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NOTES

ON THE

-45

SELECTIONS FROM OVID.

METAMORPHOSES. Book I,

THE FOUR AGES. (vv. 89 - 162.] In regard to the number of these Ages, the poets do not agree. Hesiod reckons five, adding the heroic after the brazen ; Ovid, four ; Aratus, three ; Virgil (G. I. 125 foll.) and Tibullus mention two. There was also a prophecy that, after the present age is ended, these ages are to repeat them. selves in inverse order. See Virg. E. IV.

89 Prima-est - first began. Gr. 443. 2. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (6). Vindice nullo with no magistrate to punish crime. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257, R. 7 (a). — 90. Sponte. Gr. 134. A. & S. 94. Rectum. Gr. 441.

A. & S. 205, R. 7 (2). Colebat. Gr. 469. II. A. & S. 145, II. 1. — 92. Aere brazen tablets; on which, in early times, the laws were set up for public view. Cf. Virg. A. VI. 622. Gr. 422. 1. 2). A. & S. 254, R. 3. Supplex turba the accused and their friends. — 93. Erant. Gr. 461. I. A. & S. 209, R. 11. & (2). Tuti. Gr. 438. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 3. — 94. Suis =its native. Peregrinum orbem foreign lands. Viseret. Gr. 481. II. 1; 491. A. & S. 258. I. 2; 262. 95. Pinus. Gr. 705. III. A. & S. 324. 3. Undas. Gr. 439. I. A. & S. 235 (2). On vv. 94, 95, cf. Virg. E. IV. 32–38. — 96. Norant. Gr. 234. 2;

A. & S. 162. 7 (a) ; 183, N. 3. 97. As yet there were no wars. Praecipites deep. 98. The tuba was straight, and used by infantry; the cornu, curved, used by cavalry. Aeris. Gr. 396. IV. A. & S. 211, R. 6. — 99. Erat. Gr. 463 I. A. & S. 209, R. 12 (3). Sine

without need of soldiery. 101. Cf. Virg. G. I. 94 Immunis is, literally, free from taxes ; here nullo cogente, v. 103. Rastro. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. — 102. Per se

spontaneously. Omnia. Gr. 441. A. & S. 205, R. 7 (2). — 103. Contenti; sc. homines. Cibis. Gr. 419. IV. A. & S. 244. Nullo. Gr. 431 ; 457. 2. A. & S. 257, R. 7 (a); 207, R. 31 (c). -104. Arbuteos foetus the fruit of the strawberry-tree (Arbu.

297. 2.

usu

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= common

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tus unedo), which grows wild in Italy. Montana fraga strawberries, which are abundant on wooded hills. — 105. Corna =the fruit of the wild cornel-tree. Homer mentions it as the food of swine.. Cf. Virg. A. III. 649. Mora=blackberries, the fruit of the rubeta. Rubetis. Gr. 435. 1. A. & S. 235 (2). –106. Arbore the oak, sacred to Jupiter, as the laurel to Apollo, the poplar to Hercules, the olive to Minerva, etc. Gr. 425. A. & S. 242. 107. Auris. . Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247.3. – 108. Sine semine without cultivation. — 109. Fruges. Gr. 133. 2. A. & S. 94. So mella, v.

110. Nec renovatus ager = et ager non renovatus; i. c. without having been renewed by lying fallow. - 112. Cf. Virg. E. IV. 30. Viridi evergreen. — 113. Saturno Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. Saturn, the father of Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto, was driven from his kingdom by his sons, and banished to Tartarus. The golden age was during his reign. Hence Virgil (G. II. 538) calls him aureus Saturnus. — 114. Subiit. The last syllable is lengthened by the arsis. Gr. 660. A. & S. 308 (2). — 115. Auro. Gr. 417. A. & S. 256, R. 1.

Deterior worse, with reference to good ; tejor, with reference to bad. Gr. 166. A. & S. 126. 1. Auro and aere for aurea and aenea (sc. prole, or aetate). 116. Contraxit.

Gr. 248. I. A. & S. 171. 1. - 117. A spondaic line. Gr. 672. 3. A. & S. 310. I. 1. Inaequales = changeable. Cf. incertis ; Virg. G. I. 115. - 118. Spatiis. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Exegit=completed. Some critics make it E measured, or divided. — 119. Fervoribus. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. 1. So ventis, v. 120. - 120. Adstricta, or astricta congealed. Adstringere is used with reference to the cold of Winter, as solvere (Cf. Hor. C. I. 4. I) to the warmth of Spring. Pependit, from pendêre. — 121. Domos. Gr. 117. 1; 371. 4. I). A. & S. 89; 233 (3) and N. – 123. Cerealia. Ceres, the daughter of Saturn and Vesta, first taught men the arts of agriculture and bread-making. See Met. V. 343 foll. and Virg. G. I. 147. Semina Cerealia

Cf. Virg. A. I. 177. Sulcis. Gr. 422. 1. 2). A. & S. 254, R. 3. — 125. The Brazen Age is described very briefly. The poet may have intended to amplify and complete the passage, in the final revision of the work, which he never made. See Life. 126. Ingeniis. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. 1. Horrida:

=saeva. Some explain it as= - horrentia, bristling. -127. Ultima. Gr. 166. A. & S. 126. 1. — 129. Verum. An adjective used as an abstract noun. Gr. 441. – 131. Insidiae. Gr. 131. I. 4). A. & S. 96. Amor habendi= love of gain, or covetousness. Cf. Virg. A. III. 56: auri sacra fames. Gr. 563. A. & S. 275. III. R. 1. - 132. Ventis. Gr. 384. II. A. & S. 223. – 133. Steterant=had stood ; i. e. as trees. -134. Fluctibus. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Insultavere

bounded over ; i. e. contemptuously. Cf. Hor. C. I. 3. 24 Tibul

corn.

I.

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lus (I. 3. 37) uses contemnere in the same way : Nondum caeruleas pinus conteniserat undas. Carinae. Gr. 705. III. A. & S. 324. 3. --135. Lumina...aurae; sc. sunt ( communia). -137. Segetes. Gr. 374. 1. A. & S. 234. I. Debita= due ; i. e. which men have a right to expect as a return for their labor.–138. Itum est. Gr. 301. 3. A. & S. 184. 2. — 139. Recondiderat; sc. illa terra. Stygiis Stygian ; i. e. infernal. The Styx, one of the rivers of the lower world, is often put for the lower world itself. - 140.' Irritamenta. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204 and R. 3. — 141. Ferro. Gr. 417. A. &. S. 256, R. I. 142 Prodierat. Gr. 295. 3 ; 338.

A. & S. 182, R. 3; 196, I. 13. Utroque = auro et ferro; i. e, nummis et armis. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. - 144. Vivitur. See on itum est, v. 138. Ex rapto == by rapine. Gr. 580. A. & S. 162. 22; 247, R. 3. 145. Quoque. Gr. 602, III. A. & S. 279. 3 (d). -146. Exitio. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Vir maritus. 147. Aconita; a poisonous plant, found in Pontus and sometimes in Italy. It is called lurida from its effect on the color of its victims. Cf. Virg. G. II. 128. – 148. He consults the astrologers to find out how soon his father will die. Patrios. Gr. 398. 2. A. & S. 11, R. 4 (a). On ante diem cf. Virg. A. IV. 697. 150. Ultima. See on v. 127. Gr. 443. 2. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (6). Coelestum. Gr. 158. 3. A. & S. 114, Ex. 3. Astraea; the goddess of justice, who was driven from the earth by the impiety of the iron age, and became the constellation Virgo in the zodiac. Cf. on Virg. E. IV. 6. — 151. Foret. Gr. 297. III. 2; 311. 5; 489. A. & S. 154, R. 3 ; 198. 8; 262, R. 5. Terris. See on auro, v. 115.

- 152. Affectasse. Gr. 234 ; 551. I. A. & S. 162. 7. (a); 272. Ferunt. Gr. 367. 2. 2). A. & S. 209, R. 2. (2). Gigantas. Gr. 98. A. &. S. 85. Ex. 2. The Giants were the sons of Earth, who, at the instigation of their mother, attacked the Gods in their own abode, to avenge the overthrow of the Titans. — 153. Congestos. Gr. 579. A. & S. 274. 3. (6). — 155. Fulmine. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. Ossae. Gr. 385. 4. A. & S. 224, R. 2. Olympus, Ossa, and Pelion are mountains of Thessaly. Cf. on Virg. G. I. 281, 282. – 156. Sua mole;

e. the mountains which they themselves had heaped up. Jacerent. Gr. 518. II. A. & S. 263, R. 2. — 158. Animasse. See on affectasse, v. 152. — 159. Ne-manerent = lest no remnant of that race of hers should survive. Gr. 491. A. & S. 262, R. 5. - 160. Sed et illa propago

But that race also. - 161. Superum. Gr. 45. 5. 4); 441. 3. A. & S. 53 ; 205, R. 7. 162. Soires natos Scires eos (referring to propago) e sanguine natos essé. Gr. 486. 4; 551. I. A. & S. 260, R. 2; 272.

THE TRANSFORMATION OF LYCAON. [vv. 163-243.) This fable is introduced in illustration of the impious and blood

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thirsty character of the race sprung from the blood of the Giants. 163. Pater Saturnius = Jupiter, the son of Saturn. See on v. 113. Arce; sc. coeli. -164. Facto recenti=since the deed was recent. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257, R. 7 (a). The order of translation is, Et referens (=calling to mind) foeda convivia Lycaoniae (Gr. 398. 2. A. & S. 211, R. 4) mensae nondum vulgata, facto recenti, concipit animo iras ingentes et dignas Jove, etc. Gr. 419. IV. A. & S. 244. 167. Tenuit=retinuit. — 169. Lactea; used as a noun in apposition with nomen. For its gender, see Gr. 35. III. 2. A. & S. 34. 3 & 4; for the construction, Gr. 363. A. & S. 204, R. 8 (c), where a similar expression is explained. Candore. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. 1. — 170. Hac; sc. via. Superis. See second ref. on v. 161. On the case, Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Tonantis=the Thunderer ; i.e. Jupiter. — 171. Dextra laevaque; sc. manui. -172. Celebrantur=are thronged; as the vestibules of the houses of the Roman patricians by the crowds of their clients. The dii nobiles here are the higher of the two classes of Roman gods, the dii majorum gentium and the dii minorum gentium. The latter are the plebs of v. 173. — 173. Locis. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. I. So loco, v. 178. A fronte=in the front.—174. Penatés=domos; literally, household gods. - 175. Detur. Gr. 503. III. A. & S: 261. 2. -176. Timeam. Gr. 486. 1. A. & S. 260, R. 4. Dixisse. Gr. 542. 2. A. & S. 268, R. 2. Palatia; the palace of Augustus on the Palatine hill. - 177. Recessu. Gr. 422. 1. 2). A. & S. 254, R. 3. --178. Ipse= Jupiter. Sceptro. Gr. 419. II. A. & S. 245. II. 1. - 180. Cum. Gr. 187. 2. A. & S. 241, R. 1. 182. Magis anxius; sc. quam nunc. — 183. Tempestate. Gr. 426. A. & S. 253. The order of translation is, qua quisque anguipedum parabat injicere centum brachia captivo coelo. Captivo is used " by anticipation,” and = which they hoped to seize. For the case of coelo see Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. - 185. Erat.

Gr. 516. I. A. & S. 263. 2 (4). — 186. Corpore; a collective noun; as, in English, a body of men. - 187. Mibi. Gr. 388. I. A. & S. 225. III. Nereus; a sea-god, here put for the sea itself. He was the son of Oceanus and Terra, and had fifty daughters called Nereides. Orbem. Gr. 371. 4. 2). A. & S. 233. – 188. Perdendum est. Gr. 229. A. & S. 162. 15. So recidendum est, v. 191. Flumina infera

the Styx. See on v. 139 and cf. Virg. A. VI. 323, 324.–189. Luco. See on recessu, v. 177. – 190. Tentata. Gr. 551. I. A. & S. 272 and 270, R. 3. – 191. Ense. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. Trahatur =should be infected. Gr. 491. A. & S. 262, R. 5.-192. Mihi. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Semidei = literally, half-gods ; "heroes,” intermediate between gods and men. Nymphae ; female deities of low rank and of several classes, the Nereids (see on v. 187), the Naiads, Dryads, Oreads, etc. - 193.

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551. II. 1.

Faunique Satyrique- Fauns and Satyrs, rural dcities, having the ears, legs, and feet of goats, and the rest of the body human. Silvani. Silvanus (from silva) was the god of the woods. The name is here plural, instead of the usual singular form. The last syllable of Faunique is lengthened by the arsis. See on v. 114. The line is spondaic. See on v. 117.-194. Dignamur honore. Gr. 520 ; 419. V. 2. A. & S. 244, R. 1. — 195. Sinamus. Gr. 486. III.;

A. & S. 260, II. ; 273. 4.-196. Fore. Gr. 297. IIL; 551. I. A. & S. 154, R. 3; 272, and R. 6. — 197. Mihi. Gr. 384. II. A. & S. 223. — 198. Struxerit. Gr. 517. I. A. & S. 263. 5. Feritate. Gr.429. A. & S. 250. I. — 199. Ausum=him who had dared. Gr. 221. 2; 272. 3. A. & S. 142. 2; 162. 17. - 200. Deposcunt; sc. ad supplicium. Gr. 254. 5. A. & S. 163, E. 1. Saevit saeviit= saevivit. Gr. 234. I. A. & S. 162. 7 (d). So mollit, v. 229. - 201. Sanguine Caesareo. Some commentators refer this to the assassination of Julius Caesar ; others, to some conspiracy against Augustus. On Caesareo, see Gr. 398. 2. A. & S. 211, R. 4. — 204. Tibi. Gr. 391. I. A. & S. 222, R. I.

So Jovi, v. 205. Tuorum. Gr. 441. I. A. & S. 205, R. 7. N. I. -205. Qui. Gr. 453. A. & S. 206 (17). — 210. Admissum - crime. Sit. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. So sit, v. 214. — 212. Quam. Gr. 551. II. A. & S. 271, R. 4. Olympo. Gr. 422. 2. A. & S. 255, R. 3 (6). — 214. Longa mora est ... enumerare it is tedious to tell. Noxae of crime. Gr. 396. III. 2. 3) (3). A. & S. 212, R. 3 and (6). — 216. Maenala, Cyllene, Lycaei; mountains in Arcadia. Transieram. Gr. 234. A. & S. 162. 7 (6). Latebris. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. 1. - 217. Pineta. Gr. 317. 2. A. & S. 100. 7. — 218. Arcados; adjective with tyranni. Gr. 68. 2. A. & S. 68. 1. The use of the word here is an instance of prolepsis (anticipation), since Arcadia took its name from Arcas, the grandson of Lycaon. — 219. Traherent. Gr. 518, 1. A. & S. 263. 5, R. 2. On Ingredior, see Gr. 467. III. A. & S. 259. I (a). — 220. Venisse. Gr. 551. I. 3. A. & S. 272. N. 1. 221. Irridet=derides ; here transitive. Gr. 371. 3. A. & S. 232 (2). — 222. Deus hic . an sit mortalis - whether he is a god or a mortal. Gr. 526. II. 2. A. & S. 265, R. 2. Discrimine

- 224. Nocte. Gr. 426. A. & S. 253, and N. 1. — 225. Illi. Gr. 385. A. & S. 223, R. 2. - 226. Eo. Gr. 419. IV. A. & S. 244. Molossa. The Molossi were a people of Epirus. — 228. Atque ita =quo facto, or postea. - 229. Mollit. See on v. 200. -230. Quos ... mensis. Gr. 386. 1. A. & S. 224. N. 1. Simul = simul ac.

Vindice flamma=with avenging flame; i. e. lightning. Penates. The household gods were responsible for what was done in the house. — 233. Exululat=howls forth. Ex is intensive here. Ab ipso ; i. e. from his own ferocious nature. Hence

test.

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