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President of the United States, JOHN P. HALE, of New-person should be deprived of life, liberty or property Hampshire, and as a candidate for the office of Vice- without due process of law, it becomes our duty to mainPresident of the United States, GEORGE W. JULIAN, of tain this provision of the Constitution against all attempts Indiana, and earnestly commend them to the support to violate it for the purpose of establishing Slavery in of all Freemen and all parties.
any territory of the United States, by positive legislation,
prohibiting its existence or extension therein. That wo The result of this contest was an overwhelm
deny the authority of Congress, of & territorial legislaing triumph of the regular Democracy : Pierce ture, of any individual or association of individuals, to
give legal existence to Slavery in any territory of the and King carrying every State except Massachu-l vinat
United States, while the present Constitution shall be setts, Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee, which maintained. cast their votes for Gen. Scott. The Free Demo Resolved, That the Constitution confers upon Congress cratic vote in several States would have given
sovereign power over the territories of the United States
for their government, and that in the exercise of this those States to Scott, had it been cast for him.
power it is both the right and the duty of Congress to prohibit in the territories those twin relics of barbarism -Polygamy and Slavery.
Resolved, That while the Constitution of the United REPUBLICAN NATIONAL CONVENTION
States was ordained and established by the people in 1856.
order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice,
insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common de This Convention met at Philadelphia on the fense, and secure the blessings of liberty, and contains 17th of June, and chose Col. Henry Ŝ. Lane, of ample provisions for the protection of the life, liberty
and property of every citizen, the dearest constitutional Indiana, as presiding officer. An informal bal. rights of the people of Kansas have been fraudulently lot for President resulted as follows:
and violently taken from them, their territory has been invaded by an armed force-spurious and pretended legislative, judicial and executive officers have been set over them, by whose usurped authority, sustained by the
military power of the Government, tyrannical and unStates.
constitutional laws have been enacted and enforced Maine, .......... Indiana ....
the rights of the people to keep and bear arms have New Hampshire.. Illinois.
been infringed-test oaths of an extraordinary and enVermont ........ Michigan........
tangling nature have been imposed, as a condition of Massachusetts.... | Wisconsin........
exercising the right of suffrage and holding office-the Rhode Island... Iowa............
right of an accused person to a speedy and public trial Connecticut..... Minnesota .......
by an impartial jury has been denied the right of the New-York........ Kansas.......
people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and New Jersey...... Nebraska....
effects against unreasonable searches and seizures has Pennsylvania.. Kentucky..
been violated-they have been deprived of life, liberty Delaware..... California........
and property without due process of law-that the freeMaryland..... 8
dom of speech and of the press has been abridged-the Ohio............. 80 89
right to choose their representatives has been made of New-York also gave two votes for Sumner
no effect-murders, robberies and arsons have been insti.
gated and encouraged, and the offenders have been and one for Seward.
allowed to go unpunished-that all these things have Col. John C. Fremont was thereupon unani- been done with the knowledge, sanction and procuremously nominated.
ment of the present Administration, and that for this
high crime against the Constitution, the Union and HuWilliam L. Dayton was nominated for Vice
manity, we arraign the Administration, the President, his President, receiving, on the informal ballot, advisers, agents, supporters, apologists and accessories, 259 votes to 43 for David Wilmot; 110 for eit
either before or after the facts, before the country and
before the world, and that it is our fixed purpose to Abraham Lincoln ; 7 for Thomas Ford; 35 for
bring the actual perpetrators of these atrocious outrages, Charles Sumner; 4 for Cassius M. Clay ; 15 for and their accomplices, to a sure and condign punishment Jacob Collamer ; 2 for J. R. Giddings; 2 for hereafter... W. F. Johnston ; 46 for N. P. Banks ; 1 for A.
Resobed, That Kansas should be immediately admite
ted as a State of the Union, with her present free ConstiC. M. Pennington ; 5 for Henry Wilson ; 9 for tution, as at once the most effectual way of securing to John A King: 3 for Henry C. Carey and 8 for her citizens the enjoyment of the rights and privileges to Gen. S. C. Pomeroy of Kansas. A formal bal.
which they are entitled; and of ending the civil strife
now raging in her territory. lot was then taken, when Mr. Dayton was nomi Resolved, That the highwayman's plea, that "might nated unanimously.
makes right," embodied in the Ostend Circular, was in The Convention adopted the following
every respect unworthy of American diplomacy, and
would bring shame and dishonor upon any government PLATFORM:
or people that gave it their sanction.
Resoloed, That a railroad to the Pacific Ocean, by the This Convention of Delegates, assembled in pursuance
most central and practicable route, is imperatively deof a call addressed to the people of the United States. manded by the interests of the whole country, and that without regard to past political differences or divisions, the Federal Government ought to render immediate and who are opposed to the repeal of the Missouri Compro efficient aid in its construction; and, as an auxiliary mise, to the policy of the present Administration, to the thereto, the immediate construction of an emigrant route extension of Slavery into Free Territory ; in favor of on the line of the railroad. admitting Kansas as a Free State, of restoring the action | Resolved, That appropriations by Congress for the of the Federal Government to the principles of Washing-improvement of rivers and harbors, of a national characton and Jefferson, and who purpose to unite in present- ter, required for the accommodation and security of our ing candidates for the offices of President and Vice existing commerce, are authorized by the Constitution, President, do resolve as follows:
and justified by the obligation of government to protect Resoloed, That the maintenance of the principles pro the lives and property of its citizens. mulgated in the Declaration of Independence and
| This contest resulted in the election of the embodied in the Federal Constitntion is essential to the preservation of our Republican Institutions, and that Democratic nominees, Buchanan and Breckinthe Federal Constitution, the rights of the States, and ridge, who received the electoral votes of the Union of the States, shall be preserved.
Resoloed, That with our republican fathers we hold it New-Jersey, 7; Pennsylvania, 27; Delaware, 3; Vir. to be a self-evident truth, that all men are endowed with ginia, 15; North Carolina, 10; South Carolina, 8; the inalienable rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of Georgia, 10; Alabama, 9; Mississippi, 7; Louisiana, 6; happiness, and that the primary object and ulterior de- | Tennessee, 12: Kentucky, 12; Indiana, 13; Illinois, 11: signs of our Federal Government were, to secure these Missouri, 9; Arkansas, 4; Florida, 3; Texas, 4; Califorrights to all persons within its exclusive jurisdiction : | nia, 4.-174. that, as our republican fathers, when they had abolished For Fremont and Dayton: Maine, 8; New Hampshire, Slavery in all our national territory, ordained that no 15; Vermont, 5; Massachusetts, 13; Rhode Island, 4;
Connecticut, 6; New-York, 85; Ohio, 28; Michigan, 6; viency to the stronger, and an insolent and cowardly Iowa, 4; Wisconsin, 5-114.
bravado toward the weaker powers; as shown in reFillmore and Donelson, Maryland, 8.
opening sectional agitation, by the repeal of the Missouri Compromise; as shown in granting to unnaturalized foreigners the right of suffrage in Kansas and Nebraska; as
shown in its vacillating course on the Kansas and Ne AMERICAN NATIONAL CONVENTION braska question; as shown in the corruptions which per 1856.
vade some of the Departments of the Government; as
shown in disgracing meritorious naval officers through The American National Council met in Phila prejudice or caprice : and as shown in the blundering
mismanagement of our foreign relations. delphia February 19, 1856. All the States ex 14. Therefore, to remedy existing evils, and prevent cept four or five were represented. E. B. the disastrous consequences otherwise resulting thereBartlett, of Ky., President of the National Coun- from, we would build up the “ American Party" upon
the principles herein before stated. cil presided, and, after a rather stormy session
15. That each State Council shall have authority to of three days, devoted mainly to the discussion amend their several constitutions, so as to abolish the of a Party Platform, the following, on the 21st, several degrees and substitute a pledge of honor, instead
of other obligations, for fellowship and admission into was adopted :
the party. AMERICAN PLATFORM.
16. A free and open discussion of all political princi
ples embraced in our Platform. 1. An humble acknowledgment to the Supreme Being, for his protecting care vouchsafed to our fathers in their ! On the following day (Feb. 22,) the America: successful Revolutionary struggle, and hitherto mani. National Nominating Convention, composed fested to us, their descendants, in the preservation of
mostly of the same gentlemen who had deliberthe liberties, the independence, and the union of these
ated as the National Council, organized at PhilaStates,
2. The perpetuation of the Federal Union and Consti- delphia, with 227 delegates in attendance, tution, as the palladium of our civil and religious liber. Maine, Vermont, Georgia, and South Carolina, ties, and the only sure bulwarks of American Indepen dence.
" being the only States not represented. Ephraim 3, Americans must rulo America ; and to this end Marsh, of New-Jersey, was chosen to preside, native-born citizens should be selected for all State, and the Convention remained in session till the Federal and municipal offices of government employ
25th, and, after disposing of several cases of ment, in preference to all others. Nevertheless,
4. Persons born of American parents residing tempo contested seats, discussed at considerable length, rarily abroad, should be entitled to all the rights of and with great warmth, the question of the native-born citizens.
power of the National Council to establish a 5. No person should be selected for political station (whether of native or foreign birth), who recognizes any Platform for the Convention, which should be allegiance or obligation of any description to any foreign prince, potentate or power, or who refuses to recognize the Federal and State Constitutions (each within its sphere) as paramount to all other laws, as rules of polit
lowing: ical action.
Resoloed, That the National Council has no authority 6. The unqualified recognition and maintenance of the to prescribe a Platform of principles for this Nominating reserved rights of the several States, and the cultivation Convention, and that we will nominate for President and of harmony and fraternal good will between the citizens Vice-President no man who is not in favor of interdictof the several States, and to this end, non-interference ing the introduction of Slavery into Territory north 36" by Congress with questions appertaining solely to the 80' by congressional action. individual States, and non-intervention by each State with the affairs of any other State.
A motion to lay this resolution on the table 7. The recognition of the right of native-born and was adopted, 141 to 59. A motion was then naturalized citizens of the United States, permanently made to proceed to the nomination of a candi. residing in any territory thereof, to frame their constitution and laws, and to regulate their domestic and social date for President, which was carried. 151 to affairs in their own mode, subject only to the provisions 51, the Anti-Slavery delegates, or North Ameri. of the Federal Constitution, with the privilege of admission into the Union whenever they have the requisite population for one Representative in Congress : Pro-| tive, and desiring to postpone the nomination. vided, ahoays, that none but those who are citizens of But being beaten at all points, they (to the numthe United States, under the Constitution and laws thereof, and who have a fixed residence in any such Territory, ought to participate in the formation of the
take any further part in the proceedings of the Constitution, or in the enactment of laws for said Terri.
of laws for said Terri- Convention, and many of them subsequently tory or State.
supported Col. Fremont for President. 8. An enforcement of the principles that no State or
An informal ballot was then taken for Presi Territory ought to admit others than citizens to the right of suffrage, or of holding political offices of the United dent, which resulted as follows: States.
M. Fillmore, of N. Y..... 71 | John Bell, Tennessee... 3 9. A change in the laws of naturalization, making a George Law, N. Y....... 27 | Kenneth Raynor, N. 0.. 2 oontinued residence of twenty-one years, of all not here
Garrett Davis, Ky...... Erastus Brooks, N. Y.... tofore provided for, an indispensable requisite for citizen
John McLean, Ohio.... Lewis D. Campbell, Ohio, ship hereafter, and excluding all paupers, and persons R. F. Stockton, N. J..... 8 | John M. Clayton, Del.... 1 convicted of crime, from landing upon our shores; but Sam. Houston, Texas... 61 no interference with the vested rights of foreigners.
10. Opposition to any union between Church and! A formal ballot was then taken, when Mr. State; no interference with religious faith or worship, Fillmore was nominated as follows: and no test oaths for office.
Fillmore, 179 ; Law, 24; Raynor, 14; McLean, 18; 11. Free and thorough investigation into any and all | Davis, 10 : Houston, 8. alleged abuses of public functionaries, and a strict econ Necessary to a choice, 122. omy in public expenditures. 12. The maintenance and enforcement of all laws con
. Millard Fillmore was then declared to be the stitutionally enacted until said laws shall be repealed, nominee. or shall be declared null and void by competent judicial A ballot was then taken for Vice-President, authority. 18. Opposition to the reckless and unwise policy of the
and Andrew Jackson Donelson, of Tennessee, present Administration in the general management of I was nominated as follows: our national affairs, and more especially as shown in re
A. J. Donelson, Ten., 181; Percy Walker, Ala., 8 moving “ Americans" (by designation) and Conserva- Henry J. Gardner, Mass., 8; Kenneth Raynor, N. O., 8 tives in principle, from office, and placing foreigners and Wilbereits in their places; as shown in a truckling subser / Mr. Donelson was then declared to be unani.
bin, N. Ö"....
mously nomipated, and the Convention ad. (and ample protection of persons and property frog
domestic violence and foreign aggression journed.
5. That it is the duty of every branch of the Government to enforce and practice the most rigid economy in
conducting our public affairs, and that no more revenue DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION
ought to be raised than is required to defray the neces 1856.
sary expenses of the government, and gradual but certain
extinction of the public debt. This Convention met at Cincinnati on the 2d|
16. That the proceeds of the public lands ought to be of June, and chose John E. Ward, of Georgia,
sacredly applied to the national objects specified in the
Constitution, and that we are opposed to any law for the to preside, and nominated James Buchanan on distribution of such proceeds among the States, as alike the 17th ballot, as follows:
inexpedient in policy, and repugnant to the Constitution,
7. That Congress has no power to charter a National Ballots. Buchanan. Pierce. Douglas. Cass. Bank ; that we believe such an institution one of deadly 135 122 83
hostility to the best interests of this country, dangerous 139 1197 87
to our republican institutions and the liberties of the peo1393 119
ple, and calculated to place the business of the country 141 119
within the control of a concentrated money power and 140 119}
above the laws and will of the people; and the results of 155 1177
the Democratic legislation in this and all other financial 1434
measures upon which issues have been made between the 1477
two political parties of the country, have demonstrated 146
to candid and practical men of all parties their sound1507 80+ 597
ness, safety and utility in all business pursuits. 147+
8. That the separation of the moneys of the Govern148
ment from banking institutions is indispensable to the 150 774 63
safety of the funds of the Government and the rights of 1521
the people. 1681
9. That we are decidedly opposed to taking from the 168
President the qualified Veto power, by which he is eng. 296
bled, under restrictions and responsibilities amply sufiMr. Buchanan having been unanimously
cient to guard the public interests, to suspend the passage
of a bill whose merits cannot secure the approval of twonominated for President, the Convention pro- I thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, unt ceeded to ballot for a candidate for Vice-Presi- the judgment of the people can be obtained thereon, and dent, the first ballot resulting as follows:
which has saved the American people from the corrupt
and tyrannical dominion of the Bank of the United J. A. Quitman, Miss ,.. 59 | J. C. Breckinridge, Ky... 55 States, and from a corrupting system of general internal Linn Boyd, Ky........ 33 B. Fitzpatrick, Ala....... 11 improvements. A. V. Brown, Tenn.,... 29 H. V. Johnson, Ga...... 81 10. That the liberal principles embodied by Jefferson in J. A. Bayard, Del.,.... 31 Trusten Polk, Mo.,
the Declaration of Independence, and sanctioned in the T. J. Rusk, Texas,..... 2 (J. C. Dobbin, N. 0.,..... 13 Constitution, which makes ours the land of liberty and On the second ballot, the name of Gen. Quit. the asylum of the oppressed of every nation, have ever
been cardinal principles in the Democratic faith ; and man was withdrawn, as were also those of ocher
every attempt to abridge the privilege of becoming citileading candidates, and Mr. Breckinridge was zens and the owners of soil among us ought to be reunanimously nominated.
sisted with the same spirit which swept the alien and se
dition laws from our statute books, The Convention adopted the following
And whereas, Since the foregoing declaration was uni
formly adopted by our predecessors in National Conven. PLATFORM:
tion, an adverse political and religious test has been se Besoloed, That the American Democracy place their
cretly organized by a party claiming to be exclusively trust in the intelligence, the patriotism, and the discrimi
American, and it is proper that the American Democracy dating justice of the American people..
should clearly define its relations thereto; and declare Resolved, That we regard this as a distinctive feature |
its determined opposition to all secret political societies, of our political creed, which we are proud to maintain
| by whatever name they may be called before the world as a great moral element in a form of
| Rosowed, That the foundation of this Union of States government springing from and upheld by the popular nav..been
having been laid in, and its prosperity, expansion, and will; and we contrast it with the creed and practice of
preëminent example of free government, built upon enFederalism, under whatever name or form, which seek3
tire freedom in matters of religious concernment, and no to palsy the will of the Constituent, and which conceives
respect of persons in regard to rank, or place of birth, no imposture too monstrous for the popular credulity.
no party can justly be deemed national, constitutional, Rasowed, therefore, That entertaining these views, the
or in accordance with American principles, which bases Democratic party of this Union, through their delegates, its
its exclusive organization upon religious opinions and assembled in general Convention, coming together in a
accidental birth-place. And hence a political crusade in spirit of concord, of devotion to the doctrines and faith the nineteenth century, and in the United States of Ameof a free representative government, and appealing to
rica, against Catholics and foreign-born, is neither justified their fellow-citizens for the rectitude of their intentions,
by the past history nor future prospects of the country, renew and reassert before the American people, the
nor in unison with the spirit of toleration, and enlight declarations of principles avowed by them, when, on
ened freedom which peculiarly distinguishes the Ameriformer occasions, in general Convention, they have pre
can system of popular government. sented their candidates for the popular suffrage.
Resobed, That we reiterate with renewed energy of 1. That the Federal Government is one of limited power, purpose
I purpose the well considered declarations of former conderived solely from the Constitution, and the grants of
ventions upon the sectional issue of domestic slavery power made therein ought to be strictly construed by all
and concerning the reserved rights of the Statesthe departments and agents of the Government, and that
1. That Congress has no power under the Constitution it is inexpedient and dangerous to exercise doubtful conto interfer
to interfere with or control the domestic institutions of stitutional powers.
the several States, and that all such States are the sole 2. That the Constitution does not confer upon the
and proper judges of everything appertaining to their General Government the power to commence and carry
own affairs not prohibited by the Constitution; that all on a general system of internal improvements.
efforts of the Abolitionists or others made to induce Con8. That the Constitution does not confer authority upon
gress to interfere with questions of Slavery, or to take the Federal Government, directly or indirectly, to assume
incipient steps in relation thereto, are calculated to lead the debts of the several States, contracted for local and
to the most alarming and dangerous consequences, and
that all such efforts have an inevitable tendency to die would such assumption be just or expedient,
minish the happiness of the people and endanger the 4. That justice and sound policy forbid the Federal
stability and permanency of the Union, and ought not Government to foster one branch of industry to the detri.
to be countenanced by any friend of our political insti. ment of another, or to cherish the interests of one portion
tutions. of our common country; that every citizen and every
2. That the foregoing proposition covers and was in section of the country has a right to demand and insist
tended to embrace the whole subject of Slavery agitation upon an equality of rights and privileges, and a complete l in Congress, and therefore the Democratic party of the
for local and to the most alarming and a
al improvements, or other state
violent opposition. hehe
2. That this or in the District of Column
Union, standing on this national platform, will abide by opment of our growing power, requires that we should and adhere to a faithful execution of the acts known as hold sacred the principles involved in the MONROE docthe Compromise Measures, settled by the Congress of trine. Their bearing and import admit of no miscon1850: the act for reclaiming fugitives from service or struction, and should be applied with unbending rigidlabor" included; which act, being designed to carry out ity. an express provision of the Constitution, cannot, with 18. Resolved. That the great high way, which nature as fidelity thereto, be repealed, or so changed as to destroy well as the assent of States most immediately interested or impair its efficiency.
in its maintenance has marked out for free communica8. That the Democratic Party will resist all attempts tion between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans, conat renewing, in Congress or out of it, the agitation of the stitutes one of the most important achievements realized Slavery question, under whatever shape or color the at by the spirit of modern times, in the unconquerable tempt may be made.
energy of our people; and that result would be secured 4. That the Democratic Party will faithfully abide by by a timely and efficient exertion of the control which and uphold the principles laid down in the Kentucky we have the right to claim over it; and no power on and Virginia resolutions of 1797 and 1798, and in the | earth should be suffered to impede or clog its progress report of Mr. Madison to the Virginia Legislature in 1799 by any interference with relations that it may suit our --that it adopts these principles as constituting one of policy to establish between our Government and the the main foundations of its political creed, and is re government of the States within whose dominions it lies; solved to carry them out in their obvious meaning and we can under no circumstance surrender our preponimport.
derance in the adjustment of all questions arising out And that we may more distinctly meet the issue on of it. which a sectional party, subsisting exclusively on 4. Resolred, That, in view of so commanding an interSlavery agitation, now relies to test the fidelity of the est, the people of the United States cannot but sympeople, No rth and South, to the Constitution and the pathize with the efforts which are being made by the Union
people of Central America to regenerate that portion of 1. Resolved, That claiming fellowship with and desir the continent which covers the passage across the intering the coöperation of all who regard the preservation oceanic isthmus. of the Union under the Constitution as the paramount 16. Resolved, That the Democratic Party will expect of issue, and repudiating all sectional parties and platforms the next Administration that every proper effort be made 1 concerning domestic Slavery, which seek to embroil the to insure our ascendency in the Gulf of Mexico, and to States and incite to treason and armed resistance to law maintain permanent protection to the great outlets in the Territories, and whose avowed purpose, if con- through which are emptied into its waters the products summated, must end in civil war and disunion, the raised out of the soil and the commodities created by American Democracy recognize and adopt the principles the industry of the people of our western valleys and of contained in the organic laws establishing the Territories the Union at large. of Nebraska and Kansas, as embodying the only sound Resolved. That the Administration of FRANKLIN and safe solution of the Slavery question, upon which PIERCE has been true to Democratic principles, and the great national idea of the people of this whole coun. therefore true to the great interests of the country ; try can repose in its determined conservation of the in the face of violent opposition, he has maintained the Union, and non-interference of Congress with Slavery in laws at home, and vindicated the rights of American
citizens abroad; and therefore we proclaim our unquali2. That this was the basis of the compromises of 1850, fied admiration of his measures and policy. confirmed by both the Democratic and Wbig parties in National Conventions, ratified by the people in the election of 1852, and rightly applied to the organization of the Territories in 1851.
WHIG CONVENTION—1856. 3. That by the uniform application of the Democratic
A Whig National Convention met at Baltiprinciple to the organization of Territories, and the ad. mission of new States with or without domestic Slavery, more on the 17th of Sept., 1856–Edward Bates, as they may elect, the equal rights of all the States will of Missouri, presidiug. The nominations of be preserved intact, the original compacts of the Constitution maintained in violate, and the perpetuity and ex
Millard Fillmore for President, and Andrew J. pansion of the Union insured to its utmost capacity of Donelson for Vice-President, were unanimously embracing, in peace and harmony, every future Ameri concurred in. The Convention adopted the can State that may be constituted or annexed with a republican form of government.
following Resolved, That we recognize the right of the people of
PLATFORM: all the Territories, including Kansas and Nebraska, acting through the legally and fairly expressed will of the Resoloed, That the Whigs of the United States, now majority of the actual residents, and whenever the num here assembled, hereby declare their reverence for the ber of their inhabitants justifies it, to form a Constitu Constitution of the United States, their unalterable at tion, with or without domestic Slavery, and be admitted tachment to the National Union, and a fixed determinainto the Union upon terms of perfect equality with the tion to do all in their power to preserve them for themother States.
selves and their posterity. They have no new principles Resoloed, finally, That in view of the condition of to announce; no new platform to establish; but are popular institutions in the Old World (and the danger content to broadly rest-where their fathers restedous tendencies of sectional agitation, combined with the | upon the Constitution of the United States, wishing no attempt to enforce civil and religious disabilities against safer guide, no higher law. the rights of acquiring and enjoying citizenship in our Resolved, That we regard with the deepest interest own land), a high and sacred duty is involved with in and anxiety the present disordered condition of our creased responsibility upon the Democratic Party of this national affairs-a portion of the country ravaged by country, as the party of the Union, to uphold and main civil war, large sections of our population embittered by
in the rights of every State and thereby the Union of mutual recriminations; and we distinctly trace these de states-and to sustain and advance among us con. calamities to the culpable neglect of duty by the present
nuing to resist all monopolies | national administration. and exclusive legislation for the benefit of the few at the Resoloed, That the Government of the United States expense of the many, and by a vigilant and constant was formed by the conjunction in political unity of wide
erence to those principles and compromises of the spread geographical sections materially differing, not Constitution which are broad enough and strong I only in climate and products, but in social and domestic enough to embrace and uphold the Union as it was, the institutions; and that any cause that shall permanently Union as it is, and the Union as it shall be in the full array the different sections of the Union in political hosexpression of the energies and capacity of this great and tility and organized parties founded only on geographical progressive people.
distinctions must inevitably prove fatal to a continuance 1. Resolved, That there are questions connected with of the National Union. e foreign policy of this country which are inferior to Resowed, That the Whigs of the United States declare,
domestic question whatever. The time has come for as a fundamental article of political faith, an absolute we People of the United States to declare themselves in necessity for avoiding geographical parties. The danger,
vor of free seas, and progressive free trade throughout so clearly discerned by the Father of his Country, has the world and
e world, and, by solem manifestations, to place their now become fearfully apparent in the agitation now woral influence at the side of their successful example. convulsing the nation, and must be arrested at once it
Resoloed, That our geographical and political posi we would preserve our Constitution and our Union from with reference to the other states of this continent, dismemberment, and the name of America from being less than the interest of our commerce and the devel. I blotted out from the family of civilized nations.
Resoloed. That all who revere the Constitution and
sent the Union, must look with alarm at the parties in the
e nominate candidates. The following Platform field in the present Presidential campaign-one claiming only to represent sixteen Northern States, and the other was adopted, and, without taking a ballot for appealing mainly to the passions and prejudices of the Pre
ned. Southern States ; that the success of either faction must add fuel to the flame which now threatens to wrap our
PLATFORM OF 1860. dearest interests in a common ruin, Resoloed, That the only remedy for an evil so appal
Resoloed, That we, the delegated representatives of the ling is to support a candidate pledged to neither of the
Republican electors of the United States, in Convention geographical sections now arrayed in political antagon
assembled, in discharge of the duty we owe to our con. Ism, but holding both in a just and equal regard. We
stituents and our country, unite in the following decla. congratulate the friends of the Union that such a candi
rations: date exists in Millard Fillmore.
1. That the history of the nation, during the last four Resobed, That, without adopting or referring to the
years, has fully established the propriety and necessity peculiar doctrines of the party which has already se
of the organization and perfetuation of the Republican lected Mr. Fillmore as a candidate, we look to him as a
party, and that the causes which called it into existence well-tried and faithful friend of the Constitution and the
are permanent in their nature, and now, more than ever Union, eminent alike for his wisdom and firmness—for
before, demand its peaceful and constitutional triumph.
2. That the maintenance of the principles promulgated his justice and moderation in our foreign relations for
in the Declaration of Independence and embodied in the his calm and pacific temperament, so well becoming the head of a great nation--for his devotion to the Constitu
Federal Constitution, “ That all men are created equal;
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain intion in its true spirit-his inflexibility in executing the
alienable rights ; that among these are life, liberty and laws; but, beyond all these attributes, in possessing the
the pursuit of happiness; that, to secure these rights, one transcendent merit of being a representative of neither of the two sectional parties now struggling for
governments are instituted among men, deriving their political supremacy.
just powers from the consent of the governed,” is essen. Resowed, That, in the present exigency of political af
tial to the preservation of our Republican institutions;
and that the Federal Constitution, the Rights of the fairs, we are not called upon to discuss the subordinate
States, and the Union of the States, must and shall be questions of administration in the exercising of the Constitutional powers of the Government. It is enough
8. That to the Union of the States this nation owes its to know that civil war is raging, and that the Union is in
unprecedented increase in population, its surprising de peril; and we proclaim the conviction that the restora
velopment of material resources, its rapid augmentation tion of Mr. Fillmore to the Presidency will furnish the best
of wealth, its happiness at home and its honor abroad; if not the only means of restoring peace.
and we hold in abhorrence all schemes for Disunion, come In the election which ensued, Mr. Fillmore
from whatever source they may: And we congratulate
the country that no Republican member of Congress has received
uttered or countenanced the threats of Disunion so often Buchanan obtained those of the 14 other Slave made by Democratic members, without rebuke and with States, and of New Jersey. Pennsylvania, Indiana, applause from their political associates; and we denounce
those threats of disunion, in case of a popular overthrow Illinois and California, making 172 in all. Coll
of their ascendency, as denying the vital principles of a Fremont received the votes of the eleven other free government, and as an avowal of contemplated trea. Free States, making 114 in all. Pennsylvania son, which it is the imperative duty of an indignant Peoand Illinois, had they voted for Col. Fremont,
ple sternly to rebuke and forever silence.
4. That the maintenance in violate of the rights of the would have given him the election.
States, and especially the right of each State to order and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively, is essential to that balance of por.
ers on which the perfection and endurance of our politi. REPUBLICAN CONVENTION—1860.
cal fabric depends; and we denounce the lawless invasion
by armed force of the soil of any State or Territory, no A Republican National Convention assembled
matter under what pretext, as among the gravest of at Chicago, Illinois, on Wednesday, May 16th, crimes, 1860, delegates being in attendance from all the 5. That the present Democratic Administration has far Free States, as also from Delaware, Maryland,
exceeded our worst apprehensions, in its measureless sub
serviency to the exactions of a sectional interest, as es Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri, Texas,* the Ter pecially evinced in its desperate exertions to force the ritories of Kansas and Nebraska, and the Dis. infamous Lecompton Constitution upon the protesting trict of Columbia.
people of Kansas; in construing the personal relation
between master and servant to involve an unqualified Gov. Morgan, of New-York, as Chairman of
property in persons; in its attempted entorcement, every. the National Executive Committee, nominated where, on land and sea, through the intervention of Con. David Wilmot as temporary Chairman, and he
gress and of the Federal Courts of the extreme preten.
sions of a purely local interest; and in its general and was chosen. The usual Committees on perma- unyarying abuse of the power intrusted to it by a confid. nent organization, credentials, etc., were ap- ing people.. pointed, and the Convention was permanently
6. That the people justly view with alarm the reckless Y extravagance which pervades every department of the
Federal Government; that a return to rigid economy
e. and accountability is indispensable to arrest the syste. President and a Secretary from each State and matic plunder of the public treasury by favored parti.
sans: while the recent startling developments of frauds Ter
and corruptions at the Federal metropolis, show that an from each State and Territory, was appointed entire change of administration is imperatively de. to draft suitable resolutions, or in other words, manded., .
7. That the new dogma that the Constitution, of its a Platform, and the Convention adjourned.
own force, carries Slavery into any or all of the Territo. On
ries of the United States, is a dangerous political heresy, arose on a proposition to require a vote equal at variance with the explicit provisions to a majority of full delegations from all the
ment itself, with cotemporaneous exposition, and with
legislative and judicial precedent; is revolutionary in its States to nominate candidates for President and tendency, and subversive of the peace and harmony of Vice-President; which, with the delegates actu- the country. ally in attendance, would have been about United States is that of freedom: That as our Republican
8. That the normal condition of all the territory of the equivalent to a two-third rule. This proposition fathers, when they had abolished Slavery in all our na. was voted down, and the Convention decided, tional territory, ordained that “no person should be de by a vote of 331 to 130, that only a majority of
prived of life, liberty, or properiy, without due procese of law,” it becomes our duty, by legislation, whenever
such legislation is necessary, to maintain this provision * The delegation from Texas has since been proved fraudulent, of the Constitution agains
of the Constitution against all attempts to violate it: and baving beou got up in Michigan to effect a personal end.
''we deny the authority of Congress, of a territorial legis