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357) ; props (358-361); pruning (362–370); hedges (371 – 396) ; ploughing of vineyard and other operations

(397 - 419). VIII. Various other trees and plants (420-457): the olive (420 - 425);

fruit-trees (426-428); wild forest-trees (429–457). IX. Blessings and happiness of a country life (458 - 542).

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1. Hactenus; sc. cecini. Arvorum cultus is the general subject of Book I. — 2. Bacche. Bacchus had the charge not only of the vine, but of fruit-trees generally. Silvestria ... virgulta means those barren forest-trees, such as the elm, poplar, etc., which were planted to act as props whereon to train the vine shoots ; so that there may be a special propriety in tecum. Virgulta (for virguleta, a number of twigs, hence applied to bushes, or low or young trees), here seem to be taken as the type of such trees as the husbandman cultivates. — 4. Huc; sc. veni, from v. 7. Pater is applied to Bacchus as the god of fertility, and because he conferred benefits on man with the kindness and generosity of a father. Lenaee; an epithet of Bacchus, signifying god of the wine-press. Tuis — muneribus. Virgil fancies himself surrounded by the gifts of autumn, of which he is going to sing. - 5. Tibi = for thee. See on I. 14. Here it seems to express the acknowledgment of nature to its author and sustainer. Pampineo... autumno with the viny autumn ; i. e. with the grapes which autumn is yielding. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1.

Gravidus. Gr. 669, V. ; 672. 3. A. & S. 309 (1); 310. 1.

- 6. Floret (= blooms); in allusion, according to Forb., Voss, and Keightley, to the various hues of the grapes and other fruits.' Vindemia the vintage. Labris. Gr. 422. 1. A. & S. 254, R. 3. - 7, 8. The poet, in his enthusiasm, represents himself and the god as entering the wine-press together and treading out the grapes. In the East (see Isaiah lxiii. 1-3), and in Greece and Italy, the grapes were trodden out by men with bare feet. The practice still prevails in many parts of the south of Europe. - 8. Cothurnis. Bacchus was usually represented wearing the cothurni or hunting buskins. – 9. Arboribus ... creandis. See on G. I. 3. Natura = the law of nature, the natural mode. — 10. Hominum. Gr. 396. III. 2. 3). A. & S. 212, R. 2. Ipsae and sponte sua are a tautology. - ll. Veniunt.

See on I. 54.

12. Curva, by calling attention to the bends of the river, shows that the trees grow along its side. – 13. Canentia; in allusion to the white down that covers the under side of the leaf. Fronde. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Salicta. See on E. I. 55. — 14. Posito; i. e. casually from the trees. Surgunt. Gr. 461 and 1. A. & S. 209, R. 11. - 15. Nemorum - arborum nemorensium. Gr. 396. III. 2. 3) (2). A. & S.

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212, R. 2. Jovi; like tibi, v. 5. The oak was sacred to Jupiter. 16. Habitae ,,. oracula regarded as oracles. Graiis. Gr. 388. II. A. & S. 225. II. Oracula. Gr. 362 and 2. 2). A. & S. 210, R. 3. (3) (c). Quercus; the oak-groves at Dodona. See on E.

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17. Pullulat, etc. ; propagation by natural suckers. Aliis. Gr. 384. A. & S. 223. - 18. Parnasia; because the laurel was sacred to Apollo, whose temple of Delphi stood at the foot of Mount Parnasus. -19. Se subjicit=shoots up. - 20. Primum; i. e. before man had tried experiments. His , sc. modis. - 22. Alii; sc. modi. Ipse ... usus ; i. e. experience alone, without the example of nature. Via = by method, by a regular course or process. Voss, followed by Forb. and Keightley, personifies usus, and makes via on her way, in her progress. — 23. Plantas = suckers. - 24. Deposuit. See on I. 49. Stirpes, sudes, and vallos denote the same thing differently treated : stirpes, the stock along with some of the root ; sudes and vallos, rods or larger branches from the parent tree set into the ground like stakes, the former split into four parts (quadrifidas) at the lower end to form a root, and the latter sharpened to a point (acuto robore). — 25. Robore. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. - 26. Silvarum = arborum. Gr. 396. III. A. & S. 212. Arcus; the bows which the depressed layers form. -27. Viva; because not separated from the parent stem. Sua ... terra; i. e. in which they themselves grow. -28. Summum ... cacumen; i. e. a cutting from the very top of the tree. - 29. Referens=restoring ; i. e. to its native earth. – 30. Quin et = nay even. Caudicibus sectis. The root and branches were lopped off from the trunk, which was then cut across into pieces or "lengths”; and these were planted either whole, or split up before planting. Dictu. Gr. 570 and 1.

A. & S. 276: III. - 31. Radix oleagina; a specimen of the trees thus grown. — 32. Impune=without damage (to the quality of either tree). - 34. Prunis =

=on plum-trees. Gr. 422 and 1. A. & S. 254; R. 3. Corna; cornel cherries, which are of a beautiful red color. The epithet lapidosa shows that corna is not put for cornos, as some think ; and rubescere, too, would be inapplicable to a change from the redder fruit to the less red. - Quare; i. e. since art can do so much. Generatim=according to their kinds; i. e. the kinds of trees. — 37. Ismara (plu. of Ismarus); a mountain in Thrace. Baccho vitibus. 38. Taburnum; a mountain on the confines of Samnium and Campania. 39. Una; sc. mecum. Decurre through. A naval metaphor. Laborem. Gr. 371. 1. 3). A. & S. 232 (1). Cf. A. V. 862, Currit iter tutum. 40. Decus ... pars. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204...4... Maecenas. See Life of Virgil. Gr. 369. A. & S. 240. Pelago =on (lit. to) the sea. It may rcfer metaphorically to the extent, the tyranthessness, of the subject. Gr 384 and II.

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A. & S. 223. — 42. Cuncta=the whole subject. — 43. Non; sc. optem amplecti, or amplectar. Sint. Gr. 503 and III. A. & S. 261. 2. - 44. Primi

coast along the very edge of the shore; since he does not design to go thoroughly into the subject. Primi litoris oram = primam litoris oram= the first part of the edge of the shore. Litus denotes the shore only as the line which separates the land from the sea, i. e. as the strand; ora, as the space and tract of land that borders on the sea, i. e. as the coast. Litoris ora, is, therefore, ora per litus extensa. - 45. In manibus terrae the land is at hand; carrying out the metaphor of the preceding line. Carmine ficto= by feigned strains ; i. e. by a mythical poem, such as were then in vogue. Ambages – exorsa. He thus designates the length of those poems and the involutions of their plots. - 47. A return to the threefold division of trees naturally produced (see vv. 10-19) ; each of which kinds is shown to admit of provement by cultivation. 48. Laeta luxuriant. — 49. Quippe subest refers only to laeta et fortia, not to infecunda. Solo. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Natura =a natural productive power. Subest=is latent; lit. is underneath. Tamen must relate to infecunda, to which silvestrem animum is clearly parallel. — 50. Mutata transplanted. Subactis = carefully prepared ; i. e. with the spade. — 51. Exuerint. Gr. 473. I; 511. II. A. & S. 259, R. 1 (5). Animum = naturam. 52. Artes artificial modes of culture. They will learn whatever lessons you choose to teach. - 53. Sterilis; sc. arbor from v. 57. The reference is to a sucker. See v. 17. Sterilis is the general description ; quae stirpibus exit ab imis, the characteristic. Imis. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. — 55. Nunc; i. e. in its natural state.

-56. Crescenti when growing up. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224, R. 2. Fetus =fructus. Ferentem =when bearing (fruit) ; i. e. wither up the productive powers it exerts. — 57. Jam

This use of jam (nearly = praeterea) is not uncommon. Seminibus jactis. See on v. 14. — 58. Venit; as in v. II. Seris nepotibus. Cf. v. 294 and E. IX. 50.- 59. Poma; all kinds of fruit. — 60. Turpes=unseemly. Avibus praedam ; i. e. because no men will pick them. Uva; for vitis. — 61. Scilicet=the fact is. It is explanatory. Omnibus ; sc. arboribus. Cogendae in sulcum drilled into the trench ; conveying the notion of training and discipline. Multa mercede at great cost; i. e. of labor. Gr. 416. A. & S. 252. — 63. Truncis ... propagine. Gr.414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. Truncis; answering to the caudicibus sectis of v. 30.64. Solido ... de robore answers to stirpes, sudes, and vallos, vv. 24, 25. Paphiae; because sacred to Venus, who was worshipped at Paphos, a city in the island of Cyprus. Myrtus. Gr. 117. 2. A. & S. 89 (6). — 66. Herculeae - coronae; i.e. the poplar. See on E.

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VII.61. – 07. Chaonii patris; i.e. Jupiter of Dodona in Chaonia. Scc on E. IX. 13. Glandes = quercus. Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324. 2. The oak was sacred to Jupiter. – 68. Nascitur; sc. plantis. Abies. Thc fir was much used for ship-building; hence casus visura marinos. 60. Nucis; i. c. the walnut. Horrida; from the roughness of the stem. Fetu. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. 70. Steriles; opp. to pomifera. Gessere=gerere solent. See on I. 49. So in. canuit and fregeri. 71. Castaneae; sc. albo flore. Fagus. Gr. 669. V. A. & S. 309 (1). It may, however, according to Wr. and Forb, be the nom. pl. of the 4th decl. and subject of incanuerunt understood, incanuit agreeing with the nearer noun. — -73. Inserere. Gr. 563. 6. ' A. & S. 275. III. N. 1. See I. 213. Simplex=unus; i. e. inoculation is distinguished from engrafting; they are not one. 75. Tunicas the inner coats ; i. e. of the bark : that which is under the cortex. 76. Sinus = cavity, slit. – 80. Et. Cf. A. III. 9. A remnant of primitive simplicity of expression, which sometimes gives more force to a passage than the employment of a more formal connecting particle. — 81. Exiit. See on I. 330. – 82. Sua. Cf. E. I. 38. — 83 - 108. There are varieties in each kind of tree, the olive, the apple, and the pear, and especially the vine, the diversities of which are innumerable. - 84. Que. See on v. 87. Idaeis; from Mount Ida in Crete, whence the cypress was said to have been brought into Italy. -86. Orchades and radii appear to be so named from their shape. The orchades are oblong, the radii are long like a weaver's shuttle. Pausia is a kind of olive which requires to be gathered before it is ripe : hence amara bacca. Bacca. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. — 87. Que is disjunctive, as often in excited or emphatic narrative. Nor are apples, etc., of one sort any more than olives. Alcinoi silvae the orchards of Alcinous. Alcinous was king of the Phaeacians, in the island of Corcyra, and is celebrated by Homer in the Odyssey for the beauty of his gardens. Silvae bores. See on v. 26. — 88. Crustumiis; so called from Crustumerium or Crustumium at the conflux of the Allia and the Tiber. Servius says they were partly red. Syriis. Servius and Pliny say they were black. Piris. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Volemis; so named, it is said, because they would fill the vola or hollow of the hand. –89. Arboribus. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. Arbos, here and in vv. 267, 278, 300 is probably the silvestria virgulta of v. 2, on which see note. Vindemia - 90. Methymnaeo; from Methymna, a town in the island of Lesbos, which was famous for the excellence of its wine. 91. Thasiae; from Thasos, an island off the coast of Thrace, celebrated for its corn, wine, and mines. Mareotides; from Lake Mareotis, near Alexandria in Egypt. -92. Hae

. illae = former . . . latter. Gr. 452. 2. A. & S. 207, R. 23 (6).

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Habiles = adapted to. 93. Passo; sc. vino =vino e passis uvis facto. Psithia ... Lageos. These terms are Greek, and designate two different kinds of vine, but their meaning is not well known. Tenuis =subtile, spiritous, intoxicating. — 95. Preciae early ripe. –96. Rhaetica; sc. vitis. Rhaetia was a region of the Alps (the modern Tyrol), but it was considered to extend into Cisalpine Gaul, and it was in the neighborhood of Verona that the grapes grew which the poet here praises. Nec =nec tamen. Falernis. The wine of the Falernian district, in Campania, enjoyed the highest reputation. - 97. Aminaeae. These wines are said by Aristotle to have been introduced into Italy by a Thessalian tribe called Aminaei. They were cultivated chiefly in the neighborhood of Naples. Firmissima

: very strong. Vina, by a peculiar species of apposition,= producing wines. Cf. fines . . genus, A. I. 339. — 98. Tmolius Phanaeus=to which the Tmolian and the Phanaean itself, the prince of wines (rex), rise up to pay homage. Virgil speaks in Greek fashion, oivos being implied. Tmolius is from Tmolus, a mountain in Lydia, producing excellent wine ; Phanaeus, from Phanae, a harbor and promontory in the Isle of Chios, which produced the cele. brated Ariusian wine, which is here styled rex. See on E. V. 71. Some supply mons. 99. Argitisque minor. This vine, of which there were two kinds, a major and a minor (so named from the size of the grapes), is said to derive its name from åpyós, white, referring to the color of the grapes. Cui. Gr. 385. 5. A. & S. 223,

Certaverit. Gr. 485; 486. III. and 2. A. & S. 260. II. -100. Tantum fluere=in yielding so much juice. — 101. Dis – secundis. Drinking did not begin till after the first course, when it was commenced by a libation. — 102. Transierim. Gr. 485; 486. I. and 2. A. & S. 260, R. 4. Rhodia ; sc. vitis; the vine of Rhodes, a noted island off the coast of Caria. Bumaste; so called from its producing large grapes. The term is Greek, and signifies large-breasted. Racemis. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. – 103. Sint. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. — 104. Neque enim indeed. Numero by a (definite) number - 105. Velit ... velit. Gr. 485. A. & S. 260. II. Aequoris = of the plain ; i. e. the desert. Idem. Gr. 451. 3. A. & S. 207, R. 27 (a). — 108. Ionii. fluctus fluctus Ionii maris. 110. Fluminibus salices. Cf. E. VII. 66. — 111. Steriles.

See on v. 70.

112. Myrtetis. Gr. 414 and 2 ; 317. 2. A. & S. 247 and 1; 100. 7. Apertos suggests the idea of apricos, to which aquilonem et frigora is opposed. He treats soil and climate together, as in I. 51 foll. 113. Bacchus; i. e. vitis. — 114. Extremis — orbem=extremas orbis partes cultas. The sentence is closely connected with what follows, the sense being, Look at foreign lands, go as far as you will,

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