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ceived 12 Dem.,,


Dem., Brown


vis, A.2.11048, 13529 Douglas "28,430; Fonda's







CONGRESS-(Continued.) CONGRESS-(Continued.) GOVERNOR (Continued.)

GOVERNOR. Dietricts. Rep. Dem. > Districts. Rep. Dem. ) Districts. Rep. Dem. { Districts. Rep. Dem, IV. Kellogg. Davidson. IX.

Phillips, Logan. II.
Randall, Hobart. I.

Kirkwood, Dodge, Fulton....... 2980 8224 Hardin.

46 856 Dunn........

175 S Adair ....... 18


120 Henry....... 2242 1101 Jackson .....

1225 Eau Claire... 320 233 } Adams .......177 122 Knox..... 2965 1820 Johnson .....

1157 > Grant...... ... 2496 1715 Audubon .... 58 60 Marshall .... 1203 1054 Massac ......

750 Green........ 1726 1141 Appanoose .. 627 985 Mason...... 822 1038 Perry ....

798 Iowa ........ 1454

1320 3 Cass ......

179 152 Mercer ...... 1419 898 Pope .....

774 Jackson ..... 493

298 Clarke ...

462 351 Peoria. 2623 Pulaski... 589 Juneau....... 1060 874 Dallas.....

448 Stark ........ 929 584 Saline ....

1143 La Crosse.... 1219 1034 ) Davis .....

717 1142 Tazewell .... 1783 1960 Union ....

819 Lafayette.... 1102 1514 Decatur ...... 890 771 Warren ..... 1732 1406 S Wabash ....

623 Lapointe ....

109 Desmoines.... 1704 1923 Woodford ... 811 1152 White 1104 white.......

1250 Marathon..... 206 509 Fremont..... 293 504 3 Williamson ..

13 1554 Monroe...... 939 578 Guthrie...... 257 260 Total..... 19487 16860 Wayne ...... 804 1195 Pepin ....... 432 255 Harrison .... 297

351 Gale, A.L.D., 553.

Pierce.... 506 305 S Henry....... 1596 998 Kellogg over D'son, 2,627. Total. ..... 2796 15878 Polk ..... 161 141 Jasper ......


705 Parish, A.L.D., 144. Portage ....

582 Jefferson .... 1282 1192 V. Grimshaw, Morris. 63 Logan over Phillips, 13,082. Richland ....

745 647 Keokuk ..... 1025 1043 Adams ...... 3004

4089 1578 Lee For Superin't of Public Rock.....

2159 Brown........ 590

2392 8493 St. Croix..... 516 560

956 Louisa .....

679 507 Instruction, Bateman, Re Calhoun ..... 171

521 2234 received

Sauk ........ 1659 Hancock..... 2054 124,556

799 Lucas votes i

134 Madison......


729 Henderson .. 1001 755 3 French, Doua.. 122.413 ? Trempeleau.. 866

280 Mahaska .... 1212

1137 McDonald ... 1774

3 Wood .... 1944 Reynolds, Buch., 5,173.

Marion ...... 1256 1138 Pike......... 1991 2471 For Treas'r, Miller, Rep., Total..... 27191

262 21080 | Mills ......

245 Schuyler....... 1063 1489 received 125,430; Fondey, Mai. for Randall, 6,111. Monroe......

749 665 3 Douglas Dem., 121,609 Total.. .. 11648

115 13529 Dougherty, Buch'n Dem.,}

III. Randall. Hobart.

3 Page.....

377 333 S Brown....... 423 1066

1018 Calumet..... 518

Polk ........ 1073 Morris over G'shaw, 1,881.3


Potawatomie. 295 600 THE VOTE FOR


3 Columbia.... 2595 VI. Matheny. Harris.

Poweshiek ... 595

411 8492

Dodge .......


Ringgold ..... 260 125
Door .......

72 78 Christian .... 923


Shelby ......

96 Greene ...... 1517? At this election, Messrs. Fond du Lac.. 3214


304 6621

257 Jersey ....... 574 1059 Lincoln and Douglas can- Green Lake.. 1453

6 2512

Union ..... 151 193 Macoupin.... 1615 2093 vassed the State for U. S. Jefferson .... 2327

3 Van Buren... 1897 1402

567 Menard 780 851 S Senator, to be chosen by the S Kewannee... 167

Wapello..... 1016 1260 2134

704 Morgan...... 1789

elected : Manitowoc... 2054 Legislature then

Warren ..... 987


792 Montgomery.. 786 1999 and while Mr. Douglas car-S Marquette.... 586

Washington.. 1203 946 Sangamon... 2803 2010 ) ried a majority of the Legis- ) Oconto ......

535 Wayne ...... 416

627 1577 1000 lature, Mr. Lincoln had the Ozaukee..... Bcott ........ 650

783 S Shelby ...... 550 1394 S popular vote. The aggre-S Outagamie...

} Total..... 26663 26755 gate vote of the State for Shawanaw.... 105 87 Total..... 11646

1839} Maj. for Dodge, 92.
members of the Legislature Sheboygan... 1772
was as follows:

Washington.. 684 2106
McConnell, A.L D., 277.

II. Kirkwood, Dodge, Waupacca.... 1167


Allamakee... 743 1025 Harris over Math'y, 4,547. Lincoln, Rep.,... 124,698 Waushara ... 1126 380

Benton ...... 914
Douglas, Dem.,.. 121,190

732 VII. Oglesby. Robinson.

Winnebago .. 2235 1570 ( Black Hawk.. 815

Buch. Dem., and Clay .... .. 424

Boone........ 298 413 Clark ........ 1076 1405

Scattering, ....

Total..... 24113 25883

Bremer..... 417 Coles........ 1859 1578 Lincoln over Douglas, 3,508.

Maj. for Hobart, 1,770.

Buchanan.... 816 570 Cumberland.. 458

Buena Vista.. Crawford.... 693

TOTAL VOTE OF THE STATE. 922> In Five Districts of the

3 Butler.....

246 Edgar ....... 1446

1421 ) state there were no Repub.) Randall, Rep........ 634-65
1431 State there were no Repub- Ra

Calhoun .....
Effingham.... 214 803 3 lican Candidates for the Hobart, Dem.,...... 59508 } Carroll.

30 Fayette .....

842 Legislature. In these five

3 Cedar


1002 Jasper ...... 459 619 Districts, the Republican Maj. for Randall,.. 3957 Cerro Gordo. Lawrence.... 455 662 State Ticket received 577

Cherokee..... 12 Logan........ 1315 1174 votes, which, added to the


803 Macon ...... 1168 939 vote of Mr. Lincoln (to which

Clay ......... Moultrie..... 513 570 > they clearly belong), makes

Clayton ..... 1680 1429 Piatt ........ 546 480 his majority in this state,


Clinton....... 1605 1521 Richland .... 499 7 55 S over Douglas, 4,085.


Crawford ....
Delaware..... 844

894 Total..... 11760 13588

Counties. Rep. Dem. Dickinson.. 81 15 Baldwin, A.L.D., 36.

LoganStout. Dubuque .....751 8153 R'son over Oglesby, 1,828. Wisconsin-1859.

Benton....... 222

422 Emmet ...... Clackamas .. 380 379

Fayette .. .102 VIII. Baker. Fonke. GOVERNOR. Clotsop......

Floyd ..... 495 281 Bond.... 731 700 > Districts. Pop. Dem. > Columbia....

Franklin..... 201 51 Clinton...... 377

Rondall, Hobart. Coos .......

Greene ...... 126 146 Jefferson .... 288 1193 Kenosha..... 18:21

906 Curry .....

Grundy .....

110 17 Madison..... 2054 2185 Milwaukee... 2411

6251 Douglass ....


3 Hamilton.... 192 Marion ...... 575 1142 Racine ...... 2111 1634 Jackson.

Hancock... 19 14 Monroe.... 569 1149 Walworth..... 8133

1459 3 Josephine

Hardin ...... 645 Randolph.... 917 1090 Waukesha. . 2785 2295 Lane...



035 Howard ..... 336 279 St. Clair ..... 2464 2058

Linn......... 602


123 Humboldt ... Washington.. 435 1090 Total..... 12161 12545 Marion....... 1062

296 Ida .........

3 Maj. for Hobart, 384. Multnomah .. 563

765 549 Total...... 8410 114903

II. Randall. Hobart.
S Polk ..... 254
284 Jackson..... 128

1477 Hope, A.L.D., 199.

594 293 ) Tillamook ... > Adams......

3 Johnson ..... 1602 1395 Rouke over Baker 3 oso Pouke over Baker, 3,080. Bad Ax......

619 Umpqua..... 132 995

Jones ....... 1161 1153 IX. Phillipg. Logan. Buffalo ...... 264

414 S Wasco...... 115

Kossuth ..... 75 37 Alexander .. 41 378 > Chippewa.....

156 243 Washington.. 856

3 Linn ........ 1771 1345 Edwards..... 395 267 Clarke

818 42 Yamhill..

Marshall .... 795 142 Franklin..... 19 1030 Crawford. 619 748

Mitchell ..... 516 204 Gallatin ..... 815 Dane......... 8727

gaso Total...... 5631 5670 Monona .... 105 10€ Hamilton ....

1155 Douglas ..... 84 60% Maj. for Stout, 39. Muscatine ... 1457 1364





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Rep., 23; Dem., boiLt. Goo... Raker.... 41458 Cone. Pettus, Den
SENAT Independent, I'm 22. } Congress *Sibley,.. 1999 { vernor;, 10.308 for




GOVERNOR-(Continued.) 3 GOVERNOR-i Continued grounds of greater devotion Districts. Rep. Dem. S Districts. Rep. Dem

to the interests of the South, II. Kirkwood. Dodge.

Ramsey, Becker.
Counties. Rep. Dem. A.L.D.

: but exhibited only a feeble Palo Alto .... 44 Rice.........

Stanford. Latham. Currey: 39

828 Plymouth.... 24

Siskiyou .. 43 2159 1803 ) show of strength, Andrew B. 113 Scott ........ 552 917 )

Solano.... 88 1172 827 } Moore, regular Dem., being 16 Pocahontas ..

17 Sherburne 131 68 Sac ..... 37

1981 1148 reëlected Governor over Sibley .......

Sonoma... 64

889 106 Scott ....

Wm. F. Samford, Independ

Stanislaus. 18

695 Story....

159 } ent, by about 20,000 major895 358

Sutter ....
Steele ....... 448 178

92 ity. The Regulars also ear.

Tehama ...
Tama .....

500 295 Todd ........ No return.
333 Wabashaw...

4 Webster .....

1285 252

Trinity ...

829 ried the entire Delegation in 793 512 Tulare and

Congress; the only close Winnebago.. 11 24 3 Waseca ..... 359


contest being in the Third Winneshiek.. 1022

B’na Vista 771 Washington.. 953 707

Tuolumne 937237 (Montgomery) Dist., where Woodbury... 132 163 Winona ..... 1209


757 Worth.......

568 } Clopton, Regular Dem., beat

Yolo...... 66

Wright...... 579 265
Wright ...... 80 52 Carlton,

{ Yuba..... 437 2442 1471 ) Judge, Independent, by 214

majority. St. Louis,

119} Total..10110 62255 31298 Total..... 29741 26556 Lake, Maj. for Kirkwood, 3,185.

Latham over C'rey, 30957;} Mississippi. } Total..... 21335 TOTAL VOTE OF THE STATE.

17583 } over both, 20847. Mai. for Ramsey, 3,752,

An Election was held in

} LORRAATE VOTE OR OTHER Kirkwood, Rep., .... 56404

this State for Governor, Dodge, Dem.,....... 53311 }



State Officers, and CongressSENATE.Rep., 23; Dem., 18:3. Republicans.

men, in 1859, which resulted Maj. for Kirkwood, 3093

Lt. Gov....Kennedy, 11148 } in the success of the Demo. { HOUSE., Rep., 58; Dem., 22. } Congre88 ..Baker..: 41438 cracy by more than three to

to Sibley... 301 { one, Pettus, Dem., for Go. Minnesota-1859.

} Sup. Court.Shafter.. 11799} vernor, receiving 84,559

votes to 10,308 for Walter,


{ California-1859. } Lt. Goo.... Downey.. 59051 (Independent. The Demo Counties. Rep. Dem.

888 .. Burch... 57665 crauc vandidates for other Ramsey. Becker, GOVERNOR.

Scott... 569983 State Officers ran ahead of Anoka....... 383 165 Counties. Rep. Dem. A.L.D. Sup. Court.Cope .... 59397)

Mr. Pettus For Congress Benton ...... 143 94% Stanford, Latham. Currey.

3 there was hardly a show of Blue Earth .. 734 560 ) Alameda.. 299 1066 664

ey: { Anti-Lecompton Democrats. opposition to the Democra. Brown 343 800 Amador... 232 2023 985 Lt. Gov. ...Conness.. 31051 ?

Ştic candidates. Carver ...... 473 524 Butte..... 854 1915 1666 3 Congres8..Booker .. 2969

McKibben 43474 Cass......

..... No return. Calaveras. 85 8275 1891 Chisago ..... 284 156 3 Colusa ... 15 541 166 Sup. Court.Sprague.. 309783

Florida. Crow Wing... 8 55 Con'a Costa 41 805 878 Baker, Rep., was generally Dakota...... 1007 1056 ) Del Norte. 18 892 126 supported by the Anti-Le-3 The last general Electior Dodge....... 593 444 El Dorado. 408 3096 2413 compton Democrats, and in this State was for ConFarribault ... 210 109 Fresno.... 1 859 11 S McKibben by the Republi- gress, in 1858, when both Fillmore...... 1399 1171 Humboldt 83 397 872 cans.

{ candidates were Democrats. Freeborn .... 438 227) Klamath.. 1 607 120

Hawkins, the regular DemoGoodhue..... 1220 706 Los Ang'ls 220 1916 49

crat, receiving 6,465 votes, Hennepin ... 2013 1117 Marin .... 67 467 75 South Carolina. and 'Westcott, Independent Houston...... 675 716 3 Mariposa . 8 1462

on Dem., 4,070. Lsanti........ No return. Mendocino 11 780

There is no opposition to?

85 Jackson .....

18 > Merced.... 231 32 what is termed the Regular Kannabec ... 3 Monterey..

Democracy in this state, and Kandiyohi...

Arkansas. 8} Napa..... I 810

no officers are elected by the

905 Le Sueur 625 Nevada... 581 8185 2534 ) entire vote of the State, the

he There is not sufficier Manomin.... No return. Placer.... 896 8226 11173

Governor and State officers, 3.

opposition to the Regula Martin ...... 18 10 Plumas... 193 892 649

as well as the Presidential

Democracy in this Statet McLeod ... 95 Sacram'to. 228 3526 2678 Electors, being chosen by!

Dy} create the slightest interes Meeker...... 147 108 > San Bern'o 89 532 6 the Legislature.

in the elections. At the las Mille Lac .... No return. 3 San Diego. 17 259 15

election for Congressmer Monongalia.. San Fran'o3027 4747 2943


(1858) in the First District, Morrison..... 88 115 San Joa'in 209 1806 878

Hindman, Dem., received Mower ...... 412 488 S. Luis Ob'o 80 284

An Election was held in 18,255 votes, to 2,853 for Nicollett..... 424 227 San Mateo 105 420 418 this State in 1859, for Go-Crosby, Independent; and, Olmsted..... 1119 777 Santa B'ra 85 431 — vernor, Congressmen and in the Second District, Rust, Pine ...... 6 28 Santa Clara 626 1407 867 Legislature, in which the 3 Dem., received 16,302 to Pembina..... No return. } Santa Cruz 150 499451 / opposition to the regular 3,114 for Jones, and 8,453 Ramsey...... 1485 1773 Shasta.... 8 1456 432 Democracy claimed the suf- for Drew, Independent can. Benville ..... 8 87 Sierra .... 295 2814 1666 ragy of the people, on the { didates,


175 ) Democracy



As the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of been justly deemed the only effectual guardian of every 1798 and 1799, form a portion of the Demo- other right.

| That this State having by its Convention, which raticratic National Platforms, we give them a place

fied the Federal Constitution, expressly declared, that here:

among other essential rights, "the liberty of conscience

and the press cannot be canceled, abridged, restrained, THE VIRGINIA RESOLUTIONS.

or modified by any authority of the United States," and

from its extreme anxiety to guard these rights from The following resolutions passed the Vir. every possible attack of sophistry and ambition, having ginia House of Delegates on the 21st of Decem- | with other States recommended an amendment for that ber, 1798, and were agreed to by the Senate

purpose, which amendment was, in due time, annexed to

the Constitution, it would mark a reproachful incousisthree days later, on the 24th December. These

tency, and criminal degeneracy, if an indifference were Resolutions are understood to have been writ now shown to the most palpable violation of one of the ten by Mr. Madison.

rights, thus declared and secured; and to the establish

ment of a precedent which may be fatal to the other. Resolved, That the General Assembly of Virginia doth

That the good people of this Commonwealth hay. unequivocally express a firm resolution to maintain and

| ing ever felt, and continuing to feel, the most sincere defend the Constitution of the United States, and the

| affection for their brethren of the other States, the constitution of this State, against every aggression, either

truest anxiety for establishing and perpetuating the foreign or domestic; and that they will support the Go

Union of all, and the most scrupulous fidelity to that vernment of the United States in all measures warranted

Constitution which is the pledge of mutual friendship and by the former.

the instrument of mutual happiness, the General Assem'That this Assembly most solemnly declares a warm at- / bly doth solemnly appeal to the like dispositio tachment to the Union of the States, to maintain which other States, in confidence that they will concur with this it pledges its powers; and, that for this end, it is their Commonwealth in declaring, as it does hereby declare, duty to watch over and oppose every infraction of those

that the acts aforesaid are anconstit ortional; and that principles which constitute the only basis of that Union, the necessary and proper measures will be taken by each because a faithful observance of them can alone secure

for coöperating with this State, in maintaining, unimits existence and the public happiness.

paired, the authorities, rights, and liberties, reserved to That this Assembly doth explicitly and perempto the States respectively, or to the people, rily declare, that it views the powers of the Federal

That the governor be desired to transmit a copy of the Government as resulting from the compact to which foregoing resolutions to the executive authority of each the States are parties, as limited by the plain sense

1 of the other States, with a request that the same may be and intention of the instrument constituting that com

communicated to the legislature thereof; and that a copy pact, as no farther valid than they are authorized by the

be furnished to each of the Senators and Representatives grants enumerated in that compact; and that, in case of representing this State in the Congress of the United a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other States. powers not granted by the said compact, the States, who

THE KENTUCKY RESOLUTIONS. are parties thereto, have the right, and are in duty bound, to interpose, for arresting the progress of the evil, The following resolutions, drafted by Thomas and for maintaining within their respective limits the

of Re. authorities, rights, and liberties, appertaining to them.

That the General Assembly doth also express its deep presentatives on the 10th of Nov., 1798, and regret, that a spirit has, in sundry instances, been mani- were agreed to by the Senate on the 13th of fested by the Federal Government, to enlarge its powers the same month : by forced constructions of the constitutional charter which defines them; and that indications have appeared

d that indications have appeared 1. Resolved, That the several States composing the of a design to expound certain general phrases (which, United States of America, are not united on the princihaving been copied from the very limited grant of powers ple of unlimited submission to their general government; in the former Articles of Confederation, were the less but that by compact, under the style and title of a Conliable to be misconstrued) so as to destroy the meaning stitution for the United States, and of amendments and effect of the particular enumeration which neces- thereto, they constituted a general government for spesarily explains and limits the general phrases, and so as cial purposes, delegated to that government certain to consolidate the States by degrees into one sovereignty, definite powers, reserving, each State to itself, the resi. the obvious tendency and inevitable result of which duary mass of right to their own self-government; and, would be, to transform the present republican system of that whensoever the General Government assumes undethe United States into an absolute, or at best, a mixed | legated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and monarchy.

of no force ; that to this compact each State acceded as That the General Assembly doth particularly protest a State, and is an integral party ; that this government, against the palpable and alarming infractions of the Con- created by this compact, was not made the exclusive or stitution, in the two late cases of the "Alien and Sedition final judge of the extent of the powers delegated to Acts," passed at the last session of Congress; the first of itself; since that would have made its discretion, and which exercises a power nowhere delegated to the Federal not the Constitution, the measure of its powers; but, Government, and which, by uniting legislative and judi- that, as in all other cases of compact among parties hav: cial powers to those of the executive, subverts the general ing no common judge, each party has an equal right to principles of free government, as well as the particular judge for itself, as well of infractions as of the mode and organization and positive provisions of the Federal Con- measure of redress. stitution; and the other of which acts exercises, in like 2. Resolved, that the Constitution of the United States manner, a power not delegated by the Constitution, but, having delegated to Congress a power to punish treason, on the contrary, expressly and positively forbidden by counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the one of the amendments thereto; a power which, more United States, piracies and felonies committed on the than any other, ought to produce universal alarm, be- high seas, and offenses against the laws of nations, and cause it is leveled against the right of freely exam- no other crimes whatever; and it being true, as a geneining public characters and measures, and of free com- ral principle, and one of the amendments to the Con. munication among the people thereon, which has ever I stitution having also declared, “that the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor that "no person shall be deprived of liberty without due prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States process of law," and that another having provided, respectively, or to the people," therefore also the same "that in all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enact of Congress, passed on the 14th day of July, 1798, joy the right to a public trial by an impartial jury, to be and entitled "An act in addition to the act entitled An informed as to the nature and cause of the accusation, act for the punishment of certain crimes against the 1 to be confronted with the witnesses against him, to have United States;" as also the act passed by them on the compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, 27th day of June, 1793, entitled “ An act to punish frauds and to have assistance of counsel for his defense,” the committed on the Bank of the United States,” (and all i same act undertaking to authorize the President to reother their acts which assume to create, define, or pun-move a person out of the United States who is under the ish crimes other than those enumerated in the Constitu- protection of the law, on his own suspicion, without jury, tion), are altogether void and of no force, and that the without public trial, without confrontation of the witpower to create, define, and punish such other crimes nesses against him, without having witnesses in his favor, is reserved, and of right appertains solely and exclu- without defense, without counsel, is contrary to these sively, to the respective States, each within its own ter- provisions also of the Constitution, is therefore not law, ritory.

but utterly void and of no force. 3. Resolved. That it is true, as a general principle, That transferring the power of judging any person who and is also expressly declared by one of the amend is under the protection of the laws, from the courts to the ments to the Constitution, that “the powers not de-President of the United States, as is undertaken by the legated to the United States by the Constitution, nor same act concerning aliens, is against the article of the prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the | Constitution which provides, that “the judicial power of States respectively, or to the people;" and that no the United States shall be vested in the courts, the judges power over the freedom of religion, freedom of speech, of which shall hold their office during good betavior," and or freedom of the press being delegated to the United that the said act is void for that reason also ; and it is States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to further to be noted that this transfer of judiciary power the States, all lawful powers respecting the same did is to that magistrate of the General Government who of right remain, and were reserved to the States or to the already possesses all the executive, and a qualified negapeople; that thus was manifested their determination to tive on all the legislative powers. retain to themselves the right of judging how far the 7. Resowed, That the construction applied by the Genelicentiousness of speech and of the press may be abridged ral Government (as is evident by sundry of their prowithout lessening their useful freedom, and how far those ceedings) to those parts of the Constitution of the United abuses which cannot be separated from their use should States which delegate to Congress power to lay and col. be tolerated rather than the use be destroyed; and thus lect taxes, duties, imposts, excises ; to pay the debts, also they guarded against all abridgment by the United and provide for the common defense and general welfare States of the freedom of religious principles and exer of the United States, and to make all laws which shall cises, and retained to themselves the right of protecting be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the the same, as this State, by a law passed on the general powers vested by the Constitution in the Government of demand of its citizens, had already protected them from | the United States, or any department thereof, goes to the all human restraint or interference; and that, in addi- destruction of all the limits prescribed to their power by tion to this general principle and express declaration, the Constitution : That words meant by that instrument another and more special provision has been made by to be subsidiary only to the execution of the limited one of the amendments to the Constitution, which ex. powers, ought not to be so construed as themselves to pressly declares, that “Congress shall make no laws give unlimited powers, nor a part so to be taken as to respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting destroy the whole residue of the instrument: That the the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of proceedings of the General Government under color of speech, or of the press," thereby guarding in the same those articles, will be a fit and necessary subject for sentence, and under the same words, the freedom of revisal and correction at a time of greater tranquillity, religion, of speech, and of the press, insomuch that while those specified in the preceding resolutions call for whatever violates either, throws down the sanctuary immediate redress. which covers the others; and that libels, falsehood, and 8. Resobed, That the preceding resolutions be transdefamation, equally with heresy and false religion, are mitted to the senators and representatives in Congress withheld from the cognizance of federal tribunals. That from this commonwealth, who are enjoined to present therefore the act of the Congress of the United States, the same to their respective Houses, and to use their passed on the 14th of July, 1798, entitled “An act in best endeavors to procure at the next session of Congress addition to the act entitled An act for the punishment a repeal of the aforesaid unconstitutional and obnoxious of certain crimes against the United States," which does acts. abridge the freedom of the press, is not law, but is alto- 9. Resolved lastly, that the governor of this commongether void and of no force.

wealth be, and is hereby authorized and requested to com4. Resolved, That alien friends are under the jurisdic municate the preceding resolutions to the legislatures of tion and protection of the laws of the State wherein they the several States, to assure them that this commonwealth are: that no power over them has been delegated to considers union for special national purposes, and partithe United States, nor prohibited to the individual States cularly for those specified in their late federal compact, distinct from their power over citizens; and it being true, to be friendly to the peace, happiness, and prosperity as a general principle, and one of the amendments to of all the States-that, faithful to that compact, accord. the Constitution having also declared, that “the powers ing to the plain intent and meaning in which it was un not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, derstood and acceded to by the several parties, it is nor prohibited to the States, are reserved to the States sincerely anxious for its preservation; that it does also respectively, or to the people," the act of the Congress believe, that to take from the States all the powers of of the United States, passed the 22d day of June, 1798, self-government, and transfer them to a general and con. entitled, “An act concerning aliens," which assumes solidated government, without regard to the special de power over alien friends not delegated by the Constitu legations and reservations solemnly agreed to in that tion, is not law, but is altogether void and of no force. compact, is not for the peace, happiness, or prosperity of

5. Resolved, That in addition to the general principle these States; and that, therefore, this commonwealth is as well as the express declaration, that powers not dele- determined, as it doubts not its co-States are, to submit gated are reserved, another and more special provision to undelegated and consequently unlimited powers in no inferred in the Constitution, from abundant caution has man or body of men on earth; that if the acts before declared, “that the migration or importation of such specified should stand, these conclusions would flow from persons as any of the States now existing shall think them; that the General Government may place any act proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress they think proper on the list of crimes and punish it them. prior to the year 1808." That this commonwealth does selves, whether enumerated or not enumerated by the admit the migration of alien friends described as the sub | Constitution as cognisable by them; that they may transject of the said act concerning aliens ; that a provision fer its cognizance to the President or any other person, against prohibiting their migration, is a provision against who may himself be the accuser, counsel, judge, and jury, all acts equivalent thereto, or it would be nugatory; that whose suspicions may be the evidence, his order the sen. to remove them when migrated is equivalent to a prohi tence, his officer the executioner, and his breast the sole bition of their migration, and is, therefore, contrary to record of the transaction; that a very numerous and valuthe said provision of the Constitution, and void.

able description of the inhabitants of these States, being 6. Resowed, That the imprisonment of a person under by this precedent reduced as outlaws to the absolute domi. the protection of the laws of this commonwealth on his nion of one man and the barriers of the Constitution failure to obey the simple order of the President to depart | thus swept from us all, and no rampart now remains out of the United States, as is undertaken by the said act, against the passions and the power of a majority of Conentitled, "An act concerning aliens," is contrary to the gress, to protect from a like exportation or other grievConstitution, one amendment in which has provided, ous punishment the minority of the same body, the legis. That the price legislatures, the extent of the

latures, judges, governors, and counselors of the States, 1 government we have chosen, and live under one deriving nor their other peaceable inhabitants who may venture its powers from its own will, and not from our authority; to reclaim the constitutional rights and liberties of the and that the co-States, recurring to their natural rights in States and people, or who, for other causes, good or bad, cases not made federal, will concur in declaring these may be obnoxious to the views or marked by the suspic void and of no force, and will each unite with this comcions of the President, or be thought dangerous to his monwealth in requesting their repeal at the next session or their elections or other interests, public or personal; of Congress. that the friendless alien has been selected as the safest subject of a first experiment; but the citizen will soon On the 14th of Nov., 1799, the Kentucky House follow, or rather has already followed ; for, already has

asenta a sedition act marked him as a prey: that these and successive acts of the same character, unless arrested on the

to the above from the legislatures of several threshold, may tend to drive these states into revolution States, which replies seem to have been unsatisand blood, and will furnish new calumnies against repub factory, reiterated its position as follows: lican governments, and new pretexts for those who wish it to be believed, that man cannot be governed but by a Resolved, that this commonwealth considers the Federod of iron; that it would be a dangerous delusion were ral Union, upon the terms and for the purposes specified a confidence in the men of our choice to silence our fears in the late compact, as conducive to the liberty and hap. for the safety of our rights ; that confidence is every piness of the several States : That it does now unequivowhere the parent of despotism: free government is founded cally declare its attachment to the Union, and to that in jealousy and not in confidence ; it is jealousy and not compact, agreeably to its obvious and real intention, and confidence which prescribes limited constitutions to bind will be among the last to seek its dissolution : That if down those whom we are obliged to trust with power ;

those who administer the General Government be permitthat our Constitution has accordingly fixed the limits to ted to transgress the limits fixed by that compact, by a which, and no farther, our confidence may go: and let total disregard to the special delegations of power there. the honest advocate of confidence read the Alien and in contained, an annihilation of the State governments, Sedition acts, and say if the Constitution has not been and the creation upon their ruins of a general consoliwise in fixing limits to the government it created, and dated government, will be the inevitable consequence : whether we should be wise in destroying those limits ? Let That the principle and construction contended for by him say what the government is, if it be not a tyranny,

sundry of the State legislatures, that the General Govern. which the men of our choice have conferred on the Presi- ment, is the exclusive judge of the extent of the powers dent, and the President of our choice has assented to and

delegated to it, stop nothing short of despotisin-since accepted over the friendly strangers, to whom the mild the discretion of those who administer the government, spirit of our country and its laws had pledged hospitality

and not the Constitution, would be the measure of their and protection; that the men of our choice have more

powers-That the several States who formed that instrurespected the bare suspicions of the President than the solid

ment, being sovereign and independent, have the unquesrights of innocence, the claims of justification, the sacred

tionable right to judge of the infraction; and that a nulforce of truth, and the forms and substance of law and lification by those sovereiguties of all unauthorized acts justice. In questions of power, then, let no more be said done under color of that instrument

done under color of that instrument is the rightful re. of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief

medy: That this commonwealth does, under the most by the chains of the Constitution. That this common- deliberate reconsideration, declare that the said Alien wealth does therefore call on its co-States for an expres

and Sedition laws are, in their opinion, palpable violasion of their sentiments on the acts concerning aliens, and

tions of the said Constitution; and, however cheerfully for the punishment of certain crimes hereinbefore speci- |

it may be disposed to surrender its opinion to a majority fied, plainly declaring whether these acts are or are not

of its sister States, in matters of ordinary or doubtful authorized by the federal compact. And it doubts not

policy, yet, in momentous regulations like the present, that their sense will be so announced as to prove their

which so vitally wound the best rights of the citizen, it attachment to limited government, whether general or

would consider a silent acquiescence as highly criminal : particular, and that the rights and liberties of their co

That although this commonwealth, as a party to the fede. States will be exposed to no dangers by remaining em

ral compact, will bow to the laws of the Union, yet it barked on a common bottom with their own, but they

does, at the same time, declare that it will not now, or will concur with this commonwealth in considering the

ever hereafter, cease to oppose in a constitutional mansaid acts as so palpably against the Constitution as to

ner every attempt, at what quarter soever offered, to amount to an undisguised declaration, that the compact

violate that compact. And, finally, in order that no preis not meant to be the measure of the powers of the Gene

text or arguments may be drawn from a supposed acquiral Government, but that it will proceed in the exercise

escence on the part of this commonwealth in the consti. over these States of all powers whatsoever. That they

tutionality of those laws, and be thereby used as prece. will view this as seizing the rights of the States and conso

dents for similar future violations of the federal compact lidating them in the hands of the General Government,

--this commonwealth does now enter against them its with a power assumed to bind the States (not merely in

solemn protest. cases made federal) but in all cases whatsoever, by laws' This resolution passed the Senate on the 22d. made, not with their consent, but by others against their consent; that this would be to surrender the form of Nov., 1799.

Pan expand it may be

d thatch government, whether prove their which so vitally woundous regulations like the


On the 25th January 1845 Mr Douglas then of any peaceable adjustment of existing difficulties,

because the Missouri Compromise line could not be a member of the House of Representatives,

extended to the Pacific. That measure was originally offered the following amendment to the joint adopted in the bill for the admission of Missouri by the Resolution for the Annexation of Texas : union of Northern and Southern votes. The South has

always professed to be willing to abide by it, and even to "And in such State or States as may be formed out of continue it, as a fair and honorable adjustment of a vexed said territory north of said Missouri Compromise line, and difficult question. In 1845, it was adopted in the slavery or involuntary servitude-except for crime resolutions for the annexation of Texas, by Southern as shall be prohibited."-Cong. Globe, vol. 14, page 193. | well as Northern votes, without the slightest complaint

that it was unfair to any section of the country. In 1846, HE DEFENDS THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE. it received the support of every Southern member of the On the 13th of March, 1850, Mr. Douglas

House of Representatives-Whig and Democrat--without

exception, as an alternative measure to the Wilmot Promade a speech in the United States Senate, visio. And again in 1848, as an amendment to the Orefrom which the following is an extract:

gon bill, on my motion, it received the vote, if I recollect

aright-and I do not think that I can possibly be mis "The next in the series of aggressions complained of taken-of every Southern Senator, Whig and Democrat, by the Senator from South Carolina, is the Missouri even including the Senator from South Carolina himself, Compromise. The Missouri Compromise, an act of (Mr. Calhoun. And yet we are now told that this is Northern injustice, designed to deprive the south of her only second to the Ordinance of 1787 in the series of due share of the Territories! Why, sir, it was only on aggressions on the South."-Cong. Globe, Appendia, this very day that the Senator for Mississippi despaired I vol. 22, part 1, page 370.

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