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§ 21. a is long:

1. In the Ablative Sing. of the First Declension: as,


2. In the Vocative Sing. of the First Declension of Substantives in as and es (excepting tes): as, Aenea, Anchisā.

Obs. But those in es (excepting tes) more frequently make ē: see § 22, 2. 3. In the Imperative Active of the First Conjugation: as, amā.

4. In Prepositions, Adverbs, and Numerals: as, ā (ab), contrā, suprā; antea, frustrā; trigintā, quinquaginta.

(But see next paragraph: 4.)

as short:

1. In the Nominative and Vocative Sing. of the First Declension: as, mensă.

2. In the Voc. of Greek nouns in tes, as Orestă.

3. In the Nom., Acc., and Voc. Plural of all Neuters: as, regnă, mariă, cornuă.

4. In the Adverbs ită, posteă, the Conjunction quiă, and the Interjection ejă.

Obs. a in Ace. Sing. from a Gk. word in eus is doubtful: as Thesea.

§ 22. e is long :

1. In the Ablative Sing. of the Fifth Declension: as, die: and consequently in hodie, quarē. Also in the contracted forms of the Genitive and Dative: as, fidē (= fiděi).

2. In Greek words in e of the First Declension: s, epitome, Anchisiade (Voc. of Anchisiades); and in Greek Neuters Plural contracted: as, Tempē, cetē.

3. In the Imperative Active 2nd Person Sing. of the Second Conjugation: as, monē. But the following are doubtful: vidě, valě, cavě; and sometimes (esp. in the comic poets), habě, tacě, maně, jubě.

4. In the Adverbs derived from Adjectives of the Second Declension: as, docte, aegrē: with the exception of beně, malě, superně, inferně (in Lucr. and Auson.), interně.

5. In the Adverbs ferē, fermē, and the Interjection ohē. Obs. Concerning monosyllables in e, see § 20.

e is short in all other words: as, domině, regě (subs. and verb), fuerě.

§ 23. i is generally long: as, pueri, corporī, dieī, audī, docuisti, viginti.

i is short:

1. In nisĩ, quasă, sicubi, necubi, and in the very rare form cui for cul.

2. In the Dative and Vocative of Greek Substantives of the Third Declension: as, Dat. Paridi, Voc. Alexĭ.

i is doubtful in mihĩ, tibĩ, sibĩ, ibĩ, ubĩ.

Obs. utique always; but always ibidem, ubique. We find also cuique. § 24. o is mostly common: as, amo, amato, leo, octo. But o is long:

1. In Datives and Ablatives of the Second Declension : as, domino, deō, magnō.

2. When it represents the Greek w: as, Didō, Plutō. 3. In monosyllables: as, dō, prō.

o is short in ego, duo, modo, only, puto, I think, and cedŏ, tell me (both used parenthetically), nescio, I know not (in the phrase nescio quis), and quando when compounded with quidem: as, quandoquidem.

§ 25. u is always long: as, cornu, audită.


§ 26. as is almost always long: as, mensas, civitās, laudas.

as is short only:

1. In anăs, anǎtis, a duck.

2. Acc. Plur. of Greek Substantives of the Third Declension: as, Arcadas. And some Greek Noms. as Ilias, &c.

Obs. In vas (vădis) the Nom. is probably doubtful.

§ 27. es is almost always long as, vulpēs, a fox, leonēs. es is only short:

1. In the Nom. and Voc. Sing. of some dissyllabic and polysyllabic Substantives in es, which have the penultimate short in the Genitive: as, miles, ĭtis, interprés, ětis: and adj. praepès, ětis; but mercēs, ēdis; pēs, pědis; abies, abietis.

2. In the Nom. and Voc. Plur. of Greek Substantives: as, Arcades also Hippomanes (Nom. Sing. Neut.), Demosthenes (Voc. Sing.).

3. From esse, to be; as, ĕs, adĕs, potĕs.

4. In the Preposition penes.

§ 28. is is usually short: as, navis, lapidis, regis, regeris. But is is long :

1. In Dat. and Abl. Plural of Substantives, Adjectives, and Pronouns: as, musīs, dominis (contr. from musa+ is, domino + is: see Gr. §§ 17, 19. Obs.), nobis, vobis.

2. In Acc. Plur. of Third Declension (archaic for es); as, omnis (or omneis) for omnēs.

3. In Second Person Sing. of Present Indic. of Fourth Conjugation as, audīs (=audi + is: see Gr § 104).

4. Also in the contracted forms velis, nolīs, malis; sīs,


Obs. 1. In Fut. Perf. Indicative, the is of Second Person Sing. is common, as fueris.

Obs. 2. Monosyllables are mostly long as, vis (noun and verb), glis: but is, quis (prons.), are short.

§ 29. os is almost always long: as, puerōs, honōs (ōris), arbōs (õris).

os is only short:

1. In the Nom. Sing. (archaic) of the Second Declension: as, avos, servos (=avus, servus); see Gr. § 19. Obs.

2. In impos (ŏtis), compos (õtis).

3. In the Gen. Sing. of Greek Substantives: as, Thetidos and in some Greek Noms., as Argos: besides Ŏs, ossis, already mentioned.

§ 30. us is usually short: as, dominus, gradus, sumus. It is long only:

1. In the Nom. Sing. of the Third Declension, which have long u in the penultimate of the Genitive: as, virtūs, ūtis: but pecus, pecădis.

2. In the Gen. Sing., and Nom., Acc., and Voc. Plur. of the Fourth Declension: as, manūs.

3. In contractions from the Greek, as Sapphūs: but we have polypus, Oedipus, from wοûç.

§ 31. ys in some Greek words is long as Phorcys, Erinnys in Tethys it is common (Tethys).


§ 32. Final syllables in b, d, t are short; as, ǎb, apŭd,


EXCEPTIONS. Some (rare) contracted forms of verbs ending in t; as, irritât for irritavit (Lucr. 1, 71).

§ 33. c. Final syllables in c are mostly short: as, něc, doněc.

EXCEPTIONS. Lāc, milk; hīc (adv.), here (the pronoun hic is doubtful); huc, hither: sic, thus: the Imperatives dic, dūc (shortened from dice, dūce): ac, and. Făc is short for făcě).

§ 34. 1. Final syllables in 1 are short: as seměl, animăl, EXCEPTIONS. Monosyllables: as, sōl, sāl, nīl. But věl is short.

§ 35. n. Final syllables in n are short: as, carmen, taměn, ăn.

EXCEPTIONS.-1. Monosyllables: as, rēn (a kidney), sīn (= si non, but if not), splen (the spleen), en (lo), nōn (not).

2. Greek Accusatives from nouns in as and es (First Decl.): as, Acnean, Anchisen, Penelopēn.

3. Greek Nominatives of the Third Declension: os, Lacedaemon, Titan, Actaeōn.

§ 36. r. Final syllables in r are short: as, puěr, vir, semper.

EXCEPTIONS.-1. Most monosyllables: as, für (a thief), pār (subs. and adject.), lār, vēr, cūr. (But cor, the heart, is short.)

2. A few Substantives in er taken from the Greek: as, aēr (ảǹp), the air; aether (aioǹp), the sky.

N.B. Celtiber is common. (Mart.)


§ 37. RHYTHM (péw, pvlμós) consists in the recurrence of accent or stress of voice at regulated intervals; as in the following lines:

Quádrupě | dántě pŭ|trém sõnì|tú quătit | úngulă | cámpum.—Virg. Pássér délicae meae puéllae.-Catullus. | mě|

Flúmină constitě rínt ǎ cútō.—Hor.

§ 38. This stress of the voice is called Arsis (apos, ictus), and is denoted by the sign'. It nearly always falls on a long syllable, or on two short syllables, representing one long: as, vídimus, árma, tenuia, deérat. The unaccented těnŭia, syllable is called Thesis (Pécs), and is denoted by the sign': as, ármà.

Obs. Sometimes, though rarely,, the Arsis falls upon a short syllable, which is thereby made long: as, Ităliam (Virg. Æn. I. 2). The Grammarians call this Diastŏle.


§ 39. The subdivisions or measures of a metrical line are called feet (pědēs): thus the first of the above lines contains six feet; the second five; and the third four.

The following are all the feet which have distinctive


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Pyrrhichius.. ~ Iambus


P. L. III.


páter, boně.

ădēst, měō. Trochaeus (Trochee).... armă, flebit. Spondeus (Spondee)..... ōrās, ēmī.



hominis, recipe.
Dactylus (Dactyl)...... ōmnia, fécimus.


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