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The meal is after the Roman manner, but in the simplest style: first, fruit, etc. to whet the appetite ; then the meal proper ; and, lastly, the dessert. Bacca the olive, sacred to Minerva. Sincerae chaste. Some understand Minervae the olive (as Bacchus = vin. um, Ceres=frumentum, etc.) and sincerae, agreeing with it in that secondary sense = recentis, fresh, in distinction from condita = preserved. Corna. See on I. 105. Faece =sauce. — 667. Lactis - coacti=curd. — 668. Ova. The Romans usually began a meal with eggs and ended it with fruit; hence the proverb ab ovo ad mala=from the beginning to the end. — 669. Omnia fictilibus

= all things in earthern vessels. Gr. 422. 1. 2). A. & S. 254, R. 3. Eodem agrees with argento = (humorously) of the same silver ; i. e. of clay; but some consider it the adverb. Eadem argilla is the reading of some editors, based on very slight manuscript authority. 670. Fago; sc. de. — 671. Qua cava sunt; i. e. on the inside. Illita. Gr. 651. 3 ; 654. A. & S. 284, Exc. 1 (2) (a), and 285. I. - 672. Epulas. See vv. 648, 651. — 673. Nec longae senectae =not very old. The poor could afford only the cheap new wine. Rursus some understand to be merely expletive, like “come back again come back,” in colloquial English ; others translate, “is removed again,” having been taken away at the end of the first course and brought back during the second. Referuntur=auferuntur. 675. Palmis. See on V. 555. – 679. Boni kind. Nec — voluntas=and a ready and generous good-will. — 681. Per se...

succrescere = renewing itself. — 682. Attoniti. See on VI. 209. Note the same principle in the use of dczaini, v. 686. — 684. Nullis paratibus = want of preparation. — 685. Custodia=custos ; the abstract for the concrete noun. So tutela, v. 713. — 687. Penna. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. 1. Aetate. Gr. 414. 2.

A. & S. 247. I. — 689. Necari. See on spectare, v. 206. - 690. Dique .

dixerunt=et dixerunt: Di, etc. II. 33, etc. — 691, 692. Impia. See v. 630. Immunibus. Gr. 547. II. A. & S. 205, R. 6. Esse. 545. 2. 2). A. & S. 239, R. I. Mali. Gr. 399. 2. 2). A. & S. 213, R. 5 (3). — 693. Ardua. Gr. 396. III. 2. 3) (3). A. & S. 212, R. 3, N. 4. — 694. Ite simul; sc. nobiscum. - 695. Levant support. Tardi - annis. 687. — 696. Clivo. Gr. 422. 1. 2). A. & S. 254, R. 3. — 697. Summo; sc. monte = the summit. Cf. IV. 709. 700. Miran. tur. Gr. 522. I. (I). A. & S. 263. 4 (2). — 701. Illa duobus that old hut (which had been) small even for its two owners. - 702 Furcas - columnae=columns took the place of the rude props (that had supported the roof). — 703. Stramina the thatch. 704. Adopertaque — tellus =and the ground (within) is paved with marble. -705. Saturnius = Jupiter. See on V. 420. — 706.

Cf. v. 203 ;

Cf. v.

Conjuge. See on V. 345. – 707. Optetis. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. - 710. Poscimus =we beg, entreat. — 71.1. Auferat. Gr. 488. I. A. & S. 260, R. 6. So videam and sim tumulandus. 713. Vota - sequitur = their prayer is fulfilled. Fuere they became. - 714. Annis - soluti = worn out with age. See on aetate, v. 687. – 715. Starent. Gr. 518. II. I. A. & S. 263, R. 2. Locique - casus = and were talking of the history of the place ; i. e. the events here related. — 716. Frondere=frondescere. 718. Crescente cacumine as the tree-top grew. A. & S. 257. – 719. Valeque. See on v. 690. — 721. Tyaneius

of Tyana, a town of Cappadocia. – 722. Truncos arbores. 723. Non vani:

Vellent. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265, or 264. 7, N. 3. – 725. Ponensque recentia=and placing fresh garlands there myself. — 726. Dis. Gr. 390, and 2.

A. & S. 227 and R. 4. Qui - coluntur= and those who have honored them (the gods) are honored.

Gr. 431.

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METAMORPHOSES. BOOK X.

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THE STORY OF ORPHEUS AND EURYDICE. - Orpheus was the son of Oeagrus, king of Thrace, and the Muse Calliope. Presented with the lyre by Apollo, and instructed by the Muses in its use, he enchanted with its music not only the wild beasts, but the very trees and rocks, which moved from their places to follow the sound. The power of his music caused the Argonauts to seek his aid, which contributed materially to the success of their expedition. He married the nymph Eurydice, the legend of whose loss and recovery is here given.

1. Immensum. See on IV. 621. Croceo; the color invariably associated with Hymen, who is called the "yellow-buskined god,” the "saffron-robed,” etc. The god is going from the nuptials of Iphis and Ianthe, in Crete, to those of Orpheus. -2. Ciconumque = of the Cicones ; who lived in Thrace near the Hebrus. Hyme

See on IV. 758. - 3. Orphea of Orpheus. 'Gr. 398. 2. A. & S. 211, R. 4 (a). — Nequicquam=in vain ; since the marriage was inauspicious.-4. Ille; i. e. Hymen. Sollennia verba= the customary festive songs. - 6. Fax. See on IV. 758, 759. Stridula= hissing ; like damp wood that will not burn. – 7. Nullosque -ignes; i. e. could not be kindled into a blaze by waving it in the air. - 8. Auspicio. Gr. 417. A. & S. 256. 2. Nupta nova

Eurydice. – 9. Naiadum the Naiads; the nymphs of fresh

naeus.

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water, whether of rivers, lakes, or springs. — 11. Rhodopeius = Thracian; from Rhodope, a mountain of Thrace. - 12. Ne non tentaret = that he might not omit to try. Gr. 491. A. & S. 262. 13. Styga=the Styx ; i. e. the infernal regions. See on I. 139. Taenaria porta = by the Taenarian gate ; a cavern in Mt. Taenarum (the promontory now called Cape Matapan), which was supposed to lead to the lower world. — 14. Leves =shadowy, ghostly. Sepulcris. Gr. 419. I. A. & S. 245. I. – 15. Persephonen. See on V. 470. Adiit. See on I. 114. Inamoena = joyless. — 16. Dominum Pluto. Pulsis ... nervis=striking the harp-strings; i. e. as an accompaniment to his song. —18. Quicquid, in apposition with the subject of creamur, is more general, and therefore more emphatic, than the masculine plural would have been. So omnia, v. 32. — 20. Viderem. See on v. 12. So vincirem. - 22. Medusaei ... monstri= Cerberus ; the three-headed dog, guardian of the entrance to Hades, called "Medusa-like” from his snaky hair. Hercules had bound him and dragged him to the upper world. Cf. Virg. VI. 395, 417–423. – 24. Crescentesque - annos = took her away in her youth. With abstulit, supply cui from in quam. Gr. 385. 4. A. & S. 224, R. 2, 25. Pati to bear this, to be resigned. Gr. 552. I. A. & S. 271, N. I and R. 4. Tentasse. Gr. 551. I. A. & S. 272, N. 1. - 26. Supera... ora world. Deus Amor, or Cupid. — 27. An-hic = whether he is (known) even here. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. Esse; sc. eum.

See on tentasse, v. 25.—28. Rapinae; i.e. the carrying away of Proserpina. See V. 341 foll. —29. Per, in oaths, is often separated from its object. Cf. III. 658. — 30. Chaos. See on II. 299. It is here put, as often, for the lower world. - 31. Properata - fata=unravel the thread of her premature fate. The Parcae, or Fates, were represented as spinning the thread of human destiny. Some make retexite = weave anew. The difference is slight. — 32. Omnia. See on v. 18. Some read debentur, and the weight of authority is, perhaps, in favor of it; but we prefer debemur. The change of gender in morati is natural enough, though some have wished to make it morata. 36. Haec; i. e. Eurydice. Juris. Gr. 401 ; 402. I. A. & S. 211, R. 8 (2). — 37. Usum her society. — 38. Veniam

this favor. Certum mihi. I am resolved not to return. See on V. 533. The use of nolle is akin to that in prohibitions. Gr. 535. 1. 3). A. & S. 267, R. 3. 39. Leto. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. 1. — 40. Ad (as in v. 16)=in accompaniment to. - 41. Tantalus. See on VI. 172. — Captavit tried to seize. 42. Ixionis orbis the wheel of Ixion, king of the Lapithae, who, for attempting to win the love of Juno, was chained in Tartarus to a wheel which revolved forever. – 43. Jecur the liver ; i.e. of Tityus, a

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giant, who, having offered violence to Diana, was cast into Tartarus, where he lay outstretched on the ground, with two vultures devouring his liver, which grew as fast as it was consumed. Cf. Virg. A. VI. 595– 600.–44. Belides the Danaides, daughters of Danaus, the son of Belus, who, for the murder of their husbands, were doomed to draw water in sieves to fill a leaky cask. Sisyphus was an avaricious and cruel king of Corinth, who was punished in Hades by having to roll up hill a huge stone which rolled back again as soon as it reached the top. The music of Orpheus wins a respite for all these wretches. –46. Eumenidum; one of the Greek names of the Furies. It

“the benevolent goddesses”; a mere euphemism to avoid calling the fearful beings by their real name. Conjux; i. e. Proserpina. -47. Oranti; sc. ei. Gr. 385. A. & S. 223, R. 2. — 50. Rhodopeius. See on v. 11. - 51. Ne depends on the command implied in legem. Gr. 558. VI. A. & S. 273. 2. -51. Avernas= infernas. See on V. 540. — 52. Aut =

=or else; “in opposition to a condition alluded to, but not completely expressed.” Futura; sc. sint, depending on the implied ut. —56. Ne deficeret=lest she should fail (from fatigue). Gr. 492. 4 and 1). A. & S. 262 and R. 7. Vi. dendi. Gr. 563. I. 2). A. & S. 275. III. R. I and (2). — 60. Quicquam. Gr. 380 and 2. A. & S. 232 (3) and N. 2.

- 61. Quereretur. Gr. 486. II. A. & S. 260, R. 5. Amatam ; sc. esse. Gr.

A. & S. 273, N. 7. — 62. Supremum. Gr. 438. 3. A. & S. 205, R. 8. - 63. Acciperet=could catch. Gr. 486. III. A. & S. 260. II. -64. Nece. Gr.414. 2. A. & S. 247. I (2). — 65. Medio; sc. collo=his middle neck. — 66. Canis; i. e. Cerberus, when Hercules dragged him to the upper world. See on v. 22. 67, Saxo. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. — 68. The second illustration is that of Olenus. Nothing is known of the story except from this passage. Lethaea seems to have offended the gods by boasting of her beauty, and her husband to have wished to take the blame upon himself, and both to have been turned to stone. Quique Olenos et (quam) Olenos (stupuit) qui. So tuque. — 69. Figurae. Gr. 419. 4. 2). A. & S. 245. II. R. 1. - - 71. Pectora. Gr. 705. III. A. & S. 324. 3. Cf. Virg. A. II. 349. Ide. See on II, 218. - 73. Portitor; i. e. Charon, who ferried shades across the Styx. Cf. Virg. A. VI. 298–304. – 74. Cereris — munere = without food.

- 76. Esse. See on v. 61. - 77. Aquilonibus. See on I. 262. Haemon. See on II. 219.

551. III.

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27

METAMORPHOSES. Book XI.

THE STORY OF THE DEATH OF ORPHEUS. [vv. I84.] After the loss of Eurydice, Orpheus wandered among the woods and mountains, singing of his bereavement. The beasts and the birds gathered about him, and even the trees followed him, charmed by the magic of his voice and lyre.

Tale nemus vates attraxerat, inque ferarum

Concilio medius turba volucrumque sedebat. At this point, the narrative in the text begins.

3. Nurus=mulieres. Cf. II. 366. Ciconum. See on X. 2. Lym. phata = frantic; i. e. carried away with Bacchic fury. Strictly, it means nympholeptic, or made insane by seeing the image of a nymph in the water. Lympha and nympha are originally the same word. 4. Pectora. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. - 5. Percussis — nervis. Cf. X. 16, 40. — 7. Nostri. Orpheus in his grief had shunned the society of women. 8. Apollinei. See on Orphea, X. 3. — 9. Foliis. The hasta was a thyrsus, a staff twined with ivy and vineleaves, carried by Bacchus and his votaries. See v. 28, and III. 667. -13. Sed enim. See on VI. 152. – 14. Abiit; final syllable lengthened by the caesura. Erinnys, or Erinys. See on I. 241. 15. Forent essent. Gr. 486. I. A. & S. 260. II. or 261, R. 4, the condition being implied in sed, etc. - 16. Berecyntia; from Berecyntus, a mountain in Phrygia, sacred to the goddess Cybelc. Cf. Virg. A. VI. 785. The instruments used in her worship were adopted in the Bacchiç orgies also. The Berecyntian pipe was curved like a horn; hence inflato cornu; sc. ejus. - 17. Bacchei; the final syllable not elided. Cf. Virg. G. I. 281, 436; A. IV. 667, etc. See on X. 3. - 18. Sono. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Tum denique = tum demum. - 21. See Introduction to this story. 22. Maenades Bacchantes ; from paivoual, to be mad. Titu. lum = gloriam. Rapuere=attacked; hence cruentatis dextris. Theatri; i. e. the audience of beasts and birds. Theatrum is often put for the persons in the theatre. Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324. 2. - 23. Inde. After tearing in pieces the animals which had thronged about Orpheus, they turn against the minstrel himself. Vertuntur; used reflexively, as often. 24. Luce = by day. Cf. Virg. A. IV. 186. -25. Noctis avem=the night-ow). Structoque - theatro in the amphitheatre ; which, being circular, while the theatre was semi-circular, may be described as a “theatre built up on both sides,” or a double theatre. - 26. Matutina. The fights of wild beasts were the morning performance in the Roman theatre. Gr. 443. 2.

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