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construe victor equus, vinctus Pisaea oliva, decies abstulerat praemia.— oliva, the prize at the Olympic games was a garland cut from a sacred olive tree.-Pisaea. The town of Pisa was not far from the plain called Olympia, on which the games were held.-decies. The games recurred at the end of every fourth year, but the poet must have reckoned the Olympiads as periods of five years, 5 x 10 = 50. Strictly speaking, fifty years would comprise 12 or 13 Olympiads.-85. maris Euxini ad laeva, "on the left of the Euxine Sea," (i. e. looking north on the west).

Tomitas, "the people of Tomis (otherwise called Tomi.)"-87. nimium quoque nota, "but too well known."-89. comitum nefas, "the villainy of my attendants," i. e. those who were sent in charge of him.famulos nocentes, "the annoying servants," who plundered him.-91. mens indignata est ("my mind disdained") succumbere malis. 94. temporis arma, weapons suitable to the time,"



"which time furnishes," namely, patience and endurance.-96. occul, tum, i. e. the southern (antarcticum)which is always below our horizon. -98. Sarmatis ora, "the Sarmatian

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coast."-101. quod refers to carmine, v. 100. Construe quamvis nemo est, ad cujus aures id referatur, i. e. cui recitem carmina. -102. decipio, "I beguile."-104. sollicitae lucis, "of the careworn day.' 106. medicina (sc. curae) venis.-108. Helicone, see v. 21.-10. ab exsequiis, i. e. after death.-112. maligna, "niggardly.". 113. praeponere, to give the preference." 114. plurimus, adj. used poetically for adv.-115. The gen. veri depends on quid, "any truth."-116. non ero, terra, tuus, i. e. I shall be exalted to heaven, or, my fame will not be buried with my body: so Horace, Od. 3, 30, 6, non omnis moriar ; multaque pars mei vitabit Libitinam.




§ 1. PROSODY treats of the Quantity of Syllables and Metre, or the laws of Verse.

Obs. Prosody is Greek word (poσwdía), which signifies literally the tone or accent of a syllable.


§ 2. The Quantity of a Syllable is either long (~), short (~), or doubtful (~).


§ 3. All diphthongs are long: as, aurum, gold, poena, punishment, cui, to whom.

EXCEPTION.-Prae in composition is usually short before a vowel ; as, prǎe-acutus, sharpened at the end.

Obs. 1. A vowel arising from a diphthong remains long as, oc-cido, to kill, from caedo, to strike; con-clūdo, to shut up, from claudo, to shut.

Obs. 2. Some Greek diphthongs are shortened: as, poesis (Toínσis), platěa (πλατεία) as well as platea.

§ 4. All contracted syllables are long: as, cōgo from coago, to collect, bōbus from bovibus, to or by oxen, jūnior from juvěnior, younger, prūdens from providens, possessed of foresight.

§ 5. A vowel is long by position, when it is followed by two or more consonants, by a double consonant (x, z), or by j: as, mēnsa, a table, dūx, a leader, Amazon, an Amazon, ējus, of him.

EXCEPTION 1 Bĭjugus, yoked two together, quadrijugus, yoked four together.

Obs. 1. Qu is a single consonant: hence, ǎqua, water. H is a simple breathing: hence, ǎdhue, as yet.

Obs. 2. A syllable is also long by position when one consonant ends a word, and another consonant begins the next word: as, în mare, into the sea; fruitur vita, he enjoys life.

Obs. 3. But if a word ends in a short vowel, and the following word begins with two consonants, the vowel usually remains short: as,

In solio Phoebus claris lucentě smăragdis.—Ov.

Obs. 4. But a short vowel rarely stands before sc, sm, sp, sq, and st.

EXCEPTION 2. Before a mute and either of the liquids l or r, a vowel naturally short becomes doubtful: as, duplex or duplex, twofold, pătris or patris, of a father. It generally remains short before tl, as, Atlas; cl, as assecla; and fi, as mellifluus, flowing-with-honey.

Obs. 1. It is only in Greek words that a vowel remains short before a mute and either of the liquids m or n: as, Tēcmessa or Tecmessa, Procne (or Prōgne), cycnus (or cygnus), a swan.

Obs. 2. A vowel naturally long remains long before a mute and a liquid: as, acres from acer, sharp.

Obs. 3. In composition, if one syllable ends with a mute, and the other begins with a liquid, the vowel is long by position: as, ōb-ruo, not ob-ruo, to overwhelm, sub-latum, not sub-latum, lifted up.

§ 6. A vowel followed by another vowel is usually short: as, pius, pious, flěo, to weep, puer, a boy: or if h intervenes between the vowels, as traho, věho.

EXCEPTIONS. The following vowels are long before another vowel:

1. The a in the old Genitive of the First Declension: as, aquaï.

2. The a and e in the Vocatives of proper names in -aius, -eius: as, Caï, Pompei, from Caius, Pompeius.

3. The e in the Genitive and Dative Singular of the Fifth Declension, when a vowel precedes: as, diei: but rei and fidei except in archaic poets.

4. The e in the Interjection ĕheu.

5. The i in the Genitive alius (but always short in alterius). In the other Genitives in ius, the i is long in prose, but doubtful in poetry: as, illius, ipsius, unĬus.

6. The i in fio when not followed by r: as, fio, fiebam, fiam, but fierem, fieri.

7. The i in dia (dîa), divine.

8. The i in Diana is doubtful: Diana and Diana.

9. The o in the Interjection ohe is doubtful: ōhe and Ŏhe.

10. All vowels long in the original Greek words: as, aër (anp), Aeneas (Aiveías), Alexandria ('Aλe§ávdpeia) Briseis (Βρισηΐς).

§ 7. Radical Vowels. -No rules can be given for the quantity of Root Vowels, which is only to be learnt from the Dictionary: as, lĕvis, light, lēvis, smooth, lěgo, I pick, read, lēgo, I depute, etc.

$ 8. The Root Vowel has sometimes been lengthened in the Present Tense: as, duco, I lead, root duc (compare dux, ducis ēdŭco, I educate); dico, I say, root dic (compare index, -dĭcis, mălědícus, etc.).


§ 9. The Vowels used in connecting two or more roots are short as, rēgifugium (name of a festival), rēgificus, kingly (rex, fugo, făcio); opifěr, aid-bringing (ops, fĕro); laniger, wool-bearing (lāna, gĕro); magniloquus, grandly speaking (magnus, loquor), etc.

Obs. In levāmentum, instrumentum, lenimentum, etc., a, u, i are Stem

§ 10. Derivative or Compound words retain the quantity of the words from which they are derived: as,

gĕr-ebam, gĕr-ens, lani-ger, from gĕr-o.

rēg-ius, rēg-ina, rēg-i-fugium, from rex, reg-is.

EXCEPTIONS: cărūlis (sella),




prōnůba, jucundus




pējĕro and dējěro,

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with some others.

Obs. 1. Some exceptions are rather apparent than real: as, index, -dicis, an informer; praedico, I affirm; mălědícus, evil-speaking (all with i short), compared with dico, I say, addico, I assign to, etc. Here all the words must alike be referred to the root dic, which is lengthened in the Present Tense of dico, but keeps its natural quantity in the other derivatives.



Obs. 2. In cognitum, agnitum (from nōtum), the Prefix has led to the abbreviation of the Vowel. Compare căpio, accipio, etc., a being a fuller vowel sound than i.

§ 11. In dissyllabic Perfects and Supines the first syllable is long: as,

to wash.

to see.







EXCEPTIONS, 1. A vowel before a vowel remains short: as, răi.

to move.

to assist.

2. The following Perfects have the first syllable short:

Bibi, dědi, făi, tŭli,
Stěti, stiti, fidi, scidi.

For the meanings, see Gr. §§ 149. sqq.

3. The following Supines have the first syllable short:
Dătum, rǎtum, sătum, rútum,
Itum, citum, litum, situm (quitum).

For the meanings, see Gr. §§ 149. sqq.

From sto comes stātum: from sisto comes stătum.

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§ 12. The first syllable of the reduplicated Perfect is short: as poposci from posco, to demand; tětĭgi from tango, to touch; cecidi from caedo, to cut.

§ 13. The prefix pro is short in procella, a storm, procul, far off, profanus, profane, profestus, not kept as a holiday, proficiscor, to set out, profiteor, to profess, profugio, to flee to a distance, profundus, deep, profundo, to pour forth (with a few exceptions, e. g. : "Has postquam moesto profudit pectore voces," Cat.), pronepos, great-grandson (but prōnepos once in Sidonius), propitius, propitious, protervus, wanton: it is doubtful in procuro, to manage another's affairs, propago, offspring, propago, to propagate, propino, to drink to another, propello, to push forward (Lucr. only): it is long in all other words: as, procedo, to go forward, procurro, to run forward, &c.

§ 14. Di is short only in dirimo (disimo), to separate, and disertus, eloquent.

§ 15. Ne is short only in neque, neither; nequeo, to be unable; nefas (and its derivatives), unlawful; nefandus, abominable; long in other words, as nemo (ne-hemo or homo), no one.

§ 16. O for ob is short in omitto, to let go by, and ŏperio, to shut up.

§ 17. Si is short in siquidem.

§ 18. Re is always short, except refert (=rem fert) it concerns (but refert from refero).

§ 19. Ve is long, except in vehemens (=vē-mens), forcible.

§ 20. Monosyllabic words ending in a vowel are long: as, sī, tū, tē, mē, sẽ, nē, ẽ, dē.

EXCEPTIONS. The enclitics are short: as, quě, vě, ně, cè, tě (tutě) paě (reapsě), ptě (suoptě): quă (usu. preceded by si, num, etc.) Nom. Sing. Fem. and Nom. Acc. Pl. Neut. from quis.

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