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riage. The yoke was fastened to the end of it, and by means of it the oxen drew. Sometimes the temo was of the same piece of timber with the buris and share-beam (dentale), though not in the kind of plough here described. - 172. Aures = mould-boards. These rose on each side of the share (vomer), bending outwardly in such a manner as to throw on either hand the soil which had been previously

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Fig. 1. - 1. dentalia ; 2. buris ; 3. temo ; 4. stiva ; 5. manicula ; 6. vomer; 7. jugum ; a. funiculus; b. clavus ; c. collare; d. lora subjugia. Fig. II.

- The common ploughshare. Fig. III.

- The dentalia alone. Fig. IV. – A plough with mould-boards, aratrum auritum ; 7, 7. aures.

loosened and raised by the share, and were adjusted to the sharebeam which was made double (duplici dorso) for the purpose of receiving them. Duplici ... dorso. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Dentalia the share-beam ; a piece of wood fixed horizontally at the lower end of the buris, and to which the share was fitted. In some cases it was itself shod with iron. It is not certain whether it was one solid piece of timber, with a space to admit the end of the buris, or two pieces fastened on each side of it and running to a point. The plural dentalia is used by Virgil in speaking of one plough, but

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ing the greater part of the winter. — 187. Contemplator. Gr. 537. II. A. & S. 267 (3). Nux: the walnut-tree. Some understand it of the almond-tree. Plurima abundantly. - 188. Curvabit; said by anticipation; for if the poet uses fetus of the blossoms, or embryo fruit, he may likewise speak of these bending the branches. -189. Si - fetus; i. e. if a great number of the blossoms set, as the gardeners term it. - 190. There will be a very hot summer and a great threshing; i. e. an abundant harvest. — 191. Foliorum is emphatic, opposed to fetus; umbra, general. — 192. Nequidquam. Connect with teret. Palea. Gr. 419. III. A. & S. 250. 2. Teret

The tritura was performed sometimes by the trampling of oxen, sometimes by the tribulum or trahea (see on v. 164), sometimes by fustes, flails or sticks. — 193 - 203. Steeping seed-beans is a plan often pursued, to make the produce larger and easier to be cooked. But the best seeds will degenerate, unless you pick every year. It is the tendency of everything in nature, and only man's most strenuous efforts can counteract it. — 194. Nitro; not our nitre, but a mineral alkali, carbonate of soda, and therefore used in washing. Amurca lees of olive oil. — 195. Siliquis. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Fallacibus; referring to the general character of the pods of beans, which in this particular case are to be less deceptive than usual. - 196. Quamvis — maderent = that they might be quickly cooked by a fire however small. Properata = propere ; lit. being hastened. — 198. Vis humana; i.e. homines. — 199. Quaeque. Gr. 458. 1. A. & S. 207, R. 35 (6). – 200. Ruere guis. See on Ov. M. II. 138. — 206. Quam quibus =as (by those) by whom. Vectis = euntibus. The Latin having no present pass. part., the perf. part. is sometimes used in a present sense. 207. Pontus; sc. Euxinus. Fauces ... Abydi; i.e. Hellespontus. Abydos was a town on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont, opposite the European Sestos. Oysters are still found there. — 208. Libra; i. e. the Balance, between Scorpio and Virgo. See on v. 33. Die. Gr. 119. 4. A. & S. 90. 2. Pares. The sun was in Libra at the time of the autumnal equinox, when the days and nights were of equal duration, and when the Roman hours were, of


referri. Gr. 545. I. A. & S. 209, R. 5 and N. 7. Translate, “are accustomed," etc. Retro - referri slipping away to be borne backward. Retro is often used pleonastically with verbs beginning with re. Cf. A. II. 169. — 201. Flumine. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. 202. Subigit. Cf. A. VI. 302. - 203. Atque, according to Gellius and Servius, is statim, but it is better to connect it with remisit, and give it its usual significa. tion. Virgil does not expressly introduce an apodosis in such comparisons, but makes his whole sentence depend on the quam or si which follows the non aliter or haud secus following the simile. Cf. A. IV. 669. Illum is doubtless the lembus, which is distinguished from the rower. Wr. accounts for atque by supplying retro sublapsus refertur before it, and making the whole into an apodosis, but he quotes no similar instance. Alveus the current. Amni. Gr. 87. III. 3. A. & S. 82. Ex. 5 (a). - 204 - 207. The husbandman must observe the rising and setting of the constellations as atten. tively as the sailor. - 204. Arcturi. See on Ov. M. II. 176, and cf. v. 68. Nobis. Gr. 388. I. A. & S. 225. III. - 205. Haedorum = the Kids, or Goat. See on Ov. M. III. 594. An

course, equal too. Fecerit. Gr. 473. A. & S. 145. VI. – 209. Etorbem=and already divides the globe equally for light and darkness; i. e. gives both the northern and southern hemispheres an equal amount of day and night. — 210. Tauros boves. 211. Usque — imbrem even to the first rain of the impracticable (i. e. when no work can be done) winter solstice.

Extremum may be used of either end ; here the beginning. 212. Segetem; used proleptically for the seed. Cereale; because sacred to Ceres, who was represented with poppies in her hands. She was said to have calmed her grief for the loss of her daughter Proserpina by eating its seeds. - 213. Humo. Gr. 47. 2. 2); 414. A. & S. 49. 1 ; 247. Tegere. Gr. 563. 6. A. & S. 275. III. N. 1. Jamdudum =at once, without delay. Cf. A. II. 103. Incumbere; like curvus arator, E. III. 42. 214. Tellure. Gr. 430. A. & S. 257, R. 7 (a). Pendent; i. e. they do not yet come down in rain. - 215. Med. ica (sc. herba)= lucerne ; introduced into Greece from Media at the time of the invasion of Darius. Putres; because they have lain fallow through the winter. --216. Annua cura; to distinguish it from lucerne, which required to be sown only once in ten years. — 217, 218. A periphrasis for vere. - 217. Candidus. The allusion, according to Keightley, is to the milk-white bulls with gilded horns which appeared in the triumphal processions at Rome. Aperit is illustrated by the etymology of Aprilis. Cornibus. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Whether auratis cornibus is meant to be taken descriptively with taurus, or instrumentally with aperit, is not clear. The former seems more reasonable, as there would be no natural propriety in the image of a bull using his horns to open a gate. The horns are called auratis, because there are bright stars at their tips. - 218. Canis; i. e. Sirius, a star of the first magnitude in Canis Major. This star sets heliacally, i. e. is lost in the effulgence of the sun, a few days after he has entered Taurus. It is therefore said to give way (cedens) to this sign. Adverso astro; sc. Tauro. Gr. 384. A. & S. 223. The bull is represented as driving the dog be. fore him ; the dog, however, keeping his face to the bull. - 219.

Robusta hardy. - 220. Solis; as opposed to the produce just mentioned, vv. 215, 216. Aristis bearded grain. Gr. 386. A. & S 224. -- 221. Ante ... quam. Gr. 523. 2). Eoae

in the morning. Atlantides the daughters of Atlas ; i.e. the Pleiades. See on v. 138. Gr. 316. A. & S. 100. I and (0). These set in the morning, according to different authorities, from Oct. 20 to Nov. II.

222. Gnosia = Cretan ; from Gnosus, a city of Crete, of which island Minos, father of Ariadne, was king. Stella Coronae; i. e. the constellation Corona Borealis, said to have been Ariadne's crown, placed among the stars by Bacchus, after he married her. Stella sidus, as in Hor. C. III. 29. 19. — 223. Com. mittas

properes. Gr. 523. II. A. & S. 263. 3. - 224. Invitae; because conscious that she is not yet ready to receive the seed. - 225. Maiae; one of the Pleiades, here standing for the group, as Taygete in Ov. M. III. 595. — 227. Vilem; on account of its abundance. 228. Pelusiacae = Egyptian ; from Pelusium, a town at the mouth of the eastern branch of the Nile. Egypt was famed for lentils. — 229, Mittet dabit. Bootes. See on Ov. M. II. 176. 231. Idcirco; i. e. that the seasons should be clearly marked for the husbandman. Certis ... partibus; referring to the twelve divisions of the zodiac. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Orbem (sc. annuum) (his yearly) circle. Cf. Annuus orbis, A. V. 46. — 232. Duodena=duodecim. The poets often use distributive for cardinal numerals. Cf. A. I. 393. git Cf. cursus regebam, A. VI. 350, and Nulla viam fortuna regit, XII. 405. Mundi

astra the constellations of the celestial sphere. — 233. Coelum; because the zones of heaven answer to the zones of earth, and determine their character. — 234. Ab igni; instead of the ordinary abl. of cause. — 235. Extremae; i. e. the frigid zones. Dextra. Gr. 441. 3. A. & S. 205, R. 7 (1). — 236. Glacie. The mention of ice seems more appropriate to the earthly than the heavenly zones; but Virgil was doubtless thinking of the sky as the parent of ice. — 237. Duae; i.e. the temperate zones, which alone the ancients supposed to be habitable. — 238. Via; i. e. the ecliptic. Per=inter ; as the sun never enters the temperate zones. So v. 245, per duas Arctos. 239. Obliquus; with se verteret. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (a). Obliquus ordo is the zodiac, the constellations of which it consists being arranged along the ecliptic which cuts the equator obliquely at an angle of about twenty-three and a half degrees. Cf. Ov. M. II. 130 foll. Se ... verteret might revolve. Gr. 500. A. & S. 264. 5. — 240. Mundus. See on v. 232. Scythiam; used for the North generally, as often in the poets. Rhipaeas. The Rhipean mountains were supposed to separate the land of the Hyperboreans from the rest of the world. Here these countries are made to stand

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