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tive in such a way that the notion expressed by this substantive is considered as already implied in the foregoing part of the sentence. Cf. Quo gemitu, A. II. 73 ; ea signa dedit, A. II. 171 ; hic nuntius esto, A. IV. 237. Gr. 453. A. & S. 206 (17). - 330. Fugere. The perfect expresses instantaneousness. Cf. exiit, II. 81. So stravit. The rain pours down in torrents, the lightning flashes, the earth trembles, and instantly, there being no appreciable interval of time between the cause and the completion of the effect, the wild beasts have fled, &c. 331. Humilis qualifies stravit. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (a). Some take it with pavor in an active sense and causing humility. -332. Athon; a high mountain, on the Strymonian Gulf, in Macedonia. Gr. 46 and 3. 2). A. & S. 54. Rhodopen; a high mountain range

in Thrace. Gr. 43. A. & S. 44. Ceraunia; a range of mountains in Epirus. Alta Ceraunia is a half-translation of 'Akporepavvia, i. e. thunder-peaks. Telo; i. e. a thunderbolt. 333. Ingeminant. It is observed that the rain and wind increase after a thunderclap. — 334. Plangunt = wail; intransitively. — 335. Coeli - sidera. The months of heaven are the signs of the zodiac, through each of which the sun is about a month in passing; and sidera are those other constellations whose rising and setting influenced the weather. The next two lines merely give instances of the things to be observed. — 336. Frigida; because of its distance from the sun. Sese ... receptet. Wch. and Forb. take this as strictly literal :

returns to the place whence he has just started ”; but it seems to refer more generally to the motions of the planet among the stars. Servius says that Saturn when in Capricorn caused heavy rains, and when in Scorpio, hail. Receptet ... erret. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265.

– 337. Ignis Cyllenius; i. e. Mercury ; so called from Cyllene, a mountain in Arcadia, the reputed birthplace of the god. Ignis ; from its brilliancy and nearness to the sun, in contrast, perhaps, with frigida Saturni stella. Coeli; with orbes ; i. e. the circuit of the planet through the heavens. - 338. As another means of averting the injuries caused by the violence of storms, the husbandman is directed to attend to the worship of the gods, especially Ceres. See on v. 7. Annua ... sacra; the festival of the Ambarvalia. See on E. III. 76. — 339. Refer expresses recurrence. See on v. 249. Operatus = sacrificing. For the present force of the part. see on v. 293.

- 340. Extremae. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. Sub casum = immediately after the end. — 341. Mollissima = most mellow; i. e. with age.

342. The second clause explains the first ; i. e. it is pleasant to sleep in the thick shade on the mountains. - 343. Tibi. Gr. 389. A. & S. 228, N. (a). Adoret. Gr. 488. II. A. & S. 260, R. 6. 344. Baccho. Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324. 2. 345. Felix

auspicious; i. e. acceptable to the gods. - 346. Chorus et socii;

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i e. chorus sociorum. – 347. In tecta = to their houses. Neque ante. It is not easy to decide whether this is merely an additional admonition to celebrate the Ambarvalia, as an indispensable preliminary to the harvest, or an injunction to perform a second set of rites in summer time. - 349. Tempora. Gr. 380 and 1. A. & S. 234. II. Quercu; i. e. in memory of man's first food. — 350. Incompositos rude, uncouth. - 351. Haec refers to the nouns in the next line. - 352. Frigora is the important word, and is contrasted with restus and pluvias. — 354. Austri; for winds in general. — 355. Stabulis. Gr. 392 and 2. A. & S. 228 and 1. 356. Ventis surgentibus are the important words. The prognostics of wind follow. Freta ponti ; poetically for pontus. — 357. Agitata tumescere =to be agitated into a swell. -359. Misceri is explained by resonantia, which serves instead of an abl., like murmure, A. I. 124 ; tumultu, A. II. 486. — 360. Jam ... tum then. A curvis. For a with tempero cf. A. II. 8.

Male = scarcely. The storm is close at hand. — 362. Marinae; opposed to in sicco. — 365. Vento impendente ; emphatic, like ventis surgentibus, v. 356. — 366. Umbram flammarum. Gr. 595. A. & S. 279. 5. - 367. A tergo=behind them. Albescere. Gr. 332. II.

A. & S. 187. II. 2 and (a). — 368. Volitare. Gr. 332. I.

A. & S. 187. II. I and (6). — 369. Summa. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. — 370. Signs of rain. Boreae ... Eurique Zephyrique; i. e. when there are thunders and lightnings from all parts of the sky, three winds being put for all. — 371. Eurique. Gr. 669. V. A. & S. 309. 2 (1). Domus; as if each of the winds had a home in the quarter of the heavens from which it blows. 372. Fossis. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257, R. 7 (a). — 373. Humida; i. e. with the rain. Imprudentibus =unwarned; because the signs are so numerous. - 374. Vallibus, with fugere. Gr. 422 and 1. A. & S. 254, R. 3. — 375. Aëriae; contrasted with vallibus imis. Fugere. See on v. 49. So captavit and the other perfs. in this passage. — 377. The swallow is always observed to fly low before rain, because the flies and other insects on which she feeds keep at that time near the surface of the ground and the water. Arguta twittering (as she flies). — 378. Veterem ... querelam their old plaintive note. Vetus is here used, just like our old, of what is repeated in the same unvarying manner ; as we say : an old story," etc.

- 379. Tectis penetralibus. Cf. adytis penetralibus, A. II.

- 380. Angustum ... iter. Cf. calle angusto, A. IV. 405. Terens is illustrated by saepius. Bibit

The ancients supposed that the rainbow drew up water from the sea, rivers, etc., which afterwards fell in rain. — 381.' Agmine. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. -382. Densis ... alis with crowded wings ;

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i. e. they fly close together. — 383. Volucres. Gr. 545. A. & S. 239. Asia ... prata = the Asian meads ; a tract of land in Lydia, in Asia Minor, on the banks of the Cayster, which often overflowed them. Dulcibus fresh; in opposition to those of the sea, just mentioned. Circum; adverbial. — 384. Rimantur=try in every chink, search, rummage ; i. e. for food. Caystri; with stagnis. 385. Infundere. Gr. 551. I. and 1. A. & S. 272. Rores; i. e. they make it into spray.

386. In undas

into the waves, to meet the waves. - 387. Incassum = wantonly. Videas. Gr. 485. A. & S. 260. II. — 388. Improba villanous, good for nothing ; because the crow invites the rain. - 389. Spatiatur expresses the stately, leisurely pace of the crow. The alliteration, as in the preceding verse, gives the effect of monotony. - 390. Ne.. quidem. Gr. 602. III. 2. A. & S. 279. 3 (d). — 391. Testa earthen lamp. — 392. Scintillare = to sputter. Putres ... fun. gos; the thick snuff which gathers on the wick because of the dampness of the air.

393 - 423. Signs of fair weather ; first negatively, vv. 395 - 400, and then affirmatively, vv. 401 - 423. — 393. Ex= after. Soles sunny days.

Serena = serene skies. 395. Acies is the sharply defined edge, or outline, of the stars, which is not blunted or dimmed by floating vapors. — 396. Obnoxia beholden. -397. Tenuia, Gr. 669. II. and 3. A. & S. 306. i and (3). Lanae ... vellera fleecy clouds ; lit. fleeces of wool. - 398. Non - pandunt; i. e. do not sit on the shore drying their wings. — 399. Dilectae Thetidi; possibly because the lovers were changed into Halcyons by Thetis ; but it is simpler to say " loved by her as sea-birds." Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. II. See on E. IV. 32. Solutos ...jactare ; i. e, ita ut jactando solvantur ; i. e. toss them to pieces. — 403. Nequidquam without purpose, aimlessly ; like incassum ; i. e. a prolonged objectless effort. The more common interpretation is : “in vain, to no purpose "; i. e. though an ill-omened bird, the owl with all her hooting will not be able to bring foul weather. But it seems clear that Virgil intends to mention the screeching of the nightowl as a sign of fine weather. –404. Liquido clear; i. e. after the storm. Nisus was king of Megara, and on his head there grew a purple lock which was the safeguard of his life and of his city. But when his daughter Scylla had fallen in love with Minos, king of Crete, who was besieging Megara, she cut off the lock from her father's head as he slept, and thus betrayed both him and his city into the hands of the enemy. Minos, however, did not reward her as she expected, but allowed her to perish miserably. After death Nisus was changed into a sea-eagle, or osprey, and Scylla into the ciris, a kind of lark, or, according to others, a hawk. – 406. Aethera. Gr. 93

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and 1. A. & S. 80 and R. -408. Qua - auras. Keightley explains these words of the greater bird having missed his pounce, and thus being obliged to soar into the air in order to make a second, while the smaller escapes as fast as it can. -410. Liquidas soft, clear ; opposed to raucas. As the ravens, by hurrying home, v. 381, announced rain, so their remaining at home, cawing and Aying about their nests, is a sign of fair weather. Presso. gutture; apparently opposed to plena voce, v. 388. — 413. Imbribus actis when the rain is driven away, when the rain is spent. — 415. An allusion to the Pythagorean, Platonist, and Stoic spiritualism, accord. ing to which there was a portion of the divine mind in all animated beings, and which Virgil here rejects in favor of the Epicurean and Lucretian materialism, which admitted the existence of nothing but matter and its modifications. Divinitus is distinguished from fato, as the poet is evidently alluding to the language of different philosophies, fato pointing to the Stoic doctrine. Illis. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226.

- 416. Ingenium = an intelligent principle. Rerum – major =a deeper (i. e. deeper than men have) insight into things by fate. 417. But the true explanation is, that, as the atmosphere is condensed or rarefied, the organs and powers of animals are variously affected : in fine weather they become cheerful ; in bad weather the reverse. Coeli of the atmosphere. - 418. Mutavere vias (=have changed their courses) is explained by mobilis, the weather and the atmospheric moisture being supposed to shift. Juppiter. See on E. VII. 60. Juppiter uvidus austris denotes the condition of the atmosphere before the change. Austris; with uvidus. — 420. Species=phases; a materialistic word. Keightley and Forb. make it = habits, disposition. Motus; also materialistic. — 421. Alios

agebat= other sensations than (those which they received) while the wind was driving onward the clouds. The second alios is goyerned by concipiebant understood, and the sentence, alios, dum agebat, is to be construed parenthetically. The change from low to high spirits being the point, the second alios is logically = quam, and does not denote a co-ordinate difference. — 422. Ille. Gr. 450. 5. A. & S. 207, R. 24.

424 - 460. Prognostics of the weather may be obtained by observ. ing the appearances of the sun and moon. — - 424. Rapidum. See on v. 92. Sequentes = following (each other). Lunas might be either the daily or monthly moons, but primum and ortu quarto favor the former meaning. -425. Ordine. Gr.414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. -426. Hora dies. Gr. 705. III. A. & S. 324. 3. Insidiis — serenae. Cf. A. V. 851. A night clear at first often terminates in rain. - 427. Revertentes = returning (to her); i. e. when she begins to fill anew. — 428. Aëra; the air seen between the horns of

the crescent moon. We should say, “there is a halo round the moon." Cornu; for cornibus. — 429. Agricolis pelagoque; for agris pelagoque, or agricolis nautisque. — 430. Virgineum; an allusion to the virginity of Diana. Suffuderit ore ruborem; an inversion of suffuderit os rubore. On ore, see Gr. 422. 1. A. & S. 254, R. 3. — 431. Vento. See on Zephyro, v. 44. Phoebe (= Luna); a surname of Diana as the goddess of the moon, the sister of Phoebus, the sun. Cf. Ov. M. II. 208. – 432. Auctor - indi. cation, presage. — 435. Exactum ad mensem= to the end of the month. - 436. Servati; i.e. that have come safe to port : not preserved from peril, as if there had been a storm. In litore. Cf. A. V. 236. — 437. Glauco ... Panopeae. When a long final vowel or a diphthong is not elided, it is regularly made short, if in the thesis. The exception to this rule in the case of Glauco is a license not indulged in by Virgil elsewhere. Gr. 669. I. and 2. A. & S. 305 (1) and (2). Glaucus was a Boeotian shepherd, who threw himself into the sea from the effects of an herb which he had eaten : he afterwards became a sea-deity. Panopea, or Panope, was a sea-nymph, daughter of Nereus and Doris. Melicertae. Meli. certes, a son of Athamas and Ino, who, with his mother, fell into the sea, was metamorphosed into a marine divinity, under the name of Palaemon. –439. Sequuntur:attend. — 440. Refert. See on V. 249. — 440. Astris. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. 441. Nascen. tem ortum his first rising. 442. Conditus. Condo is naturally constructed here, as in v. 438, as a verb of motion, since it means strictly not to hide, but to throw together or into. Cf. conjicio, contorqueo. Medio orbe=and shall have retired in respect to the middle of his disc; or, and shall have receded from the middle of his disc (to the circumference) ; i. e. when the centre of the disc is covered by clouds and only the edge appears. Gr. 429, or 425. A. & S. 250. I, or 251. — 443. Tibi. Gr. 388. II. A. & S. 225. II. Ab alto from on high ; or it may be, from the deep.

See on ex alto, v. 324. — 445. Sub lucem = just after daylight. Sese ... rumpent = erumpent. -446. Diversi

scattered. Tithoni; a son of Laomedon, and brother of Priam. By the prayers of Aurora, who loved him, and carried him off to the seats of the immortal gods, he obtained from Jupiter immortality, but not eternal youth; in consequence of which he completely shrunk together in his old age; whence an old decrepit man was proverbially called Tithonus. Cf. A. IV. 585. Aurora; the goddess of the morning, who brings up the light of day from the east. At the close of night she rose from the couch of her beloved Tithonus, and on a chariot drawn by swift horses she ascended up to heaven from the river Oceanus, to announce the coming light of the sun. See

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