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Maryland, 1; Kentucky, 1.

proval of two-thirds of the Senate and House of Repre- may solicit our surrender of that yigllance which is the sentatives until the judgment of the people can be only safeguard of liberty. obtained thereon, and which has saved the American Resolved, That the confidence of the Democracy of people from the corrupt and tyrannical domination of the Union, in the principles, capacity, firmness and inthe bank of the United States, and from a corrupting tegrity of James K. Polk, manifested by his nomination bystom of general internal improvements.

and election in 1844, has been signally justified by the Resolved, that the war with Mexico, provoked on her strictness of his adherence to sound Democratic docpart, by years of insult and injury, was commenced by trines, by the purity of purpose, the energy and ability her army crossing the Rio Grande, attacking the Ameri- which have characterized his administration in all our can troops and invading our sister State of Texas, and affairs at home and abroad, that we tender to him our that upon all the principles of patriotism and the cordial congratulations upon the brilliant success which Laws of Nations, it is a just and necessary war on our has hitherto crowned his patriotic efforts, and assure him part in which every American citizen should have shown in advance, that at the expiration of his Presidential himself on the side of his Country, and neither morally term he will carry with him to his retirement, the esteem, aor physically, by word or by deed, have given “aid respect, and admiration of a grateful country. and comfort to the enemy."

Resolved. That this Convention hereby present to the Resoloed, That we would be rejoiced at the assurance people of the United States, Lewis Cass, of Michigan, as of a peace with Mexico, founded on the just principles the candidate of the Democratic party for the office of of indemnity for the past and security for the future; but President, and William 0. Butler of Ky, for Vice-Presithat while the ratification of the liberal treaty offered to dent of the U.S. Mexico remains in doubt, it is the duty of the country to | The following resolution was offered by Mr. sustain the administration and to sustain the country in every measure necessary to provide for the vigorous Yancy, of Ala. prosecution of the war, should that treaty be rejected. Resolved, That the doctrine of non-interference with

Resoloed. That the officers and soldiers who have the rights of property of any portion of the people of this carried the arms of their country into Mexico, bave Confederacy, be it in the States or Territories thereof, crowned it with imperishable glory. Their unconquer-by any other than the parties interested in them, is tho able courage, their daring enterprise, their unfaltering true Republican doctrine recognized by this body. perseverance and fortitude when assailed on all sides by innumerable foes and that more formidable enemy-the This resolution was rejected : Yeas, 36 : navs. diseases of the climate-exalt their devoted patriotism 216--the yeas being: Georgia, 9 ; South Carointo the highest heroism, and give them a right to the

bama, 9 profound gratitude of their country, and the admiration of the world. · Resoloed, That the Democratic National Convention of 80 States composing the American Republic tender their fraternal congratulations to the National Conven

FREE DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION, 1848. tion of the Republic of France, now assembled as the free-suffrage Representatives of the Sovereignty of thirty The Barnburners of New York, who were five millions of Republicans to establish government on those eternal principles of equal rights for which their

| disgusted with the proceedings of the National Lafayette and our Washington fought side by side in Convention which had nominated Cass and But. the struggle for our National Independence; and we ler for President and Vice-President, met in would especially convey to them and to the whole peo- | Convention at Utica, on the 22d of June. 1848. ple of France, our earnest wishes for the consolidation of their liberties, through the wisdom that shall guide their Delegates were also present from Ohio, Wiscon. councils, on the basis of a Democratic Constitution, not sin and Massachusetts. Col. Samuel Young prederived from the grants or concessions of kings or sided over the deliberations of this Convention : dynasties, but originating from the only true source of political power recognized in the States of this Union:

and Martin Van Buren was nominated for Presi. the inherent and inalienable right of the people, in their

ith Henry sovereign capacity, to make and to amend their forms

President. of government in such manner as the welfare of the

the clined. community may require.

Resolved, That the recent development of this grand On the 9th of August following, a Conven political truth, of the sovereignty of the people and tion was held at Buffalo, which was attended by their capacity and power for self-government, which is delegates from the States of Maine. New Hampe prostrating thrones and erecting Republics on the ruins of despotism in the old world, we feel that a high and shire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut. sacred duty is devolved, with increased responsibility, I upon the Democratic party of this country, as the party of the people, to sustain and advance among us Consti. tutional Liberty, Equality and Fraternity, by continuing

ontinuing | Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, Iowa, and the to resist all monopolies and exclusive legislation for the

Distr benefit of the few at the expense of the many, and by a

and by a of Massachusetts, presided, and the Convention vigilant and constant adherence to those principles and compromises of the Constitution which are broad enough nominated Messrs. Van Buren and Adams as and strong enough to embrace and uphold the Union as candidates for President and Vice-President, it was, the Union as it is, and the Union as it shall be in and adopted the following Resolves, sinco the full expansion of the energies and capacity of tbis great and progressive people.

known as Rosoloed, That a copy of these resolutions be for

THE BUFFALO PLATFORM. warded through the American Minister at Paris, to the National Convention of the Republic of France.

Whereas, We have assembled in Convention, as a Resoloed, That the fruits of the great political triumph union of freemen, for the sake of freedom, forgetting of 1844, which elected James K. Polk' and George M. all past political differences in a common resolve to Dallas President and Vice-President of the United States, maintain the rights of free labor against the aggressions bave fulfilled the hopes of the Democracy of the Union of the Slave Power, and to secure free soil to a free in defeating the declared purposes of their opponents in people. creating a National Bank, in preventing the corrupt and And Whereas, The political Conventions recently as. unconstitutional distribution of the Land Proceeds from sembled at Baltimore and Philadelphia, the one stilling the common treasury of the Union for local purposes, in the voice of a great constituency, entitled to be heard in protecting the Currency and Labor of the country from a Commons and Lohnorthe Purposlite deliberation and have indenini

its deliberations, and the other abandoning its distinctive ruinous fluctuations; and guarding the money of the principles for mere availability, have dissolved the Na. country for the use of the people by the establishment tional party organizations heretofore existing, by nomi. of the Constitutional treasury; in the noble impulse nating for the Chief Magistracy of the United States, un. given to the cause of Free Trade by the repeal of the der the sla vebolding dictation, candidates, neither of tariff of '42, and the creation of the more equal, honest, whom can be supported by the opponents of Slavery Exand productive tariff of 1846 ; and that, in our opinion, tension without a sacrifice of consistency, duty and selfit would be a fatal error to weaken the bands of a politi | respect; cal organization by which these great reforms have

And cohereas, These nominations so made, furnish the been achieved, and risk them in the hands of their occasion and demonstrate the necessity of the union of nown adversaries, with whatever delusive appeals they the people under the banner of Free Democracy, in a sok












umn and formal declaration of their independence of the with foreign nations, or among the several States, ar. slave power, and of their fixed determination to rescue objects of national concern, and that it is the duty of the Federal Government from its control;

Congress, in the exercise of its constitutional powers, to Resolved, therefore, That we, the people here assem- provide therefor. bled, remembering the example of our fathers, in the days Resoloed, That the free grant to actual settlers, in con of the first Declaration of Independence, putting our trust | sideration of the expenses they incur in making settlein God for the triumph of our cause, and invoking his ments in the wilderness, which are usually fully equal to guidance in our endeavors to advance it, do now plant their actual cost, and of the public benefits resulting ourselves upon the National platform of Freedom in oppo- therefrom, of reasonable portions of the public lands, sition to the sectional platform of Slavery.

under suitable limitations, is a wise and just measure of Resolved, That Slavery in the several States of this public policy, which will promote in various ways the inUnion which recognize its existence, depends upon State terests of all the States of this Union; and we therefore laws alone, which cannot be repealed or modified by the recommend it to the favorable consideratlon of the Ameri. Federal Government, and for which laws that govern can people. ment is not responsible. We therefore propose no inter- Resolved, that the obligations of honor and patriotference by Congress with Slavery within the limits of any ism require the earliest practicable payment of the paState.

tional debt, and we are therefore in favor of such a tariff Resolved. That the Proviso of Jefferson, to prohibit the of duties as will raise revenue adequate to defray the neexistence of Slavery after 1800, in all the Territories of the cessary expenses of the Federal Government, and to pay United States, Southern and Northern; the votes of six annual instalments of our debt, and the interest thereon. States and sixteen delegates, in the Congress of 1784, for Resolved, That we inscribe on our own banner, “Free the Proviso, to three States and seven delegates against Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men," and under it; the actual exclusion of Slavery from the Northwest- it we will fight on, and fight ever, until a triumphant vicern Territory, by the Ordinance of 1787, unanimously | tory shall reward our exertions, adopted by the States in Congress; and the entire history of that period, clearly show that it was the settled policy of the Nation not to extend, nationalize or encourage, but to limit, localize and discourage Slavery; and to this policy, which should never have been departed from, the Government ought to return.

This body assembled at Baltimore on the 16th Resolved, That our fathers ordained the Constitution of June, and chose Gen. John G. Chapman, of of the United States, in order, among other great national objects, to establish justice, promote the general welfare,

song other great national | Md., as presiding officer, and, after an exciting and secure the blessings of liberty; but expressly denied

es session of six days, nominated Gen. Winfield to the Federal Govornment, which they created, all con- Scott as President, on the 53d ballot, as follows: stitutional power to deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due legal process.

Resobed, That in the judgment of this Convention, Congress has no more power to make a Slave than to make & King; no more power to institute or establish Slavery than to institute or establish a Monarchy: no such power

184 can be found among those specifically conferred by the



128 Constitution, or derived by just implication from them.

188 181

134 128 Resowod, That it is the duty of the Federal Govern

184 180

134 128 ment to relieve itself from all responsibility for the exist

180 133

184 128 ence or continuance of slavery whorever the government

183 181

184 128 possesses constitutional authority to legislate on that

181 133

134 subject, and it is thus responsible for its existence.


134 128 Resowed, That the true, and in the judgment of this


186 127 Convention, the only safe means of preventing the ex


183 128 tension of Slavery into Territory now Free, is to prohibit


186 127 Its extension in all such Territory by an act of Congress,


18+ 128 Resobed, That we accept the issue which the Slave 18. 134 180

182 129 power has forced upon us; and to their demand for more 14.


182 129 Slave States, and more Slave Territory, our calm but final 15. 188 180

134 128 answer is, no more Slave States and no more Slave Ter 16.



123 ritory. Let the soil of our extensive domains be kept | 1

132 181

188 129 free for the hardy pioneers of our own land, and the op 18. 132 181

133 pressed and banished of other lands, seeking homes of

132 181

127 comfort and fields of enterprise in the new world.



129 Resolved, That the bill lately reported by the committee 21. 183 181


124 of eight in the Senate of the United States, was no com 22. 132 180

139 122 promise, but an absolute surrender of the rights of the 23.



122 Non-Slaveholders of all the States; and while we rejoice 24. 183 129

142 120 to know that a measure which, while opening the door for 2

183 128

146 119 the introduction of Slavery into Territories now free, 26

184 128

159 112 21 would also have opened the door to litigation and strife | 27 184 128 80 Necessary to choose-147. among the future inhabitants thereof, to the ruin of their

William A. Graham, of North Carolina, was peace and prosperity, was defeated in the House of Representatives, its passage, in hot. haste, by a majority, embraco nominated for Vice-President on the second ing several senators who voted in open violation of the ballot. known will of their constituents, should warn the people

1 The Convention adopted the following to see to it, that their representatives be not suffered to betray them. There must be no more Compromises with Slavery; if made they must be repealed.

PLATFORM: Resobed, That we demand freedom and established The Whigs of the United States, in Convention asseminstitutions for our brethren in Oregon, now exposed to 1 bled, adhering to the great conservative principles by hardships, peril and massacre by the reckless hostility of

which they are controled and governed, and now as ever the Slave Power to the establishment of Free Government relying upon the intelligence of the American people, for Free Territories : and not only for them, but for our with an abiding confidence in their capacity for self-gov. new brethren in California and New Mexico.

ernment, and their devotion to the Constitution and the Rosoled, It is due not only to this occasion, but to the Uniond whole people of the United States, that we should also

u also ments and determination for the establishment and declare ourselves on certain other questions of National maintenance of which their national organization as a Policy: therefore,

party was effected. Rosolood, That we demand Cheap Postage for the Peo- First. The government of the United States is of a ple; a retrenchment of the expenses and patronage of limited character, and it is confined to the exercise of the Federal Government; the abolition of all unneces

ces powers expressly granted by the Constitution, and such sary offices and salaries; and the election by the people

as may be necessary and proper for carrying the granted of all civil officers in the service of the government, so powers into full execution, and that powers not granted far as the same may be practicable.

or necessarily implied are reserved to the States respeo. Resolood. That River and Harbor improvements, when I tively and to the people. demanded by the safety and convenience of commerce Second. The State Governments should be held secure

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to their reserved rights, and the General Government, Nays-Maine, 4; Connecticut, 1; New-York, 22; sustained on its constitutional powers, and that the Pennsylvania, 6; Ohio, 15; Wisconsin, 1; Indiana, 6; Union should be revered and watched over as the palla- ninois, 0; Michigan, 6; California, 4-10. dium of our liberties. Third. That while struggling freedom everywhere

GEN. Scott's ACCEPTANCE. enlists the warmest sympathy of the Whig party, we still adhere to the doctrines of the Father of his Country, as Gen. Scott accepted the nomination and Platannounced in his Farewell Address, of keeping ourselves free from all entangling alliances with foreign countries, I form in the following letter. and of never quitting our own to stand upon foreign

WASHINGTON, June 24th, 1852. ground; that our mission as a republic is not to propagate our opinions, or impose on other countries our

SIR: I have had the honor to receive from your hands

the official notice of my unanimous nomination as the forms of government, by artifice or force; but to teach

Whig candidate for the office of President of the United by example, and show by our success, moderation and justice, the blessings of self-government, and the advan

States, together with a copy of the resolutions passed by tage of free institutions.

the Convention, expressing their opinions upon some of Fourth. That, as the people make and control the

the most prominent questions of national policy. Government, they should obey its constitution, laws and

This great distinction, conferred by a numerous, intellitreaties as they would retain their sell-respect, and the

gent and patriotic body, representing millions of my respect which they claim and will enforce from foreign

countrymen, sinks deep into my heart; and remembering

the very eminent dames which were before the Conven. powers,

tion in amicable competition with my own, I am made to Fifth. Government should be conducted on principles of the strictest economy; and revenue sufficient for the

feel, oppressively, the weight of responsibility belonging expenses thereof, in time, ought to be derived mainly

to my new position. Not having written a word to pro

cure this distinction, I lost not a moment after it had from a duty on imports, and not from direct taxes; and

been conferred in addressing a letter to one of your memon laying such duties sound policy requires a just dis

bers, to signify what would be, at the proper time, the crimination, and, when practicable, by specific duties,

substance of my reply to the Convention : and I now have whereby suitable encouragement may be afforded to

the honor to repeat in a more formal manner, as the occaAmerican industry, equally to all classes and to all por

sion justly demands, that I accept the nomination with the tions of the country ; an economical administration of

resolutions annexed. The political principles and measthe Government, in time of peace, ought to be derived

ures laid down in those resolutions are so broad that but from duties on imports, and not from direct taxation;

little is left for me to add. I therefore barely suggest in and in laying such duties, sound policy requires a just

this place, that should I, by the partiality of my country. discrimination, whereby suitable encouragement may be

men, be elevated to the Chief Magistracy of the Union, I afforded to American industry, equally to all classes, and to all parts of the country.

shall be ready, in my connection with Congress, to re

commend or approve of measures in regard to the man. Sixth. The Constitution vests in Congress the power

agement of the public domain, so as to secure an early to open and repair harbors, and remove obstructions

settlement of the same, favorable to actual settlers, but from navigable rivers, whenever such improvements are

consistent, nevertheless, with a due regard to the equal necessary for the common defense, and for the protec

rights of the whole American people in that vast national tion and facility of commerce with foreign nations, or

inheritance; and also to recommend or approve of a sin. among the States-said improvements being in every

gle alteration in our naturalization laws, suggested by my instance national and general in their character.

military experience, viz. : Giving to all foreigners the Seventh, The Federal and State Governments are parts

right of citizenship, who shall faithfully serve, in time of of one system, alike necessary for the common prosper

war, one year on board of our public ships, or in our ity, peace and security, and ought to be regarded alike

land forces, regular or volunteer, on their receiving an with a cordial, habitual and immovable attachment.

honorable discharge from the service. In regard to the Respect for the authority of each, and acquiescence in

general policy of the administration, if elected, I should, the just constitutional measures of each, are duties

of course, look among those who may approve that polirequired by the plainest considerations of National, State and individual welfare.

cy for the agents to carry it into execution; and I should

seek to cultivate harmony and fraternal sentiments Eighth. That the series of acts of the 32d Congress, the

throughout the Whig party, without attempting to reAct known as the Fugitive Slave law included, are

duce its members, by proscription, to exact uniformity to received and acquiesced in by the Whig party of the

my own views. United States as a settlement in principle and substance

But I should at the same time be rigorous in regard to of the dangerous and exciting questions which they

qualifications for office, retaining and appointing no one embrace; and, so far as they are concerned, we will either deficient in capacity or integrity, or in devotion to maintain them, and insist upon their strict enforcement, liberty, to the Constitution and the Union. Convinced until time and experience shall demonstrate the neces

that harmony or good will between the different quarters sity of further legislation to guard against the evasion of

of our broad country is essential to the present and the the laws on the one hand and the abuse of their powers future interests of the Republic, and with a devotion to on the other-not impairing their present efficiency; and those interests that can know no South and no North, I We deprecate all further agitation of the question thus

should neither countenance nor tolerate any sedition, dissettled, as dangerous to our peace, and will discounte

order, faction or resistance to the law or the Union on nance all efforts to continue or renew such agitation,

any pretext, in any part of the land, and I should carry whenever, wherever, or however the attempt may be

into the civil administration this one principle of inilitary made; and we will maintain this system as essential to

conduct-obedience to the legislative and judicial dethe nationality of the Whig party, and the integrity of partments of government, each in its constitutional the Union.

sphere, saving only in respect to the Legislature, the pos

sible resort to the veto power, always to be most cau. The above propositions were unanimously tiously exercised, and under the strictest restraints and

necessities. adopted with the exception of the last, which

Finally, for my strict adherence to the principles of the was carried by a vote of 212 to 70: the dele Whig party, as expressed in the resolutions of the Con.

vention, and herein suggested, with a sincere and earnest gates who voted against it being supporters of purpose to advance the greatness and happiness of the Scott as against Fillmore and Webster in the

Republic, and thus to cherish and encourage the cause of

constitutional liberty throughout the world, avoiding ballotings above given.

every act and thought that might involve our country in

an unjust or unnecessary war, or impair the faith of The vote by States, on this (Compromise) treaties, and discountenancing all political agitations inresolution, was as follows:

jurious to the interests of society and dangerous to the Union, I can offer no other pledge or guarantee than the

known incidents of a long public life, now undergoing the Yeas-Maine, 4; New Hampshire, 5; Vermont, 5;

severest examination Feeling myself highly fortunate Massachusetts,'3; Rhode Island, 4; Connecticut, 4;

in my associate on the ticket, and with a lively sense of New-York, 11; New Jersey, 7; Pennsylvania, 21; Dela

my obligations to the Convention, and to your personal ware, 3; Maryland, 8; Virginia, 14 ; North Carolina,

courtesies, I have the honor to remain, sir, with great 10; South Carolina, 8; Georgia, 10; Alabama, 9; Mis

esteem, your most obedient servant, sissippi, 7; Louisiana, 6; Unio, 8; Kentucky, 12; Ten

WINFIELD SCOTT. Dessee, 12; Indiana, 7; Illinois, 6; Missouri, 9; ArkanBas, 4; Florida, 3 ; Iowa, 4; Wisconsin, 4 ; Texas, 4 ;| To Hon. J. G. CHAPMAN, President of the Whig Na

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DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION—1852. of the people, and calculated to place the business of the

country within the control of a concentrated money This Convention assembled at Baltimore on power, and that above the laws and the will of the people; the 1st of June, John W. Davis, of Indiana, and that the results of Democratic legislation, in this and

all other financial measures, upon which issues have been presided, and the two-thirds rule was adopted.

made between the two political parties of the country have Gen. Franklin Pierce, of New Hampshire, was demonstrated to candid and practical men of all, parties, nominated for President on the 49th ballot, as their soundness, safety, and utility, in all business pursuits.

Resobed, That the separation of the moneys of the follows:

Government from Banking Institutions, is indispensable for the safety of the funds of the Government, and the rights of the people,

Resowed, That the liberal principles embodied by Ballots.

Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence, and sanctioned in the Constitution, which makes ours the land of liberty, and the asylum of the oppressed of every nation,

have ever been cardinal principles in the Democratic 119 26

faith; and every attempt to abridge the privilege of be115 31 25 1

coming citizens and the owners of soil among us, ought 114 88 34 26 1 8 3

to be resisted with the same spirit which swept the alien 114 88 34 26 18 3

and sedition laws from our statute book.

Resobed, That Congress has no power under the Con. 113 88 126

stitution to interfere with, or control the domestic insti. 27

tutions of the several States, and that such States are the 111

sole and proper judges of everything appertaining to their own affairs, and prohibited by the Constitution ;

that all efforts of the Abolitionists or others, made to 26 1

induce Congress to interfere with questions of Slavery, 87 51 26 1

or to take incipient steps in relation thereto, are calcu. 87 1 10

lated to lead to the most alarming and dangerous conse87 1 10

quences; and that all such efforts have an inevitable 87 50 26 1 11

tendency to diminish the happiness of the people, and 85 1 11

endanger the stability and permanency of the Union, and 8985 85 63 26 1 10

ought not to be countenanced by any friend of our politi. 81 92 64 26 1

cal institutions. 60 102 64 26

Resowed, That the foregoing proposition covers, and is 53 104 77 26 15

intended to embrace, the whole subject of Slavery agita37 103 78 26

tion in Congress; and therefore, the Democratic party of 33 103

the Union, standing on this National Platform, will abide 84 101 81 26

by, and adhere to, a faithful execution of the acts known 33 101 80 26

as the Compromise measures settled by the last Congress 98 26 24

--the act for reclaiming fugitives from service or labor 23 96 88 26 25

included; which act, being designed to carry out an 93 91 26 25

express provision of the Constitution, cannot with fidelity 91 92 26

thereto be repealed, nor so changed as to destroy or im79 92 26

pair its efficiency. 98 74 80 26

Resolved, That the Democratic party will resist all

attempts at renewing in Congress, or out of it, the agita130

tion of the Slavery question, under whatever shape or

color the attempt may be made.

[Here follow the Resolutions of 1848, against 107

the distribution of the proceeds of the Public 106

23 106 27

Land Sales, and against the abridgment of the 107

veto power of the President.]
101 27

Resoloed, That the Democratic party will faithfully 101 27 33 91

abide by and uphold the principles laid down in the 27 32 97

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1792 and 1798, and 28 32 97

44 in the report of Mr. Madison to the Virginia Legislature 28 33 95 1 5

in 1799 ; that it adopts those principles as constituting 48. 73 28 83 90 1 6

one of the main foundations of its political creed, and is 49. 2 - 2

282 resolved to carry them out in their obvious meaning and

import. The first vote for Vice-President was as fol. Resolved, that the war with Mexico, upon all the lows :

principles of patriotism and the law of nations, was a

just and necessary war on our part, in which no Ameri. Wm. R. King, of Ala... 126 | Wm. O. Butler, of Ky... 27 can citizen should have shown himself opposed to his G. J. Pillow, of Tenn... 25 Roht. Strange, of N. O... 23

country, and neither morally nor physically, by word or D. R. Atchison, of Mo.. 25 S U. Downs, of La.... 80 deed, given aid and comfort to the enemy, T. J. Rusk, of Texas,.. 12 J. B. Weller, of Cal.... 28 Resobed, That we rejoice at the restoration of friendlr Jeff. Davis, of Miss..... 2 | Howell Cobb, of Ga.... 2 relations with our sister Republic of Mexico, and earnest

ly desire for her all the blessings and prosperity whic! Wm. R. King, of Alabama, was unanimously

we enjoy under Republican Institutions, and we con. nominated on the second ballot.

gratulate the American people on the results of that war

which have so manifestly justified the policy and conduct THE PLATFORM.

of the Democratic party, and insured to the United States The Platform was made up of resolves. Here

indemnity for the past, and security for the future.

Resolved, That, in 'view of the condition of popular follo

institutions in the old world, a high and sacred duty is and 4 of that of 1840. (see them heretofore), to devolved with increased responsibility upon the Demo

cracy of this country, as the party of the people, to up. which were added the following:

hold and maintain the rights of every State, and thereby Resoloed, That it is the duty of every branch of the the Union of States, and to sustain and advance among Government to enforce and practice the most rigid them constitutional liberty, by continuing to resist all economy in conducting our public affairs, and that no monopolies and exclusive legislation for the benefit of the more revenue ought to be raised than is required to few at the expense of the many, and by a vigilant and defray the necessary expenses of the Government, and constant adherence to those principles and compromises for the gradual but certain extinction of the public debt. l of the CONSTITUTION, which are broad enough and

Resoloed, That Congress has no power to charter a strong enough to embrace and uphold the Union as it is, National Bank ; that we believe such an institution one and the Union as it should be, in the full expansion of of leadly hostility to the best interests of the country, the energies and capacity of this great and progressive langerous to our republican institutions and the liberties ' people.



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FREE DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION-1852. | 10. That no permanent settlement of the Slavery

question can be looked for except in the practical reThe Free-Soil Democracy held a National cognition of the truth that Slavery is sectional and FreeConvention at Pittsburgh, on the 11th August, dom national; by the total separation of the General

Government from Slavery, and the exercise of its legiti1852, Henry Wilson, of Mass., presiding. All!

mate and constitutional influence on the side of Freethe Free States were represented, together with dom; and by leaving to the States the whole subject of Delaware, Virginia, Kentucky and Maryland. Slavery and the extradition of fugitives froin service. John P. Vale, of N. H., was nominated for Presi

11. That all men have a natural right to a portion of the

soil; and that as the use of the soil is indispensable to dent, with Géo. W. Julian, of Indiana, for Vice

| life. the right of all men to the soil is as sacred as their President. The Convention adopted the fol- right to life itself.

12. That the Public Lands of the United States belong lowing:

to the People, and should not be sold to individuals nor PLATFORM:

granted to corporations, but should be held as a sacred Having assembled in National Convention as the De

trust for the benefit of the people, and should be granted mocracy of the United States, united by a common

in limited quantities, free of cost, to landless settlers. resolve to maintain right against wrong, and Freedom

18. That a due regard for the Federal Constitution, against Slavery : confiding in the intelligence, patriot-la

a sound administrative policy, demand that the funds

of the General Government be kept separate from Bankism, and discriminating justice of the American people, putting our trust in God for the triumph of our cause,

ing institutions; that inland and ocean postage should be and invoking his guidance in our endeavors to advance

reduced to the lowest possible point; that no more revenue it, we now submit to the candid judgment of all men

should be raised than is required to defray the strictly the following declaration of principles and measures :

necessary expenses of the public service, and to pay off 1. That governments, deriving their just powers from

the public Debt; and that the power and patronage of the the consent of the governed, are instituted among men

Government should be diminished, by the abolition of all to secure to all those inalienable rights of life, liberty,

unnecessary offices, salaries, and privileges, and by the and the pursuit of happiness with which they are

election, by the people, of all civil officers in the service endowed by their Creator, and of which none can be

of the United States, so far as may be consistent with deprived by valid legislation, except for crime.

the prompt and efficient transaction of the public busi2. That the true mission of American Democracy is to

ness. maintain the Liberties of the People, the Sovereignty of

14. That River and Harbor Improvements, when necesthe States, and the perpetuity of the Union, by the im- sary to

sary to the safety and convenience of commerce with partial application to public affairs, without sectional

foreign nations, or among the several States, are objects discriminations of the fundamental principles of hu

of national concern; and it is the duty of Congress, in man rights, strict justice and an economical administra

the exercise of its constitutional powers, to provide for tion.

the same. 8. That the Federal Government is one of limited

15. That emigrants and exiles from the old world powers, derived solely from the Constitution, and the

should find a cordial welcome to homes of comfort and grants of power therein ought to be strictly construed by

fields of enterprise in the new; and every attempt to all the departments and agents of the Government, and

abridge their privilege of becoming citizens and owners it is inexpedient and dangerous to exercise doubtful con

of the soil among us, ought to be resisted with inflexible

determination. stitutional powers. 4. That the Constitution of the United States, ordained

16. That every nation has a clear right to alter or to form a more perfect Union, to establish Justice and

change its own government, and to administer its own secure the blessings of Liberty, expressly denies to the

concerns in such manner as may best secure the rights General Government all power to deprive any person of

and promote the happiness of the people; and foreign life, liberty or property without due process of law; and,

interference with that right is a dangerous violation of therefore, the Government having no more power to

the law of nations, against which all independent governmake a slave than to make a king, and no more power

ments should protest, and endeavor by all proper means to establish Slavery than to establish a Monarchy,

to prevent; and especially is it the duty of the Amerishould at once proceed to relieve itself from all respon

can Government, representing the Chief Republic of sibility for the existence of Slavery, wherever it possesses

the world, to protest against, and by all proper means constitutional power to legislate for its extinction.

to prevent the intervention of kings and emperors against 5. That, to the persevering and importunate demands

Nations seeking to establish for themselves Republican of the Slave power for more Slave States, new Slave

or constitutional governments. Territories and the nationalization of Slavery, our dis

17. That the Independence of Hayti ought to be tinct and final answer is—no more Slave States, no

recognized by our Government, and our commercial Slave Territory, no nationalized Slavery, and no national

relations with it placed on the footing of the most Legislation for the extradition of Slaves.

favored nations. 6. That Slavery is a sin against God, and a crime

18. That as by the Constitution, “the citizens of each against man, which no human enactment nor usage can

State shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunimake right; and that Christianity, humanity, and patriot

ties of citizens in the several States," the practice of ism alike demand its abolition.

imprisoning colored seamen of other States, while the 7. That the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, is repugnant vessels to

vessels to which they belong lie in port, and refusing to the Constitution, to the principles of the common law,

the exercise of the right to bring such cases before the to the spirit of Christianity, and to the sentiments of

Supreme Court of the United States, to test the legality the civilized world. We therefore deny its binding force

of such proceedings, is a flagrant violation of the Conupon the American people, and demand its immediate

stitution, and an invasion of the rights of the citizens aad total repeal.

of other States utterly inconsistent with the professions 8. That the doctrine that any human law is a finality, made by the

made by the slaveholders, that they wish the provisions and not subject to modification or repeal, is not in

of the Constitution faithfully observed by every State accordance with the creed of the founders of our Govern

in the Union. ment, and is dangerous to the liberties of the people.

19. That we recommend the introduction into all trea9. That the Acts of Congress, known as the Compro- nes nerear

I ties hereafter to be negotiated between the United States mise Measures of 1850, by making the admission of a and foreiga nations, O! some provis

and foreign nations, of some provision for the amicable sovereign State contingent upon the adoption of other settlement of difficulties by a resort to decisive arbimeasures demanded by the special interest of Slavery ; trations.

trations. by their omission to guarantee freedom in the free Terri

| 20. That the Free Democratic Party is not organized tories; by their attempt to impose unconstitutional

to aid either the Whig or Democratic wing of the great limitations on the power of Congress and the people to I Slave Compromise party of the nation, but to defeat them admit new States; by their provisions for the assump-1.both; a

both; and that repudiating and renouncing both, as tion of five millions of the State debt of Texas, and for

hopelessly corrupt, and utterly unworthy of confidence, the payment of five millions more, and the cession of a

the purpose of the Free Democracy is to take possession large territory to the same State under menace, as an of th

of the Federal Government, and administer it for the inducement to the relinquishment of a groundless claim. better protection of the rights and interests of the whole and by their invasion of the sovereignty of the States people. and the liberties of the people through the enactment! 21. That we inscribe on our banner, Free soil. Free of an unjust, oppressive, and unconstitutional Fugitive Speech, Free Labor and Free Men, and under it will Slave Law, are proved to be inconsistent with aií the fight on and fight ever until a triumphant victory shall principles and maxims of Democracy, and wholly inade- / reward our exertions. quate to the settlement of the questions of which they | 22. That upon this Plaul

22. That upon this platform the Convention presents are claimed to be an adjustment.

| to the Apirican people as a candidate for the office of

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