his constituents, de
favorable to that measure was successful by an overlivered at Braintree, 17th September, 1842.
whelming majority. The sovereign States of Alabama, The open avowal of the Texans themselves-the fre
Tennessee, and Mississippi, have recently adopted Resoquent and anxious negotiations of our own Government
lutions, some, if not all of them, unanimously, in favor -the resolutions of various States of the Union-the
of annexation, and forwarded them to Congress. numerous declarations of members of Congress-the
The Hon. Henry A. Wise, a member of Congress from one of the Southern press-as well as the direct applica
the District in which our present Chief Magistrate resided won of the Texan Government, make it impossible for
when elected Vice-President, and who is understood to any man to doubt, that ANNEXATION, and the formation
be more intimately acquainted with the views and de. of several new Slaveholding States, were originaliy the
signs of the present administration than any other mem. policy and design of the Slaveholding States and the
ber of Congress, most distinctly avowed his des.re for, Executive of the Nation
and expectation of annexation, at the last sessiou of The same reference will show, very conclusively, that
Congress. Among other things, he said, in a speech the particular objects of this new acquisition of Slave
delivered January 26, 1842: Territory were THE PERPETUATION OF SLAVERY AND THE
“" True, if Iowa be added on the one side, Florida will be CONTINUED ASCENDENCY OF THE SLAVE POWEER.
added on the o:her. But there the equation must stop. Let The following extracts from a Report on that subject,
one more Northern State be admitted, and the equilibrium is
gone-gone forever. The balance of inte; ests is gone-the safesaopted by the Legislature of Mississippi, from a mass
Igrard of American property-of the American Constirution01 similar evidence which might be adduced, will show of the American Union, vanished into thin air. This must he with what views the annexation was then urged:
the inevituble result, unless by a treuty with Mearco, THE SOUTH
CAN ADD MORE WEIGHT TO HER END OF THE LEVER? Let the But we hasten to suggest the importance of the annexation
South stop at the Sabine, (the eastern boundary of Texas.) while texas to this Republic upon grounds soinewhat local in
the North may spread unchecked beyond the Rocky Mouneir complexion, but of an import infinitely grave and inter
I tains AND THE SOUTHERN SCALE MUST KICK THE BEAM." ung to the people who inhabit the Southern portion of this Confederal
deracy, where it is known that a species of domestic Finding difficulties, perhaps, in the way of a cession by very is tolerated and protected by law, whose existence is
Treaty, in another speech delivered in April, 1842, on a abited by the legal regulatioys of other States of this conacy; which system of Slavery is held by all, who are
motion made by Mr. Lion, of New York, to strke out the Warly acquainted with its practical effects, to be of highly
salary of the Minister to Mexico, on the ground that the Influence to the country within whose limits it is per design of the EXECUTIVE, in making the appointment,
was to accomplish the annexation of Texas, Mr. Wise The Committee feel authorized to say that this system is
said, “he earnestly hoped and trusted that the President shed by our constituents as the very palladium of their
was as desirous (of annexation) as he was represented to perity and happiness, and whatever ignorant fanatics may bere conjecture, the Committee are fully assured, upon
be. We may well suppose the President to be in favor of gent observation and reflection on the subject that it, as every wise statesman must be who is not governed does not possess within her limits a blessing with thich 'by fanaticism or local sectional prejudices.”
HE SOUTHERA'checked beyond of Texas,) while
mitted to exist.
he most diligent obser
He said of Texas, that.
In conclusion he said: " While she was, as a State, weak and almost powerless in "I see, therefore, no political necessity for the annexation resisting invasion, she was herself irresistible as an invading of Texas to the Union ; no advantages to be derived from it, and a conquering power. She had but a sparse population, and objections to it of a strong, and, in my judgment, decisive and neither men nor money of her own, to raise and equip an character. army for her own defense ; but let her once raise the flag of “I believe it to be for the interest and happiness of the foreign conquest-let her once proclaim a crusade against the whole Union, to remain as it is, without diminution and withuut rich States to the south of her--and in a moment volunteers addition." would flock to her standard in crowds, from all the States in the great valley of the Mississippi--men of enterprise and valor, be To prevent the success of this nefarious project-to fore whom no Mexican troops could stand for an hour. They preserve from such gross violation the Constitution of our would leave their own towns, arm themselves, and travel on country, adopted expressly " to secure the blessings of their own cost, and would come up in thousands, to plant the
liberty," and not the perpetuation of Slavery-and to lone star of the Texan banner on the Mexican capitol. They would drive Santa Anna to the South, and in boundless wealth
prevent the speedy and violent dissolution of the Union of captured towns, and rifled churches, and a lazy, vicious,
we invite you to unite, without distinction of party, in and luxurious priesthood, would soon enable Texas, to pay her an immediate expression of your views on this subject,
and redeem her State debt, and push her victorious in such manner as you may deem best calculated to arms to the very shores of the Pacific. "And would not all
answer the end proposed, this extend the bounds of Slavery! Yes, the result would be, that, before another quarter of a century, the extension of JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, NATHANIEL B. BORDEN, Sluvery would not stop short of the Western Ocean. We had
SETH M. GATES,
THOMAS C. CHITTENDEN, but tuo alternatives before us ; either to receive Teras into our
WILLIAM SLADE, fraternity of States, and thus make her our own, or to leave her to
JOHN MATTOCKS, conquer Mexico, and become our most dangerous and formiduble
WILLIAM B. CALHOUX, CHRISTOPHER MORGAN, rival.
Joshua R. GIDDINGS, JOSHUA M. HOWARD, "To talk of restraining the people of the great Valley from SHERLOCK J. ANDREWS, VICTORY BIRDSEYE, emigrating to join her armies, was all in vain ; and it was
HILAND HALL. equally vain to calculate on their defeat by any Mexican forces, aided by England or not. They had gone once already i
WASHINGTON, March 3rd, 1843. it was they thuit conquered Santa Anna at San Jacinto ; and three-fourths of them, after winning that glorious field, had
(NOTE.-The above address was drawn up by Hon. Seth M. peaceably returned to their homes. But once set before them Gates, of New York, at the suggestion of John Quincy Adams, the conquest of the rich Mexican provinces, and you might as
and sent to members of Congress at their residences, after well attempt to stop the wind. This Government might send its troops to the frontier, to turn them back, and they would the close of the session, for their signatures. Many more thar run over them like a herd of bufalo.
the above approved heartily of its positions and objects, "Nothing could keep these booted loafers from rushing on, till they kicked the Spanish priests out of the temples they and would have signed it, but for its premature
and would have signed it, but for its premature publica. profaned."
tion, through mistake. Mr. Winthrop, of Mass., was one of * Mr. Wise proceeded to insist that a majority of the people of the United States were in favor of the annexation; at all
these, with Gov. Briggs, of course ; Mr. Fillmore declined events, he would risk it with the Democracy of the North. signing it.]
"Sir," said Mr. Wise, it is not only the duty of the Government to demand the liquidation of our claims, and the libera
The letters of Messrs. Clay and Van Buren, tion of our citizens, but to go further, and demand the non
ther, and demand the pop: taking ground against annexation, without the invasion of Texas. Shall we sit still while the standard of in. surrecuon is raised on our borders, and let a horde of slaves, consent of Mexico, as an act of bad faith and and Indians and Mexicans roll up to the boundary line of Arkan
ult in 819 and Louisiana ? No. It is our duty at once to say to Mexico, If you strike Texas, you strike us ;' and if England, standing by, should dare to intermeddle, and ask, 'Do you make slight allusions, if any, to the Slavery take part with Texas ?' his prompt answer should be, 'Yes, and against you.'
aspect of the case. In a later letter, Mr. Clay Such, he would let gentlemen knoro, was the spirit of the whole declared that he did not oppose annexation on people of the great valley of the West."
Several other members of Congress, in the same debate, account of Slavery, which he regarded as a expressed similar views and desires, and they are still temporary institution, which, therefore, ought more frequently expressed in conversation,
not to stand in the way of a permanent acquisi. The Hon. Thomas W. Gilmer, a member of Congress from Virginia, and formerly a 'Governor of that state, tion. And, though Mr. Clay's last letter on the numbered as one of the “Guard," and of course under
ated stood to be in the counsels of the Cabinet, in a letter and emphasized all his objections to annexation bearing date the 10th day of January last, originally designed as a private and confidentiaľ letter to a friend, under the existing circumstances, he did not in. gives it as his deliberate opinion, after much examination clude the existence of Slavery. and reflection, that Texas WILL BE ANNEXED TO THE | The defeat of Mr. Van Buren, at the BaltiUNION ; and he enters into a specious argument, and presents a variety of reasons in favor of the measure. He
apie more Nominating Convention-ýr. Polk being says, among other things :
selected in his stead, by a body which had been . "Having acquired Louisiana and Florida, we have an in supposed pledged to renominate the ex-Presiterasi and a frontier on the Gulf of Mexico, and along our interior to the Pacific, which will not permit us to close our eyes, | dent-excited considerable feeling, especially or fold our arms, with indifference to the events which a few
he events which a few among the Democrats of New York. A number years may disclose in that quarter. We have already had one question of boundary with Texas; other questions must soon of their leaders united in a letter, termed the arise, under our revenue laws, and on other points of neces. * Secret Cir
| “Secret Circular," advising their brethren, sary intercourse, which it will be difficult to adjust. The institutions of Texas, and her relations with other governments, are while they supported Polk and Dallas, to be yet in that condition which inrlirrex her people who are our own
careful to vote for candidates for Congress who countrymen,) to unite their destinies with ours. THIS MUST BE DONE SOON, OR NOT AT ALL. There are numerous tribes of In. would set their faces as a flint against annexa. dians along both frontiers, which can eusily become the cause or the instrument of border wars."
tion, which was signed by None can be so blind nono, as not to know that the real! GEORGE P. BARKR, David DUDLEY FIELD, design and object of the South is, to " ADD NEW WEIGHT WILLIAM C. BRYANT, THEODORE SEDGWICK, TO HER END OF THE LEVER.” It was upon that ground J. W. EDMONDS,
THOMAS W. TUCKER, that Mr. Webster placed his opposition, in his speech on
ISAAC TOWNSEND. that subject in New York, in March, 1837. In that speech, after stating that he saw insurmountable objections to
Silas Wright, then a Senator of the United the annexation of Texas, that the purchase of Louisiana States, and who, as such, had opposed the and Florida furnished no precedent for it, that the cases | Tyler Treaty of Annexation, was now rua were not parallel, and that no such policy or necessity
for Governor, as the only man who could carry as led to that, required the annexation of Texas, he said: “Gentlemen, we all see, that by whomsoever possessed,
the State of New York for Polk and Dallas. In Texas is likely to be a slaveholding country; and I frankly I a avow my entire unwillingness to do anything which shall extend the Slavery of the African race on this continent, or add
| Wright had recently declared that he could other slaveholding States to the Union. When I say that I never consent to Annexation on any terme regard Slavery as in itself a great moral, social, and political evil, I only use language which has been adopted by distin. W
which would give Slavery an advantage over
e would give Davery an advantage over guished men, themselves citizens of Slaveholding States. I Freedom. This sentiment was reiterated and shall do nothing, therefore, to favor or encourage its further Ixlengion."
I amplified in a great Convention of the Demo
as anuchich indixinies are numerome the
after stating threw York, in March 1900, in his speech
Gentleikely to be a signess to do
eracy, which met at Herkimer, in the autumn of in the consummation of this grand scheme, which Ing. this year.
land hopes to accomplish through Texas, if she can
defeat the Annexation, but that her interests, and those The contest proceeded with great earnestness of all the Continental powers of Europe are directly and throughout the Free States, the supporters of deeply opposed to it. Polk and of Birney (the Abolition candidate for President), fully agreeing in the assertion | The election of James K. Polk as President, that Mr. Clay's position was equally favorable to and George M. Dallas as Vice-President, (Nov. Annexation with Mr. Polk's. “MrBirney in a | 1844) baving virtually settled, affirmatively, the letter published on the eve of the Election, de-question of annexing Texas, the XXVIIIth clared that he regarded Mr. Clay's election as Congress commenced its second session at more favorable to Annexation than Mr. Polk's, Washington, on the 2d of December, 1844--Mr. because, while equally inclined to fortify and John Tyler being still acting. President up to extend Slavery, he possessed more ability to
the end of the Congress, March 4th following. influence Congress in its favor.
Dec. 19.--Mr. John B. Weller, (then member Before this time, but as yet withheld from, from Ohio) by leave, introduced a joint resoluand unknown to the public, Mr. Calhoun, now tion, No. 51, providing for the annexation of President Tyler's Secretary of State, and an | Texas to the United States, which he moved to early and powerful advocate of Annexation, had the Committee of the Whole. addressed to Hon. Wm. R. King, our Embassa! Mr. E. S. Hamlin, of Ohio, moved a reference dor at Paris, an official dispatch from which we of said resolve to a Committee of one from each make the following extracts:
State, with instructions to report
Whether the annexation of Texas would not extend MR. CALHOUN TO MR. KING.
and perpetuate Slavery in the Slave States, and also, the
internal Slave-trade; and whether the United States DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Government has any Constitutional power over Slavery Washington, August 12, 1844. )
in the States, either to perpetuate it there, or to do it SIR-I have laid your dispatch, No. 1, before the aray. President, who instructs me to make known to you that he has read it with much pleasure, especially the portion
| The question on commitment was insisted which relates to your cordial reception by the King, and upon, and first taken-Yeas, 109 (Democrats); his assurance of friendly feelings toward the United Nays, 61 (Whigs); whereupon it was held that States. The President, in particular, highly appreciates M Hamlin's amendment was defeated, and the the declaration of the King, that in no event, would any steps be taken by his government in the slightest degree original proposition alone committed. hostile, or which would give to the United States just cause January 10th, 1845.-Mr. John P. Hale, of of complaint. It was the more gratifying from the fact, New Hampshire. (then a Democratic Representhat our previous information was calculated to make the impression that the government of France was pre- tative, now a Republican Senator) proposed the pared to unite with* Great Britain in a joint protest following as an amendment to any act or resolve against the annexation of Texas, and a joint effort to contemplating the annexation of Texas to this induce her Government to withdraw the proposition to annex, on condition that Mexico should be made to
Union : acknowledge her independence. He is happy to infer Provided, That immediately after the question of from your dispatch that the information, so far as it boundary between the United States of America and relates to France, is in all probability without founda- Mexico shall have been definitiveiy settled by the two tion. You did not go further than you ought, in assur-Governments, and before any State formed out of the ing the King that the object of Annexation would be Territory of Texas shall be admitted into the Union, the pursued with unabated vigor, and in giving your opinion said Territory of Texas shall be divided as follows, to that a decided majority of the American people were in wit : beginning at a point on the Gulf of Mexico, midway its favor, and that it would certainly be annexed at no between the Northern and Southern boundaries thereof distant day. I feel confident that your anticipation will on the coast; and thence by a line running in a Northbe fully realized at no distant period.
westerly direction to the extreme boundary thereof, so Every day will tend to weaken that combination of as to divide the same as nearly as possible into two political causes which led to the opposition of the I equal parts, and in that portion of said Territory lying measure, and to strengthen the conviction that it was south and West of the line to be run as aforesaid, there not only expedient, but just and necessary.
shall be neither Slavery nor involuntary servitude, otherBut to descend to particulars : it is certain that wise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party while England, like France, desires the independence of shall have been duly convicted. Texas, with the view to commercial connections, it is not And provided further, That this provision shall be less so that one of the leading motives of England for considered as a compact between the people of the desiring it, is the hope that, through her diplomacy and United States and the people of the said Territory, and influence, Negro Slavery may be abolished there, and forever remain unalterable, unless by the consent of ultimately, by consequence, in the United States and three-fourths of the States of the Union. throughout the whole of this continent. That its ultimate
| Mr. Hale asked a suspension of the rules, to abolition throughout the entire continent is an object ardently desired by her, we have decisive proofs in the declaration of the Earl of Aberdeen, delivered to this and committed. Refused-Yeas, 92 (not two Department, and of which you will find a copy among the documents transmitted to Congress with the Texan treaty. That she desires its abolition in Texas, and has Yeas-All the Whigs* and most of the DemoBed her influence and diplomacy to effect it there, the crats from the Free States, with Messrs. Duncan same document, with the correspondence of this Depart. L. Clinch and Alexander H. Stephens, of Georgia, ment with Mr. Packenham, also to be found among the documents, furnishes proof not less conclusive. That
| and George W. Summers, of Virginia. one of the objects of abolishing it there is to facilitate Nays-All the meinbers from Slave States, its abolition in the United States, and throughout the except the above, with the following from Free continent, is manifest from the declaration of the Abolition party and societies both in this country and in Eng.
States: land. In fact, there is good reason to believe that the MAINE.-Sheppard Cary-1. scheme of abolishing it in Texas, with a view to its abo Nxw-HAMPSHIRE,-Edmund Burke, Moses Norris, jr.-2. lition in the United States, and over the continent, origi NEW-YORK.-James G. Clinton, Selah B. Strong-2. nated with the prominent members of the party in the PENNSYLVANIA.-James Black, Richard Brodhead, United States; and was first broached by them in the H. D. Foster, Joseph R. Ingersoll, Michael H. Jenks-5. (s0 called') World's Convention, held in London in the OHIO.-Joseph J, McDowell-1.' year 1840, and through its agency brought to the notice LXDIANA.-Wm. J. Brown, J. W. Davis, John Pettit-3. of the British Government.
Now, I hold, not only that France can have no interest! Except the two here given in Italics.
ILLINOIS. - Orlando B. Ficklin, Joseph P. Hoge, Robert | aforesaid was agreed to-Yeas, 118; Nuse, Smith-3. Total Democrats from Free States, 17.
101. December 12th.-Mr. C. J. Ingersoll, of Penn-i Re
Yeas-114 Democrats, and Messrs. Milton sylvania, from the Committee on Foreign Affairs,
Brown, of Tennessee ; James Dellet, of Alabama; reported a Joint Resolution for annexing Texas S
Si and Duncan L. Clinch, and Alexander H to the Union, which was committed and dis
Stephens, of Georgia, (4) Southern Whigs. cussed in Committee of the Whole from time to
Nays-all the Whigs present from Free States
e to with all from Slave Siates, but the four just time, through the next month. January 7th.-Mr. J. P. Hale presented re
named; with the following Democrats from solves of the Legislature of New Hampshire,
Free States: thoroughly in favor of Annexation, and silent
MAINE.- Robert P. Dunlap, Hannibal Hamlin-2.
VERMONT.-Paul Dillingham, jr.-1. on the subject of Slavery, except as follows: New-HAMPSHIRE.-John P. Hale-1. Resobed, That we agree with Mr. Clay, that the re
CONNECTICUT.-George S. Catlin—!. annexation of Texas will add more Free than Slave
NEW-YORK-Joseph H. Anderson, Charles S. Benton, States to the Union ; and that it would be unwise to re
| Jeremiah E. Carey, Amasa Dana, Richard D. Davis, fuse a permanent acquisition, which will exist as long as byram Green... Pre
Byram Green, Preston King, Smith M. Purdy, George the globe remains, on account of a temporary institution. Rathbun, Orville Robinson, David L. Seymour, Lemuel
Stetson-12. January 13th.-Mr. Cave Johnson, of Ten-OHIO.- Jacob Brinckerhoff, William C. McCauslen, nessee, moved that all further debate on this Joseph Morris, Henry St. John-4. subject be closed at 2 P.M. on Thursday next. | MICHIGAN.-James B. Hunt, Robert McClelland-2.
Total Democrats from Free States,.... ... ...23. Carried-Yeas, 136 ; Nays, 57; (nearly all the Total Whigs from Free and Slave States, ....78. Nays from Slave States.)
The House then ordered the whole proposi. January 25th.—The debate, after an exten- tion to a third reading forth with--Yeas, 120; sion of time, was at length brought to a close,
Nays, 97--and passed it, Yeas, 120; Nays, 98. and the Joint Resolution taken out of Commit
Yeas--all the Democrats from Slave States, tee, and reported to the House in the followingle
howing and all the Democrats from Free States, except form ; (that portion relating to Slavery, having as above: with Messrs. Duncan L. Clinch, Mil. been added in Committee, on motion of Mr.
ton Brown, James Dellet, Willoughby Newton, Milton Brown, (Whig) of Tennessee:
of Virginia, (who therefrom turned Democrat), Resolved, by the Sonate and House of Representa-l and Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia, (now tives in Congress assembled, That Congress doth consent that the Territory properly included within, and rightfully belonging to, the Republic of Texas, may be erected into a new State, to be called the State of Texas, I those from Slave States except as above; with with a republican form of Government, to be adopted by
(23 Democrats from Free States. the people of said Republic, by deputies in Convention assembled, with the consent of the existing Government, So the resolve passed the House, and was in order that the same may be admitted as one of the sent to the Senate for concurrence. States of this Union. 2. And be it further resolved, That the foregoing con
In Senate, several attempts to originate action sent of Congress is given upon the following conditions, in favor of Annexation were made at this sesand with the following guaranties, to wit:
sion, but nothing came of them. First. Said State to be formed, subject to the adjust- humm, math _The inint resolution afore. ment by this Government of all questions of boundary that may arise with other governments; and the Con- said from the House was taken up for constitution thereof, with the proper evidence of its adoption sideration by 30 Yeas to 11 Nays (all Northern by the people of said Republic of Texas, shall be trans-Whiva). On the 27th, Mr. Walker, of Wisconmitted to the President of the United States, to be laid before Congress for its final action, on or before the 1st sin, moved to add an alternative proposition, day of January, 1846.
contemplating negotiation as the means of Second. Said State, when admitted into the Union, Leffecting the meditated end. after ceding to the United States all public edifices, fortifications, barracks, ports and harbors, navy and navy.
d navy: Mr. Foster, (Whig) of Tennessee, proposed yards, docks, magazines, arms, armaments, and all other That the State of Texas, and such other States as may property and means pertaining to the public defense, be formed out of that portion of the present Territory of belonging to the said Republic of Texas, shall retain all Texas, lying south of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes the public funds, debts, taxes, and dues of every kind north latitude, commonly known as the Missouri Comwbich may belong to, or be due or owing said Republic; I promise line, shall be admitted into the Union with or and shall also retain all the vacant, and unappropriated without Slavery, as the people of each State, so hereafter lands lying within its limits, to be applied to the pay- asking admission, may desire. ment of debts and liabilities of said Republic of Texas; and the residue of said lands, after discharging said debts.
On which the question was taken. Yeas, (all and liabilities, to be disposed of as said State may direct: but in no event are said debts and liabilities to become Various amendments were proposed and voted a charge upon the United States. Third. New States of convenient size, not exceeding
down. Among them, Mr. Foster, of Tenn., four in number, in addition to said State of Texas, and moved an express stipulation that Slavery should having sufficient population, may hereafter,by the consent be tolerated in all States formed out of the of said State, be formed out of the Territory thereof, which shall be entitled to admission under the provisions
*: Territory of Texas, south of the Missouri line of the Federal Constitution. And such States as may be of 36° 30'. Rejected-Yeas, 16 (Southern formed out of that portion of said Territory, lying south Whigs, and Sevier, of Arkansas); Nays, 33. of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes north latitude, com
m! Mr. Miller. of N. J., moved that the existence of Sla. monly known as the Missouri Compromise line, shall be admitted into the Union, with, or without Slavery, as the
very be forever prohibited in the northern and northwestpeople of each State asking admission may desire; and
ern part of said Territory, west of the 100th degree of in such State or States as shall be formed out of said
latitude west from Greenwich, so as to divide, as equally Territory, north of said Missouri Compromise line,
as may be, the whole of the annexed country between Slavery or involuntary gervitude (except for crime) shali! Slaveholding and Non-Slaveholding states. be prohibited.
Yeas, 11; all Northern Whigs, except Mr. Mr. Cave Johnson, of Tennessee, moved the Crittenden, Ky. Nays, 33. previous question, which the House seconded--| The vote in the Senate on the joint resolution Yeas, 113; Nays, 106—and then the amendment for Annexation stood, Yeas, 26, all Demo.
irty minutes north line shall be
the forever prohibiteu
rest of the 100th des
erats but 3; Nays, 25, (all Whigs). In the And whereas, Congress, in the organization of a terrlHouse. Yeay 134. all Democrats but 1: Nars. 777 | torial government, at an early period of our political his
tory, established a principle worthy of imitation in all (all Whigs).
future time, forbidding the existence of Slavery in free
territory; Therefore, THE WILMOT PROVISO.
Resowed, That in any Territory, that may be acTtaas having been annexed during the sum- quired from Mexico, over which shall be established mer of 1845, in pursuance of the joint resolu- teda
territorial governments, Slavery, or involuntary servi
tude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the tion of the two Houses of Congress, a portion party shall have been duly convicted, shall be forever of t
prohibited ; and that in any act or resolution establishwa
ing such governments, a fundamental provision ought to
be inserted to that effect. . to the east bank of the Rio Grande del Norte, claimed by Texas as her western boundary, but|
| Mr. R. Brodhead, of Penn., moved that this not so regarded by Mexico. A hostile collision
In resolution lie on the table. Carried: Yeas, 105 ; ensued, resulting in war between the United States and Mexico.
| Yeas--all the members from Slave States, It was early thereafter deemed advisable that I but John W. Houston (Whig), of Delaware, a considerable sum should be placed by Con
no with the following from Free States (all Demogress at the President's disposal to negotiate an
an crats but Levin) : advantageous Treaty of Peace and Limits with l MAINE.-Asa W. H. Clapp, Franklin Clark, Jas. S.
Wiley, Hezekiah Williams-4. the Mexican Government. A message to this NEW-YORK.- Ausburn Birdsall, David S. Jackson, effect was submitted by President Polk to Con- Frederick W. Lord, William B. Maclay-4. gress, August 8th, 1846, and a bill in accord
rd Brodhead, Charles Brown, ance with its suggestions laid before the House,
Lerris C. Levin, Job Man-4.
Ohio.--William Kennon, jr., John K. Miller, Thomas which proceded to consider the subject in Com-Richey, William Sawyer-4." mittee of the Whole. The bill appropriating | INDIANA.-Charles W. Cathcart, Thomas J. Henley, $30,000 for immediate use in negotiations with
John Pettit, John L. Robinson, William W. Wick-5.
ILLINOIS. - Orlando B. Ficklin, John A. McClernand, Mexico, and placing $2,000,000 more at the William A. Richardson, Robert Smith, Thomas J. disposal of the President, to be employed in Turner-5. making peace, Mr. David Wilmot, of Pa., after Nays-all the Whigs and a large majority of consultation with other Northern Democrats, the Democrats from Free States, with Joho w. offered the following Proviso, in addition to the Houston aforesaid. first section of the bill :
This vote terminated all direct action in Provided, That as an express and fundamental con- favor of the Wilmot Proviso for that Session. dition to the acquisition of any territory from the Repub- July 18th.-In Senate, Mr. Clayton, of Del., lic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty from the Select Committee to which was re. which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated,
a terneither Slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist ritorial government for Oregon, reported a bill in any part of said Territory, except for crime, whereof to establish Territorial governments for Oregon, the party shall be first duly convicted.
New Mexico, and California, which was read. This proviso was carried in Committee, by the de strong vote of eighty-three to sixty-four-only rich
e (It proposed to submit all questions as to the
Yrightful existence or extent of Slavery in the three Members (Democrats) from the Free Territories to States, it was said, opposing it. (No record is of the United States.)
S. From the Free Territories to the decision of the Supreme Court made of individual votes in Committee of the
July, 24th.-Second reading. Mr. Baldwin, Whole.) The bill was then reported to the House, and Mr. Rathbun, of N. Y., moved the bill as relates to California and New Mexico.
of Conn., moved to strike out so much of said previous question on its engrossment.
Rejected : Yeas, 17 (Northern Free Soil men of Mr. Tibbatts, of Ky., moved that it do lie on
n both parties); Nays, 37. the table. Defeated-Yeas, 79; (Stephen A.
| The bill was discussed through several sucDouglas, John A. McClernand, John Pettit, Iceeding days. On the 26th, Mr. Clarke, of R. and Robert C. Schenck, voting with the South
I., moved to add to the 6th section: to lay on the table ;) Nays 93 ; ( Henry Grider
Provided, however, That no law, regulation, or act and William P. Thomasson, of Ky. (Whigs) of the provisional government of said Territory permitvoting with the North against it.
ting Slavery or in voluntary servitude therein shall be The bill was then engrossed for its third | valid, until the same shall be approved by Congress." reading by Yeas 85, Nays, 80; and thus passedRejected: Yeas, 19 [Col. Benton, and 18 without further division. A motion to recon- Northern Freesoilers of both parties); Nays, 33. sider was laid on the table-Yeas, 71; Nays, 83. Mr. Reverdy Johnson, of Md., moved to So the bill was passed and sent to the Senate, Jamend the bill by inserting: where Mr. Dixon H. Lewis, of Alabama, moved Except only, that in all cases of title to slaves, the that the Proviso above cited be stricken out; said writs of error or appeals shall be allowed and deon which debate arose, and Mr. John Davis of cided by the said Supreme Court without regard to the
value of the matter, property, or title in controversy ; Mass., was speaking when, at noon of August
and except, also, that a writ of error or appeal shall 10th, the time fixed for adjournment having also be allowed to the Supreme Court of the United arrived, both Houses adjourned without day.
States from the decision of the said Supreme Court created by this act, or of any judge thereof, or of the dis
trict Courts created by this act, or of any judge upon The XXXth Congress assembled Dec. 6, 1847.
any writ of habeas corpus involving the question of per
sonal freedom. Feb. 28th 1848, Mr. Putnam of New York
Carried ; Yeas, 31 (all sorts); Nays, 19 (all moved the following:
Southern, but Bright, Dickinson, and liannegan). Whereas, In the settlement of the difficulties penang
& Mr. Baldwin, of Connecticut, moved an addi. between this country and Mexico, territory may be acquired in which Slavery does not now exist.
tional section, as follows: