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721. Humeros. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. - 722. Super ; adverb. 725. Ferimur. See on v. 383. Opaca locorum. See on I. 422. — 727. Adverso - Graii=Greeks gathered thickly together in hostile array. – 729. Comiti; Ascanius. — 731. Evasisse have passed over in safety. See on v. 458. Cf. III. 282. Ad aures; with adesse, as in V. 55. — 735. Mihi. Gr. 386. 2. A. & S, 224, R. 2. Nescio quod=some ; lit. I know not what. Gr. 525. 4. A. & S. 265, R. 4. Male amicum. See on v. 23.

736. Confusam eripuit. See on I. 29, 69. Cursu. See on I. 157. 737. Regione line, direction. — 738. Misero incertum = whether my wife Creusa, torn from me unhappy (one) by fate, stopped, or wandered from the way, or weary sat down, (is) uncertain. Misero belongs to mihi understood. Erepta fato applies really to all three verbs, the meaning being that she was separated finally from Aeneas, whatever was the cause. The indicatives are used instead of subjunctives, which we should have naturally expected, like laetantur, E. IV. 52, sparsit, E. V. 7, mittit, G. I. 57, being regarded as the principal verbs in the sentence, and incertum merely as a sort of qualifying adverb. Gr. 525. 6. A. & S. 265, R. 1. — 739. Seu is used co-ordinately with ne, as Tacitus uses sive co-ordinately with an. We have already had seu ... sive after dubii, I. 218. - 741. Nec quam=nor did I observe that she was lost or turn my mind (towards her) before that. 742. Tumulum ... sedem. Gr. 379. 4. A. & S. 237, R. 5 (c). Antiquae refers rather to the temple than to the goddess. — 744. Comites:

=as her companions. Comites simply expresses in what respect she played them false, or escaped their notice. - 745. Deorumque. Gr. 663. III. I. 4). A. & S. 304 (4) ; 307. 3. — 749. Cingor. See on v. 383. – 750. Stat with an infin., of a fixed resolution, like sedet. Cf. v. 660. — 753. Retro -- sequor

I observe and trace backward. See on I. 29, 69. - 754. Lumine=with the eye. 755. Si forte=on the chance that. See on v. 136. - 761. Porticibus – asylo= in the desolate cloisters, Juno's sanctuary; i. e. temple. - 765. Auro solidi - of solid gold : lit. solid with gold. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1. 772. Infelix; with reference to Aeneas's feeling, not to Creusa's actual condition. - 773. Nota

= solita.

The forms of the shades, like those of the gods (see on v. 592), were supposed to be larger than human, apparently as being no longer “cabined, cribbed, confined” by the body. -774. Steterunt; like tulérunt, E. IV. 61. 775. Affari... demere. Gr. 545. I. A. and S. 209, R. 5.-777. Numine

will, purpose. See on v. 123; I. 133. Cf. V. 56. — 779. Aut (=nor) connects fas (=destiny) with regnator, as one of the subjects of sinit. Ille is peculiarly used of Jupiter, as a title of rever

780. Tibi. Gr. 388. I. A. & S. 225. III. Exsilia. The

ence.

plural has here (as indeed frequently in poetry), a rhetorical force, as multiplying the troubles of Aeneas. Arandum is used strictly with aequor, loosely with exsilia (zeugma), = to be undergone ... to be traversed.--781. Et=and then. Terram. See on v. 742. Hesperiam. See on I. 569. Lydius refers to the traditional origin of the Etruscans from Lydia, a country in the western part of Asia Minor. Arva - virum=through the rich cultivated lands of heroes.

-784. Parta is peculiarly used of things that are virtually, though not actually realized. Cf. III. 495 ; VI. 89; E. III. 68. Creusae. See on I. 462. – 785. Myrmidonum – Dolopum.

See on v. 7. - 786. Aut. See on v. 779. Servitum. Gr. 569. A. & S. 276. I. and II. — 787. Dardanis. Gr. 316. A. & S. 100. 1 (6). — 788. Genetrix ; Cybele. She was one of the patronesses of Troy, being a Phrygian goddess, and worshipped on Ida. Virg. means evidently that Creusa is to become one of her attendants, passing from ordinary humanity into a half-deified state, which agrees with v. 773. 789. Serva... amorem; i. e. continue to love. — 792. Ibi = hm. Collo. Gr. 384. 1. A. & S. 249. I. R. 3. — 795. Sic. Cf. I. 225. - 798. Pubem:

=a band, company. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. It is meant to include vaguely the whole body. — 799. Parati; sc. deduci or some similar word. – 800. Velim. Gr. 486. III. A. & S. 260. II. Pelago. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247. 3 or 255. 2. 801. Jugis summae Idae; i. e. from the summit of Ida. Lucifer. The story was that Lucifer, the star of Venus, guided Aeneas to Italy. -803. Spes opis may either be hope of giving aid, or, more probably, hope of receiving it, Aeneas identifying himself with the city.

THE AENEID. BOOK III.

In the Third Book Virgil treads yet more closely in the steps of Homer, the subject being the wanderings of Aeneas, as that of the Ninth and three following books of the Odyssey is the wanderings of Ulysses. Yet the only place in which the two lines of adventure actually touch is when they enter the country of the Cyclops; and there Virgil has skilfully contrived not to rival Homer's story, but to appropriate it, and to make Aeneas reap the fruit of Ulysses's experience without being obliged to repeat it in his own person. For his other incidents he is indebted partly to other portions of the body of heroic legend, partly to his own invention. Polydorus is from the

.

Greek drama; the bleeding myrtle, however, may be Virgil's own, though Heyne gives the credit of it to the Cyclic poets : the adventure with the Harpies was suggested by Apollonius, who also gave hints for the predictions of Helenus and the deliverance of Achemenides : other legends seem to have given the outline of the voyage, indicating the several places touched at. The mistakes made in searching for the new kingdom, the scene at Delos, the appearance of the Penates, the meeting with Andromache, seem all to be more or less original.

ARGUMENT.

Troy, according to the almost universal tradition, was taken in the summer. The winter of this year, which counts as the first of the seven, is spent by Aeneas in making preparations (1 – 7). He sails in the spring or summer of the second year (8-12), and spends the winter in Thrace, where he builds a city (13–18). The tragedy of Polydorus drives him away in the spring of the third year (19-69). He goes to Delos, and thence to Crete. Two years are supposed to be consumed in his unfortunate attempt at colonization. His stay at Actium brings him to the end of the fifth year (70-284). The sixth year is spent partly in Epirus, partly in Sicily. In the summer of the seventh he arrives at Carthage (I. 755). The remainder of the Book (285-715) embraces the incidents of the sixth year, and of the seventh up to the time of the arrival.

1. Asiae. See on II. 557. – 2. Immeritam; i. e. undeserving such a fate. The crimes of Laomedon and Paris were the cause, not the nation in general. Visum; the same as in II. 428. - 3. Humo =from the ground : expressing total overthrow. Fumat. Mark the pres. as expressing continuance. Neptunia. See on II. 625. – 4. Diversa exsilia - =a remote place of exile ; i. e. widely removed from Troy. Desertas=unoccupied ; and so fit for settlement. Cf. vv. 122, 123. – 5. Sub ipsa : close beneath.

6. Antandro; a city at the foot of Ida. Molimur; as in I. 424. - 7. Sistere. Gr. 549. A. & S. 269. - 8. Prima. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. A winter has passed since the fall of Troy. – 9. Et. See on II. 172. Fatis. Gr. 384. A. & S. 223. 10. Quum =et tun. - 12. Penatibus et magnis dis. What the Penates were was an unsolved problem among the ancients themselves. Virg. classes them herc with the magni Di, and elsewhere, II. 293, 296, and IX. 258 foll. with Vesta; but it is not clear in either case whether the association implies distinction or identification. All that can be said is that they were supposed to be in a peculiar sense the national gods of Troy

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(cf. v. 63, where Acestes has other Penates of his own), and that, as their name imports, they were connected with the home and the hearth. Their images were easily carried, as appears from II. 717. -13. Procul. Thrace was separated from the Troad only by the Hellespont, so that procul is used, as it sometimes is, without any notion of great distance, expressing local separation, and no more. Mavortia. Mars was the tutelary divinity of Thrace. See on I. 276. Campis. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. — 14. Thraces arant is interposed like Tyrii tenuere coloni, I. 12. Regnata is used pas. sively here and in VI. 793 (where, as here, it is followed by the dat.), though regno is not properly a transitive verb. Lycurgo; a king of Thrace, who, it is said, boldly opposed Bacchus and drove him out of his kingdom: hence acri. — 15. Hospitium - Penates=(which was) an ancient guest-land of Troy and (whose) Penates (were) allied (to ours); i. e. between which and Troy there was a friendly alliance. Hospitium and Penates may be regarded grammatically as in apposition with Terra. - 16. Dum fuit. For the perfect with dum in

sense of while, cf. I. 268. — 17. Moenia. It is supposed that Virg. refers to Aenos, a town of Thrace, at the mouth of the Hebrus. Prima may either mean that this was his first attempt at building the promised city, or that he began to lay the foundation of a city. Ingressus; sc. terram. Iniquis nolentibus, non faventibus. 18. Aeneadas. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. Nomen; i. e. for the in habitants, not for the place. – 19. Dionaeae. See on E. IX. 47. Divisque; i. e. and the rest of the gods. It was customary to add a general to a special invocation. For an example see G. I. 21. —. 20. Nitentem shining, sleek. Cf. VI. 654. – 22. Tumulus. The mound is apparently of sand, which had accumulated over the unburied body of Polydorus, if we suppose Virg. to follow the same story as Euripides, who makes Polymestor throw his victim's corpse into the sea. — 23. Hastilibus ; i. e. spear-like wands, or shafts. Cf. G. II. Gr.

A. & S. 247 and 1. - 24. Silvam. Cf. G. II. 15, 26. - 25. Tegerem; i. e. to wreathe or shadow the altars. See on II. 249. — 27. Quae. Gr. 445. 8. A. & S. 206 (3) and (a). — 28. Huic; for ex hac. Sanguine. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. It may be treated as an abl. of manner, being regarded as a variety for ater liquitur sanguis guttis. - 29. Mihi. See on Aeneae, I. 92. - 30. Gelidus; proleptic. - 32. Insequor = I proceed. Tentare. See on II. 38. - 33. Cortice seems to be the skin of the root.

13:1935. Gradivum; an epithet of Mars. Patrem ; merely a title

of honor. See on G. II. 4. Geticis = Thracian ; lit. Getic. See on Ov. Trist. IV. 1o. IIO. 36. Rite=duly. It is used not of formal applications to the gods, but of the regular, and, as it were, due

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blessings which the gods confer. Secundarent visus=to render the portent propitious. Gr. 493. 2. A. & S. 262, R. 4. Omen levarent: a parallel expression. The omen was apparently grauis ; Aeneas asks to have it made levis. — 39. Lacrimabilis =

piteous. 40. Reddita = sent forth. - 41. Jam : at last ; i. e. after this third effort. — 42. Parce. See on E. III. 94. — 42. Scelerare; i. e. by disturbing the grave of a fellow-countryman and relative. Non - tulit= Troy produced me not a stranger to thee ; i. e. I am a Trojan, not an alien. - 43. Aut; for neque, non being taken with both clauses. Cf. II. 779. — 44. Crudeles terras; like crudeles aras, I. 355. Litus avarum is an expression of the same kind. — 45. Ferrea; because the points were iron. — 46. Jaculis acutis has shot up into sharp javelins. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. - 47. Tum vero denotes a further stage of horror than that described in vv. 29, 30. Ancipiti expresses the doubt of Aeneas whether he ought to remain in the country or leave it. Alendum. Gr. 578. V.

A. & S. 274, R. 7. — 51. Regi; Polymestor. Armis. Gr. 385. A. & S. 223, R. 2. 52. Cingi — obsidione. Virgil's meaning evidently is that as the Greeks grew stronger the siege was converted into a blockade. — 53. Fortuna recessit. Fortune is said to retire, as in v. 615, to remain. — 54. Res Agamemnonias =the interest, fortunes of Agamemnon; i. e. the Grecian cause. 55. Fas omne (V. 800) seems here to stand for all laws, human and divine. -56. Potitur. Gr. 286. 1. A. & S. 177. Quid. Gr. 374. 5. A. & S. 231, R. 5 (a) and (6). — 57. Sacra= accursed; because sacra is used of what is consecrated, i. e. devoted to the infer. nal gods. — 60, 61. Excedere . . . linqui ... dare. Gr. 363 ; 553. II. A. & S. 204; 270, R. 1 (c). For the mixture of the passive with the active infinitive cf. V. 773. — 61. Pollutum hospitium; like polluto amore, V. 6, the notion in each case apparently being the breach of a sacred tie. 62. Instauramus:

=we perform. It is a term for sacrificial and other solemnities, so that we need not bring in the notion of a new interment. — 63. Aggeritur tumulo= is added to the mound; i.e. the casual mound already existing (v. 22). Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Stant =

=are erected. Cf. v. 305 ; E. V. 66. — 64. Caeruleis; of a sad color. Vittis. The altars are wreathed with fillets, as elsewhere with boughs. Atra; referring rather to the associations (the cypress being used in funerals) than to the actual color of the leaves. - 66. Inferimus =we bring ; i. e, as libations:

: a sacrificial term. Tepido; because newly milked. Lacte; with spumantia. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1. - 67. Sacri; i. e. of the blood of victims. Cf. V. 78. — 68. Condimus =we lay to rest : just as we talk of laying a spirit, as the soul would wander so long as the body was unburied. Cf. VI. 326 foll. Magna - cie

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