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for the northernmost point, not only of earth, but of the mundane system, as Libya for the southernmost. Arduus ; referring to the elevation of the north pole, as premitur, etc., does to the depression of the south pole. Cf. Ov. Trist. IV. 10. 108. – 242. Hic vertex; i. e. the north pole. Illum; i. e. the south pole. - 243. The infernal regions were supposed to be in the centre of the earth; so here they are said to be over the south pole. Sub pedibus is to be connected with videt, the feet being those of Styx and the Manes ; but videt of course does not mean that the south pole is actually visible from the shades. — 244. Hic; i. e. at the north pole. Flexu. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Anguis. See on v. 205. Elabitur=shoots out: not the same as labitur. - 246. Metuentes — tingui; i. e. they never set. See on Ov. M. II. 172. - 247. Illic; i. e, at the south pole. Ut perhibent; for the southern hemisphere was wholly unknown to the ancients. Aut ... aut; i. e. either the southern regions are in total darkness, or they have day when we have night. — 248. Obtenta .. nocte=by the overspreading pall of night. - 249. Redire, reducere, recurrere, referre, and other words of the sort, are constantly used of the recurring order of nature. — 250. Primus. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (a). Oriens, sc. Sol. Cf. A. V. 739. The horses of the sun come panting up the hill, casting their breath, which represents the morning air, on the objects before them. – 251. Rubens may merely mean bright, or the color of sunset may be naturally transferred to the star. Lumina; Vesper's own rays, not the light of sunset, as Voss thinks, taking Vesper generally of evening, nor the other stars, as others interpret it. — 252. Hinc seems to refer to the whole of the preceding passage from v. 231, which has been devoted to an exposition of certain parts of the mundane system. Virgil now enforces the conclusion: “It is on the strength of this that we know beforehand," etc. Tempestates = the changes of the weather. Dubio . . . coelo=though the (appearance of the) sky may be doubtful. Gr. 430. A. & S. 257, R. 7 (a). -254. Infidum is significant, as showing the importance of knowing when to venture on

- 255. Conveniat. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. Armatas =rigged. Deducere to launch. Cf. A. III. 71; IV. 398. The ancients drew their vessels up on the shore during the winter. See on Hor. C. I. 4. 2. - 256. Tempestivam; with evertere. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (a). — 257. Vv. 257, 258 belong to what precedes, coming in fact under hinc, which is the introduction to the whole paragraph. - 258. Temporibus. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. I. Parem is intended to contrast with diversis. The seasons are diverse, yet they make the year uniform.

259. Weather which is bad for ordinary out-door purposes is good

the sea.

for other things. — 260 Forent... properanda would have to be done in a hurry; contrasted with maturare, to get done in good time. Coelo. Gr. 430. A. & S. 257, R. 7(a). — 261. Maturare. Gr. 549. A. & S. 269. Procudit =sharpens by hammering. 262. Arbore ; i. e. ex arbore. Gr. 425 and 1 and 3. 4). Lintres; troughs into which grapes were put after the vintage. — 263. Pecori siguum. Branding cattle was done with boiling pitch, generally towards the end of January and April. Numeros - acervis

= puts numbers on the heaps (of corn); i. e. to indicate the quantity contained in them. Impressit. Gr. 704. I. 2. A. & S. 323. I (6) (2) (a). On the tense see on v. 49. - 264. Vallos furcasque ; probably intended to support the vines. See II. 359. — 265. Amerina... retinacula=Amerian bands ; i. e. willow bands, for tying up the vine. Amerina, from Ameria, a town of Umbria, famous for its willows, which have a slender red twig. -266. Facilis = pliant. Texatur. Gr. 487; 488. I. A. & S. 260, R. 6. — 267. Torrete ; i.e. to make the corn easier to grind. See A. I. 179. Igni. Gr. 87. III. 3. A. & S. 82, Ex. 5 (a). - 268. Quippe=for. The connection seems to be thus : You should not be idle on wet days, for even on holidays some kinds of work are permitted. — 269. Fas et jura =divine and human laws. Rivos deducere; either to let on the water from the reservoirs for the purpose of irrigation, or to draw off the superabundant water from the fields. The former is probably meant, since it would be a work of daily necessity in hot weather. 270. Religio=religious scruple. Vetuit; aoristic perfect. See on V. 49. Segeti — saepem. Columella says that the pontiffs forbid the making of hedges for corn on holidays. Forb. and Keightley suppose that old hedges might be repaired, though not new ones made ; but that does not appear to be Virgil's meaning. -271. In. sidias — moliri seems to refer to snaring mischievous birds, as ordinary bird-catching would not be a work of necessity. - 272. Balantum; i. e. when they are washed. Salubri is emphatic, as the washing is to cure disease, not for cleansing the wool, which was not allowed on holidays. — 273. Markets were also held on holidays (as they are still on Sundays in the south of Europe), at which the country-people could sell their farm produce. Agitator aselli; not the asinarius or ass-driver, but the peasant who happens to drive the ass to market. — 274. Vilibus. See on v. 227.-275. Incusum=indented ; i. e. that it may crush the corn better. Massam picis ; i.e. for marking cattle, securing casks, repairing vessels, etc. -276. Of lucky and unlucky days. Ipsa - operum the moon herself has made different days favorable in respect of (agricultural) labors in different degrees ; i. e. all days are not equally lucky. Ordine. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. -- 277. Operum. Gr. 399. 3. 4). A. & S. 213 and R. I (a). Cf. infelix animi, A. IV. 529. Quintam; sc. diem. Gr. 120, Ex. A. & S. 90. I. Orcus; the same as Hades or Pluto, the god of the lower world. He is called pallidus on account of the ghastliness of death. – 278. Eumenides, also called Erinyes, and by the Romans Furiae or Dirae, were originally nothing but a personification of curses pronounced upon a guilty criminal. Aeschylus calls them the daughters of Night ; and Sophocles, of Scotos (Darkness) and Ge. No prayer, no sacrifice, and no tears could move them, or protect the object of their persecution. They dwelt in the deep darkness of Tartarus, dreaded by gods and men. With later writers, though not always, the number of Eumenides is limited to three, and their names are Tisiphone, Alecto, and Megaera. See also on Ov. M. X. 46. Tum has its ordinary sense.

It appears to be added here because it had been omitted in the previous clause. 279. Coeum Iapetumque. These were Titans, the sons of Terra and Uranus, the number of whom was twelve. Typhoea. See on Ov. M. V. 348. The last two syllables are contracted into one in scanning. Gr. 669. II. A. & S. 306. 1. –280. Rescindere. Gr. 552. A. & S. 271, N. 3. Cf. on E. V. 1. Fratres. See on Hor. C. III. 4. 41 – 48. The slowness of movement in this and the following line well expresses the efforts of the giants. The non-elision of the i and the o and the shortening of the latter are in imitation of the Greek rhythm, and are appropriate where the subject, as here, reminds us of Greek poetry. - 282. Scilicet = for indeed, truly. Agreeably to its etymology (scire licet), scilácet introduces an explanation or development. Here it introduces the details of the conspiracy of the giants. — 283. Pater; Jupiter. –284. Septimam post decimam the seventeenth. Ponere. See on E. V. 1. — 285. Prensos domitare=prendere et domitare. Licia addere =to add the leashes of the woof to the warp; i. e. to weave. - 286. Fugae, referring probably to fugitive slaves, against the escape of whom the husbandman is warned to be on his guard on that day, while he need not watch against thieves. — 287. Adeo, like the Greek particle ye, adds emphasis to the word to which it is joined. Se ... dedere=allow themselves to be done ; i. e. may be done. See on v. 49. — 288. Sole novo - early in the morning, at sunrise. Gr. 426. A. & S. 253. Eous; the morning star, put by metonymy for the morning itself. Stipulae. The ancients in their reaping usually cut off the heads of the corn, leaving the straw to be cut about a month later. Arida prata; opposed to those which could be irrigated. The reason for these precepts is, that the dew makes the straw and grass resist the scythe. — 290. Noctes. Gr. 371. A. & S. 229. Lentus expresses the effect of the moisture on the grass rather than the nature of the moisture itself. – 291. Quidam;

like est qui, Hor. E. II. 2. 182, as if Virgil knew the man, but did not choose to name him. Luminis ; of fire-light; though some prefer to understand it of lamp or torch-light. - 292. Inspicat; i. e. makes into the form of an ear of corn, the end of the wood being cut to a point and split into various parts. - 293. Solata solans. See on V. 206. – 294. Pectine; the comb, the teeth of which were inserted between the threads of the warp, and thus made by a forcible impulse to drive the threads of the woof close together. Its office was the same as that of the reed or sley among us. - 295. This verse is hypercatalectic, the final em being elided by the first vowel of the next verse. Gr. 663. III. 4). A. & S. 304 (4) ; 307. 3. Vulcano. See on Ov. M. II. 5. Vulcanus is often used, as here, for fire. Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324. 2. Decoquit. Must was boiled down to carenum, defrutum, or sapa, on a night when there was no moon. 296. Foliis. Leaves were used, commonly those of the vine, for skimming the boiling must, as it was thought that wooden ladles or spoons gave it a smoky taste. Trepidi ... aëni. The boiling must imparts a quivering motion to the vessel itself. - 297. Ceres ; by metonymy for corn. Rubicunda. See on v. 96. Medio ... aestu in the midst of the heat (of summer). Elsewhere in Vir. gil it means midday, but since that is precisely the time which the reaper would avoid, the rendering we have given seems best here. So frigoribus mediis, E. X. 65, means midwinter. – 298. Aestu; not to be connected with tostas. - 299. Nudus ; i. e. without the upper garment. Hiems; the rainy season of about a fortnight before and a fortnight after the winter solstice. Colono seems to refer strictly to the labors of cultivation, as other works for winter follow, v. 305. So perhaps agricolae in next verse. -300. Frigoribus; i. e. hieme. Parto=what has been acquired ; i. e. in the other seasons of the year. 302. Genialis. According to Italian notions every man had his guardian spirit or Genius, which it is difficult to distinguish from himself. When, therefore, he indulged himself in feasting, etc., he was said to indulge his Genius, and whatever was connected with this indulgence was called genial. The month of December, as the season of festive enjoyment and relaxation after the year's labors, was held specially sacred to each person's Genius. Cf. Hor. E. II. 2. 187 ; A. P. 210. - 303. Pressae =heavy laden. - 304. Sailors, on their return from a successful voyage, especially if it was a long and hazardous one, used to put garlands on the sterns of their ships when they came into port. 305. Quernas; because glans was used of other fruits than acorns. Stringere. Gr. 563. 6. A. & S. 275. III. N. 1. Cf. tegere, v. 213. - 306. Myrta. Myrtle berries were used for mixing with wine, which was called myrtites, and used medicinally. Cruenta; from

V. 204 foll.

their juice. — 307. Gruibus. Cranes were a delicacy of the table; but the husbandman might natt snare them in self-defence. See V. 120.-308. Auritos = long-eared - 309. Stuppea ... verbera =the tow thongs. Torquentem, agreeing with colonum, the omitted subject acc. of stringere and all the following infinitives. Balearis. See on Ov. M. IV. 709. It is merely an ornamental epithet. - 311. Tempestates seems fixed by sidera to mean weather rather than storms, the latter notion being left to be inferred. Sidera. Cf.

- 312. Mollior; i. e. less oppressive. — 313. Quae; sc. dicam. Vigilare aliquid is to bestow wakeful care on a thing. Viris. Gr. 388. I. A. & S. 225. III. Vel; sc. dicam quae vigilanda viris. Ruit = comes down. 314. Spicea ... messis the bearded harvest. — 317. Culmo. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. – 318. Om. nia ventorum i... proelia ; for proelia omnium ventorum ; the winds all blowing at once, as in A. I. 85. — 319. Quae ; tanta ut ea. Late; with eruerent. — 320. Sublimem. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (a). Expulsam eruerent; a hysteron-proteron for expellerent erutam, and = expellerent et eruerent. Gr. 704. IV. 2.

A. & S. 323.4 (2). Gr. 579. A. & S. 274. 3 (6). Ita =so, thus) probably in. troduces a comparison between the hurricane that roots up the corn (gravidam segetem) and an ordinary gust which whirls about the stub. ble (culmumque levem stipulasque volantes); but Wr. and Forb. make ferret depend on quae, and give ita the sense of tum. — 321. Hiems; the winter's storm in opposition to the summer blast just described.

-322. Coelo. Gr. 384. A. & S. 223. — 323. Foedam'— tem. pestatem thicken the foul weather ; or, taking glomerant with foedan, thicken the weather into foulness. — 324. Ex alto from on high. Some make ex alto - from the deep, but it is more probable that Virgil meant to represent the clouds as mustered from on high, collectae, like glomerant, keeping up the military associations already introduced by agmen. Ruit... aether; like aether descendit, II. 325, coeli ruina, A. I. 129, an image explained by Lucr. 6. 291 : Omnis uti videatur in imbrem vertier aether. " Down crashes the whole dome of the firmament.” 325. Sata - labores. Cf. A. II. 306. — 326. Cava; because during the summer in Italy there is little or no water in the beds of most of the rivers. - 327. Fretis spirantibus - in its breathing inlets. The violent heaving of the waves against the shore is compared to human breathing. -- 328. Pater. See on v. 121. Nocte is not to be taken literally. Corusca goes with dextra and coruscante. - 329. Molitur generally implies effort in the agent or bulk in the object, or both. Quo... motu; i. e. quibus commota ; referring to the sense rather than to the words of the preceding sentence. A demonstrative or relative pronoun is often joined by a kind of attraction to a following substan.

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