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construe victor equus, vinctus Pisaea oliva, decies abstulerat praemia.oliva, the prize at the Olympic games was a garland cut from a sacred olive tree.-Pisaea. The town of Pisa was not far from the plain called Olympia, on which the games were held.-decies. The games recurred at the end of every fourth year, but the poet must have reckoned the Olympiads as periods of five years, 5 x 10 = 50. Strictly speaking, fifty years would comprise 12 or 13 Olympiads.-85. maris Euxini ad laeva, 66 on the left of the Euxine Sea," (i. e. looking north on the west).
- Tomitas, "the people of Tomis (otherwise called Tomi.)" -87. nimium quoque nota, "but too well known."-89. comitum nefas, "the villainy of my attendants," i. e. those who were sent in charge of him.famulos nocentes, "the annoying servants," who plundered him.-91. mens indignata est ("my mind disdained") succumbere malis. 94. temporis arma, "weapons suitable to the time,"
coast."-101. quod refers to carmine, v. 100. Construe quamvis nemo est, ad cujus aures id referatur, i. e. cui recitem carmina. -102. decipio, "I beguile."-104. sollicitae lucis, "of the careworn day.' 106. medicina (sc. curae) venis.-108. Helicone, see v. 21.-10. ab exsequiis, i. e. after death.-112. maligna, "niggardly."113. praeponere,"to give the preference." 114. plurimus, adj. used poetically for adv.-115. The gen. veri depends on quid, any truth."-116. non era, terra, tuus, i. e. I shall be exalted to heaven, or, my fame will not be buried with my body: so Horace, Od. 3, 30, 6, non omnis moriar; multaque pars mei vitabit Libitinam.
1. PROSODY treats of the Quantity of Syllables and Metre, or the laws of Verse.
Obs. Prosody is a Greek word (Tрoσwdía), which signifies literally the tone or accent of a syllable.
§ 2. The Quantity of a Syllable is either long (~), short (~), or doubtful (-).
A. GENERAL RULES.
§ 3. All diphthongs are long: as, aurum, gold, poena, punishment, cui, to whom.
EXCEPTION. Prae in composition is usually short before a vowel ; as, prăe-acutus, sharpened at the end.
Obs. 1. A vowel arising from a diphthong remains long as, oc-cido, to kill, from caedo, to strike; con-clūdo, to shut up, from claudo, to shut.
Obs. 2. Some Greek diphthongs are shortened: as, poesis (πoínσis), platěa (πλατεία) as well as platea.
§ 4. All contracted syllables are long: as, cōgo from coago, to collect, bōbus from bovibus, to or by oxen, jūnior from juvěnior, younger, prūdens from providens, possessed of foresight.
§ 5. A vowel is long by position, when it is followed by two or more consonants, by a double consonant (x, z), or by j: as, mēnsa, a table, dūx, a leader, Amazon, an Amazon, ējus, of him.
EXCEPTION 1 Bijugus, yoked two together, quadrijugus, yoked four together.
Obs. 1. Qu is a single consonant: hence, ăqua, water. H is a simple breathing: hence, ǎdhue, as yet.
Obs. 2. A syllable is also long by position when one consonant ends a word, and another consonant begins the next word: as, în mare, into the sea; fruitur vita, he enjoys life.
Obs. 3. But if a word ends in a short vowel, and the following word begins with two consonants, the vowel usually remains short: as,
In solio Phoebus claris lucentě smaragdis.-Ov.
Obs. 4. But a short vowel rarely stands before sc, sm, sp, sq, and st.
EXCEPTION 2. Before a mute and either of the liquids l or r, a vowel naturally short becomes doubtful: as, duplex or duplex, twofold, pătris or patris, of a father. It generally remains short before tl, as, Atlas; cl, as assecla; and f, as mellifluus, flowing-with-honey.
Obs. 1. It is only in Greek words that a vowel remains short before a mute and either of the liquids m or n: as, Tecmessa or Tecmessa, Procne (or Prōgne), cycnus (or cygnus), a swan.
Obs. 2. A vowel naturally long remains long before a mute and a liquid: as, acres from acer, sharp.
Obs. 3. In composition, if one syllable ends with a mute, and the other begins with a liquid, the vowel is long by position: as, ōb-ruo, not Ŏb-ruo, to overwhelm, sub-latum, not sub-latum, lifted up.
§ 6. A vowel followed by another vowel is usually short: as, pius, pious, flĕo, to weep, puer, a boy: or if h intervenes between the vowels, as trăho, věho.
EXCEPTIONS. The following vowels are long before another vowel:
1. The a in the old Genitive of the First Declension: as, aquaï.
2. The a and e in the Vocatives of proper names in -aius, -eius: as, Caï, Pompeï, from Caius, Pompeius.
3. The e in the Genitive and Dative Singular of the Fifth Declension, when a vowel precedes: as, diei: but rĕi and fidei except in archaic poets.
4. The e in the Interjection eheu.
5. The i in the Genitive alius (but always short in alterius). In the other Genitives in ius, the i is long in prose, but doubtful in poetry: as, illius, ipsius, unĬus.
6. The i in fio when not followed by r: as, fio, fiebam, fiam, but fierem, fieri.
7. The i in dia (dîa), divine.
8. The i in Diana is doubtful: Diana and Diana.
9. The o in the Interjection ohe is doubtful: ōhe and ŏhe.
§ 7. Radical Vowels. -No rules can be given for the quantity of Root Vowels, which is only to be learnt from the Dictionary: as, levis, light, levis, smooth, lego, I pick, read, lego, I depute, etc.
$ 8. The Root Vowel has sometimes been lengthened in the Present Tense: as, duco, I lead, root duc (compare dux, dŭcis: ēdŭco, 1 educate); dico, I say, root dic (compare index, -dĭcis, mălědĭcus, etc.).
§ 9. The Vowels used in connecting two or more roots are short: as, rēgifugium (name of a festival), rēgificus, kingly (rex, fugo, făcio); opifer, aid-bringing (ops, fĕro); laniger, wool-bearing (lāna, gero); magniloquus, grandly speaking (magnus, loquor), etc.
Obs. In levāmentum, instrumentum, lenimentum, etc., a, u, i are Stem
§ 10. Derivative or Compound words retain the quantity of the words from which they are derived: as,
gĕr-ebam, gĕr-ens, läni-ger, from gĕr-o.
rēg-ius, rēg-īna, rēg-Ĭ-fŭgium, from rex, rēg-is. EXCEPTIONS: cùrūlis (sella),
the curule chair, from currus.
Obs. 1. Some exceptions are rather apparent than real: as, index, -dicis,
§ 11. In dissyllabic Perfects and Supines the first syllable
EXCEPTIONS. 1. A vowel before a vowel remains short: as, rŭi.
2. The following Perfects have the first syllable short:
Bibi, dědi, făi, tŭli,
Stěti, stīti, fidi, scĭdi.
For the meanings, see Gr. §§ 149. sqq.
3. The following Supines have the first syllable short:
Itum, citum, litum, situm (quitum).
For the meanings, see Gr. §§ 149. sqq.
From sto comes statum: from sisto comes stătum.
§ 12. The first syllable of the reduplicated Perfect is short: as poposci from posco, to demand; tětigi from tango, to touch; cěcīdi from caedo, to cut.
§ 13. The prefix pro is short in procella, a storm, procul, far off, profanus, profane, profestus, not kept as a holiday, proficiscor, to set out, profiteor, to profess, profugio, to flee to a distance, profundus, deep, profundo, to pour forth (with a few exceptions, e. g.: "Has postquam moesto profudit pectore voces," Cat.), pronepos, great-grandson (but prõnepos once in Sidonius), propitius, propitious, protervus, wanton: it is doubtful in procuro, to manage another's affairs, propago, offspring, propago, to propagate, propino, to drink to another, propello, to push forward (Lucr. only): it is long in all other words: as, procedo, to go forward, procurro, to run forward, &c. § 14. Di is short only in dirimo (disimo), to separate, and disertus, eloquent.
§ 15. Ne is short only in neque, neither; nequeo, to be unable; nefas (and its derivatives), unlawful; něfandus, abominable; long in other words, as nemo (ne-hemo or homo), no one.
§ 16. O for ob is short in omitto, to let go by, and ŏperio, to shut up.
§ 17. Si is short in siquidem.
§ 18. Re is always short, except refert ('=rem fert) it concerns (but refert from refero).
§ 19. Ve is long, except in vehemens ( = vē-mens), forcible. § 20. Monosyllabic words ending in a vowel are long: as, sī, tū, tē, mē, sẽ, nē, ẽ, dē.
EXCEPTIONS. The enclitics are short: as, quě, vě, ně, cě, tě (tutě) paě (reapse), ptě (suoptě): quă (usu. preceded by si, num, etc.) Nom. Sing. Fem. and Nom. Acc. Pl. Neut. from quis.