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mum=to roll up the smoke ; a sign of an inhabited country. 208. Caerula the azure deep. Gr. 441. A. & S. 205, R. 7 (2). 210. Strophades ... insulae, two small islands in the Ionian sea, west of the Peloponnesus and due south from the eastern extremity of Zacynthus. — 211. Ionio ; sc. mari. For the rhythm of this verse cf. G. I. 437. — 212. Harpyiae (lit. Plunderers); fabulous winged monsters, three in number, Celaeno, Aello, and Ocypete, daughters of Neptune and Terra. They were sent by Juno to plunder the tables of Phineus, king of Thrace, whence they were driven by Zetes and Calais, the sons of Boreas, to the Strophades, where Aeneas found them. The word is a trisyllable. — 213. Mensas metu ... priores their former tables through fear ; i. e. of the sons of Boreas. — 215. Pestis et ira = plague and scourge. 220. Laeta fat. -221. Custode. Gr. 430. A. & S. 257, R. 7 (a). See on II. 409. That these animals were sacred to the Harpies is clear from v. 247; hence, as was usual with animals consecrated to the gods, they were left to feed at large without a keeper. 222. Ferro. See on II. 409. Vocamus; i. e. we promise to offer up to them, if successful, a portion of the booty which we take. 223. Partem praedamque; for partem. praedae. See on I. 61. 224. Exstruimus toros ; i. e. they pile up turf to recline on while eating. Dapibus. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 245. II. 4.--225. Lapsu. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. - 226. Clangoribus may refer to the flapping of their wings or to their discordant cries.

- 229, 230. Cf. I. 310, 311. - 231. Reponimus is to be understood of a second sacrifice, the first being implied, if not actually expressed, in v. 222. -232. Diverso diversa parte. Gr. 441. A. & S. 205, R. 9. — 234. Capessant. Gr. 530. II. 3. 2). A. & S. 266, 2, R. 1 (6). — 235. Gerendum. Gr. 530. I. A. & S. 266. 2. - 236, 237. Tectos ... latentia; proleptic; i. e. disponunt (=place here and there), ut tegantur ... ita condunt, ut lateant. Ergo... delapsae ; referring to a third visitation : the second came to an end, v. 234.–239. Misenus. See on VI. 164, 165. - 240. Aere. Gr. 705. III. A. & S. 324. 3. – 241. Obscenas. See on G. I. 470. Foedare. Gr. 553. II. A. & S. 204. Pelagi ... volucres; referring to the mythological origin of the Harpies from Neptune, or Electra, daughter of Oceanus. - 242. Vim mark of violence. Tergo

= corpore. - 243. Sub sidera=up to the stars ; i. e. high in air. - 246. Infelix. See on II. 245. Rumpit = utters, gives vent to.

- 247. Etiam; i. e, in addition to the slaughter of the cattle. Celaeno asks whether they are going so far as to wage war in defence of their right to the cattle which they have so unjustly slaughtered. — 248. Laomedontiadae; a term of reproach, like Laomedonteae Trojae, G. I. 502, on which see note. — 249. Patrio

Cf. II. 129.

seems used loosely for proprio, as in G. I. 52, and=their viwn ; i. e. as having been assigned to them by the gods. — 250. Animis goes with accipite, as in V. 304, not with figite, though the word may be supplied in the second clause. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. 252. Furiarum ... maxima; sc. natu. Cf. VI. 605. Virg. identifies or confuses the Harpies with the Furies. See on G. I. 278. - 253. Cursu petitis. See on I. 157; II. 399. Celaeno shows them that she knows the present, that they may believe her prophecy of the future. Ventis vocatis. Wr. makes it=duly invoked, and therefore favorable ; but it need mean nothing more than “the winds shall coine at your call”; as, if any stress were laid on due invocation, Celaeno would be inadvertently giving profitable advice where she intends only to terrify. Cf. IV. 223 ; V. 211. — 255. Datam=assigned ; i. e. by destiny. Cf. v. 501 ; IV. 225. - 256. Dira=monstrous, intense. See on G. I. 37. Injuria ; the wrong being regarded as having the power of avenging itself. Caedis; since the Trojans were murderers in will if not in deed. - 257. Ambesas ... absumere. See on jactatos ... arcebat, I. 29. So v. 267. Subigat. The subj. is used as if the Trojans would be anxious to anticipate the vis. itation by establishing themselves in their city. Gr. 523. II. A. & S. 263. 3. Malis; with absumere. - 260. Deriguit=froze. Nec jam amplius. See on v. 192. - 261. Jubent=wish. Pacem. The peace which they sought by arms was liberty to feed unmolested; that which they seek by prayer is freedom from further annoyance, if the Harpies are merely monsters, deliverance from divine vengeance, such as that just denounced, if they are goddesses. 262. Sint. Gr. 486, III. A. & S. 259, R. 4 (3) ; 260. II.-264. Numina magna; i. e. such as those from whom Celaeno derived her knowledge. Honores = sacrifices. - 265. Prohibete minas = ward off the threatened curses. –266. Placidi=appeased. —267. Excussos ... laxare rudentes=to uncoil and let out the ropes. The rudentes here are the ropes fastened to the bottom of the sail at its two corners (pedes). Before setting sail, these ropes, which our seamen call the "sheets,” would lie in a coil or bundle. In order, therefore, to depart, the first thing was to unroll or untie them, the next to adjust them according to the direction of the wind and the course of the ship. Laxate rudentes was equivalent to "ease the sheets.” — 269. Vocabat. Gr. 463. 3. A. & S. 209, N. 9. - 270 Zacynthos and the other localities here mentioned are the Ionian islands, which lie off the west coast of Greece. Saxis. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1. - 272. Laertia regna. Laertes was the father of Ulysses. — 273. Terram altricem=the land that nursed. -274. Leucatae; a promontory at the southern extremity of the island Leucadia. - 275. Et - Apollo=and (having passed Leuca.

[graphic]

the gym

dia) Apollo, dreaded by sailors, comes into sight. See on Hor. C. S. 33. - 276. Urbi; the town of Actium, off which Augustus gained his famous naval victory over Antonius.

5:15. TA', 13

1 ਕੈਮ ਸਰਦਾ 278. Insperata is explained by vv. 282, 283. - 279. Lustramur. See on II. 383. The purification was doubtless required by their recent adventure with the Harpies. Jovi = in honor of Jupiter. Votis = with votive offerings. - 280. Celebramus litora ludis; a variety for celebramus ludos in litore, celebrare having its strict sense of “to make populous.” — 281. Patrias . . . palaestras nastic exercises of their country. Palaestra, properly the game of wrestling, is given as a specimen of the whole, which is perhaps the force of the plural. Oleo labente; i. e. the oil with which they were anointed trickled down their bodies as they performed their exercises. Gr. 430. A. & S. 257. – 282. Evasisse. See on II. 731. — 284. Circumvolvitur. See on II. 383. Annum. Gr. 371. 4. A. & S. 233 (2). — 286. Abantis. Of this Abas nothing is certainly known. - 287. Postibus adversis ; i. e. that face one as he approaches the temple. Shields and other armor were often hung up in temples as votive offerings. Rem the act. — 288. Aeneas; sc. dicavit or fixit from preceding verse. See on E. VII. 30. De (sc. detracta) (taken) from. -- 291. Aerias Phaeacum ... arces are the mountains of Corcyra, whose inhabitants were called Phaeaces from its early name Phaeacia. - 292. Portu. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224.

-293. Chaonio. See on É. IX. 13. Buthroti; a seaport town of Epirus. Gr. 396. V. A. & S. 211, R. 2, N. 295. Helenum. Helenus, a son of Priam, had been taken prisoner by Ulysses, and conveyed to Epirus by Pyrrhus, son of Achilles, the king of Epirus, who had married Andromaché, Hector's widow. Helenus succeeded him both in marriage and in his kingdom. - 296. Conjugio. See on II. 579. Aeacidae. See on E. IV. 36. - 297. Patrio; as being an Asiatic, Andromache being the daughter of Eetion, king of the Cilician Thebe. Cessisse=had passed to. — 298. Amore com. pellare. See on II. 10. — 301. Sollemnes dapes the annual sacrificial feast. Quum =at the time when. - 302. Falsi. See on I. 716. Love of country had prompted them to give Trojan names to the various objects about them. The early settlers of America furnish a fine illustration of the same feeling. - 304. Hectoreum. See on II. 543. Viridi — inanem which of green turf, an empty (one); i. e. a cenotaph. Viridi caespite describes quem. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Geminas. See on v. 63. Caussam lacrimis =an occasion for tears. Caussa is generally found in Virg. with a gen. ; but IV. 290 will help us to understand the construction, showing that caussam lacrimis is only an abbreviated form for quae caussa lacrimis esset ; so that the dat. will really come under Gr. 390 and

2. A. & S. 227 and R. 4. - 309. Labitur; i. e. faints. Longo... tempore. Cf. E. I. 30. -- 311. Alma=genial. - 314. Subjicio = I reply. Turbatus=agitated. Raris . . . vocibus hisco=I open my mouth in broken accents. Hisco is used of opening the mouth without full articulation. — 318. Excipit. See on G. II. 345; A. I. 276. Here there seems to be an actual reference to the metaphor in dejectam. --- 318. Digna satis is illustrated by what goes before, and explained by what follows. - 319. Hectoris Andromachen = Hector's Andromache. Gr. 395 ; 397, I and (I). A. & S. 211 and R. 7 (1). There is no need of supposing an ellipsis. Pyrrhin' - servas; i. e. art thou still the wife (concubine) of Pyrrhus? He wishes to know whether the report he has heard (vv. 294 297) is false. Gr. 669, 1. 3 ; 703. 3. A. & S. 322. 7. - 321. Felix

- alias; doubly happy, because she died a virgin and in her native land. The allusion is to Polyxena, a daughter of Priam, who was sacrificed by Pyrrhus at the tomb of Achilles (hostilem ad tumulum), who had sought her in marriage. — 323. Sortitus. It was customary to divide the captives by lot. Pertulit. For the indic. where we might have expected the subj. see on G. II. 460. — 324. Captiva. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. - 325. Nos. Gr. 446 and 2. A. & S. 209, R. 1 (6) and R. 7 (6). Patria; of Troy. Cf. V. 624. It may be the abl. of place, or, more naturally, the abl. abs. Diversa. See on v. 4.

- 326. Stirpis Achilleae; Pyrrhus. — 327. Servitio enixae= having borne children in slavery. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. The phrase defines tulimus. - 328. Hermionen; the daughter of Menelaus and Helena, and the granddaughter of Leda. - 329. Me

- habendam=made over to Helenus, his slave, me, a slave too (que), to be possessed (by him). - 330. Ereptae ... conjugis = for his wife who had been torn from (him) ; i. e. by Pyrrhus, to whom Hermione had been betrothed by her father during the siege of Troy, and who on his return had claimed and married her. - 331. Scelerum - agitatus=driven mad by the Furies (i. e. the avengers) of his crimes. He had murdered his mother Clytaemnestra. Orestes; the son of Agamemnon. — 332. Excipit. See on E. III. 18. Patrias ... aras; i. e. at Delphi, where an altar had been raised in honor of Achilles. — 333. Morte. Gr. 426 and 1. A. & S. 253 and N. 1. Reddita=having been given up. Serv. says that Helenus had won the gratitude of his master by giving him profitable advice in respect to the voyage on his way home from Troy. Cessit. See on v. 297. - 334. Cognomine. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. 1. - 335. Chaone; a brother of Helenus. - 336. Iliacam... hanc .. arcem; epexegetical of Pergama. See on Lavinaque litora, I. 2. Jugis to the mountain-tops. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. - 337, 338. How did you come ? by stress of weather (venti)? or by destiny

[graphic]

(fata)? or by divine intervention (deus)? qui having virtually the force of quomodo. See on E. I. 54. 339. Quid (sc. agit) = how fares ? Vescitur. See on I. 546. 340. Quem — Troja. A solitary instance in Virg. of a hemistich where the sense is incomplete. Copyists and commentators have exercised their wits in en. deavoring to supply the deficiency; but it seems hardly wise to at. tempt to do what Virg. either did not or could not do. For the sake of giving a complete sense to the verse we may translate : “whom (Creusa bore) to thee when Troy (was) already (besieged).” — 341. Tamen still ; i. e. in spite of her death : referring to amissae. Cura concern, longing.

- 342. Ecquid

= at all.

Gr. 380. 2. A. & S. 232 (3). It is used in impassioned interrogations. 343. Avunculus. Creusa was according to one account Hector's sister. - 349. Trojam, etc. See on v. 302.

Simulata = made like, copied after. Magnis; sc. Pergamis. — 350. Arentem=scanty. Cognomine. Gr. 428 and 2. A. & S. 211, R. 6 (1). — 351. Amplector; i. e. in token of recognition, as the women in II. 490 embrace the doors in token of farewell. - 353. Porticibus. The porticus seems to have surrounded the aula, which appears to be used in Virg. in the case of a palace as equivalent to atrium.

See on II. 528. Accipiebat entertained. — 354. Aulai. Gr. 42. 3. 2). A. & S. 43. 1. Bacchi. Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324. 2. -355. Auro. Gr. 705. III. A. & S. 324. 3. Dapibus ; i. e. for the gods ; as in v. 301.

- 357. Tumido; because of the effect. - 358. Vatem. Helenus. — 359. Qui... sentis = who understandest, whose senses are alive to. These supernatural facts were as open to Helenus as the common facts of sense to ordinary men. - 360. Tripodas ... laurus; i. e. the indications of the tripods, laurels, etc. Clarii. Apollo is so called from his temple at Claros, near Colophon, in Ionia. — 361. Volucrum linguas and praepetis omina pennae refer to the two modes of divination, from the note and from the flight of birds. - 362. Omnem cursum; i. e. all my future course. Prospera ... religio=favorable prognostics. — 363. Numine by the expression of their will. See on II. 123. - 364. Petere ...

entare. See on v. 134. Repostas=remote. Gr.703. 2. A. & S. 322. 4. - 365. Nefas nefandum. Gr. 570 and 1. A. & S. 276, III. R. 2.

367. Obscenam revolting ; because it compels to eat loathsome and repulsive food. Quae ... vito. See on v. 88. The intervening parenthesis accounts for the direct form of the question. — 368. Possim. The subj. may be explained as depending on sequens (= si sequar). Gr. 503. 2. I). A. & S. 261, R. 4. 369. Hic. See on I. 728. Primum; the correlative of deinde, v. 373. - 370. Pacem=favor. Cf. VI. 48.- 372. Multo-numine=bewildered by thy abounding presence. -373. Sacerdos. See on dea, I. 4.12.

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