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themselves and the builders; besides, some of the colonists would be trained for that, as well as all other occupations needful to such a colony, among which the chief manufactures of Great Britain would be altogether excluded.

Now let us imagine this colony in its infancy, conducted by one head and a few assistants, male and female, all selected with great care for soundness of conduct, soundness of principle, soundness of judgment, and of active, systematic, and persevering dispositions; and that a fancy that they had such qualities, should not be deemed sufficient; each house being adapted for about one hundred young persons, besides the officer of the same sex, and who would be assisted by a sufficient number of monitors. And each establishment passing periodically under some review and inspection as to behaviour, attainments, quantity of corn raised, and cattle reared, &c.; a suitable emulation would be excited and continued in every establishment, and through every department. The male and female establishments would be as well a mile apart, and thus they might be continued

through a considerable

space of country; and at distances from each other determinable by the quantity of land the inmates might, when well instructed, be supposed capable of cultivating, should soil and situation suit such arrangement. The industry of all might be judiciously and perseveringly directed; first, to raising their own food, next to raising food for the new comers, and providing them dwellings; and if these objects did not absorb all their strength and resources, they might raise and collect for the mother-country such articles of raw produce as might be most congenial to the climate, which being immediately on arrival sold or bartered for the manufactures of the mother-country, the outward cargo being the proceeds of raw produce would leave room for fresh emigrants; and as there would be no need ever to stay a single tide for freight, the vessels so employed seldom need much exceed a week at either port.

The construction of both houses and vessels might be managed at a considerable saving of cost; and the latter affording greater

convenience, as well as more security, than any ever yet adopted.

It is interesting to imagine the advantage which such towns as Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, &c. would derive from the continual influx of cargoes of raw produce, always to be paid for in manufactured goods.

As to land for colonization, we have already enough to support perhaps onethird, or one-fourth of the inhabitants of the globe; added to which, our loan-mongers will probably never get any more payment from the South American republics, except they take it in land; and which, after all, should we have great need of it, would then be worth ten times (may we not say one hundred times) as much to us as it is now to them; and if in one parcel from each government, having each a good maritime boundary, with the other boundaries as much as possible natural boundaries, and being independent of their laws, and of so much of their religion as is mixed up with worldly ambition and dependent on worldly power, might not such territory

form a good, fair, tangible payment ? and is there a prospect of any other than a portion of their land, or the admitting our commodities at little or no duty for a specific period ? this, however, they would gain by in price, as much as we in additional business, and would lead to our buying more of them in return; besides that, the arrangement consequent thereon between our government and the loan-mongers might not be satisfactory, but the bargain for land, which now is little worth, might be very profitable at no distant period; for not only the British nation, but every other civilized country, appears to be rapidly on the increase; so that in many spots, what is not now worth a penny, may, and in many instances probably will, forty years hence, be worth a pound.

Would it not be well very carefully to abstain from allowing governors to make any further grants of land, except for specific and not very distant periods, say not exceeding fifty years ?

And if the increase of population goes on at the ratio which the last fifteen years have exhibited, the sale of


such, at the expiration of the respective grants, would be enough to reduce national debt to a tolerably tangible amount ; and if juvenile emigration be adopted on a good efficient plan, some will be wanted for immediate settlements; and although not the thousandth part of what still remains unappropriated, yet the emigrants and their descendants would want an amazing surface to spread away upon as they marry off, after a while, by perhaps hundreds of thousands a year. Persons thus educated in good habits and management, supported by the good constitutions which so generally accompany early rising, regular employment and food, cleanliness, and peaceful serene minds promoted by the cultivation of good will to all, which would be a material feature in the juvenile emigration system, they would, by possessing these powerful auxiliary advantages, be able and willing, if not desirous, to pay a moderate quit-rent punctually; and this, though little from any one, yet, in process of time, coming from millions, would also nicely help away our national debt, which, if we

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