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19. nurum regis, the wife of Sextus Tarquinius.-fusis per colla, hanging around her neck." At banquets it was the custom for guests to adorn themselves with wreaths of flowers.20. pervigilare, "spending the night." -21. petitur, "is visited."-23. trahere, here "to spin."-26. lacerna, "a soldier's cloak."-27. plura, than I, since I always remain at home.-28. esse super, for superesse.-29. postmodo, "in a short time."-restas = resistis.-31. Sed enim, "but yet," or "but I must own."-Construe ille meus, vir.-32. quolibet, adv.-33. Mens abit," my consciousness fails.". 34. et gelidum habet ("possesses") belongs to the main clause.36. On the position of que, see II. 12, 30.
29. THE FABII.
1. Haec fuit illa dies, the Ides of February, 479 B.C.-in qua, see I. 1, 71.-Veiens, adj., from Veii, an ancient city in the south of Etruria.-2. ter duo sex.-3. vires et onus susceperat urbis, "had taken upon itself the active force and burden of the city," i. e. had undertaken to supply troops, and to bear the necessary charges. Observe the antithesis between domus and urbis.-4. gentiles manus, "the hands of a single clan; " Dict. gentilis and gens.-professa (passive, see I. 4, 46), "offered by them," for the Fabii had volunteered to serve in this campaign. To offer service on a military expedition was termed nomen profiteri. -5. "A high-born troop of common soldiers (miles collectively) sets out from the same camp from which
The common soldier, miles, stands in marked contrast with dux; both words require a strong emphasis. -castra, figuratively for gens.-isdem for iisdem.-6. quis, as II. 21, 29.-dux fieri aptus, a poetical construction; what would the ordinary syntax be? -7. Cremera, a river in the territory of the Veientes.-9. loco, "on the spot," i. e. on the banks of the Cremera.
-10. Tyrrhenus, and below Tuscus = Etruscus.-Mars, as II. 20, 113.per agmen eunt, "they break through the ranks."-11. quam cum, what words must be supplied? cf. ut cum, II. 12, 46.-16. parant, hostes.-17.
campi ultima (accus.), cf. ardua montis, II. 18, 70.-18. occulere apta, see v. 6.-19. rara, "scattered here and there," "dispersed; cf. arbores rarae, Nep. Milt. 5, 3.-24. clausas finit, translate as captos ducit, I. 4, 50.-25. discursus, "skirmishes." 26. Quodque, to which word does the copula belong? cf. II. 16, 35.-metus àlter, "fear of anything else." 28. Simplex, here guileless." 29. Construe undique prosiliunt-32. in misero tempore, see II. 22, 18.-33. Laurens, adj. from Laurentum, an ancient town in Latium.-36. alterna manu, "alternately.' 39. Herculeae, according to tradition the Fabii were descended from Hercules.-Semina, as II. 22, 1.
-43. Maxime, Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator.-44. This line is an imitation of the well-known verse of Ennius, see I. 1. 90.
30. THE POPULAR FESTIVAL.
1. Idibus, of March. -Anna Perenna, a Roman goddess of whom little is known.-2. Advena, stranger," because he flows from Etruria.-4. accumbit, "lies down" to eat.- cum pare sua, "with his partner."-5. Sub Jove, as II. 12, 67.-6. Sunt qui, many."-7. Pars imposuere, cf. turba vetant, II. 17, 30.—pro, "instead of."-9. (tot) annos precantur, "they wish for so many years of life.-10. ad numerum, "in proportion to the number," i. e. they drink a cup for every year.-11.
Before qui and quae supply the necessary pronouns, observing the difference of gender.-ebibat has reference to the former couplet.-Both Nestor and the
Italian prophetess Sibylla were proverbial for their great age.-14. jactant manus, in gesticulation.-faciles, "agile." To this day the Italians are remarkable for their expressive gesticulation.-15. posito, i. e. when it is put aside.-duras, "hardy, rough," i. e. with more hard labour than fine art.-16. Culta, "trimmed, dressed up, bedizened."-17. Cum redeunt, i. e. on their way back.
31. THE FEAST OF CERES.
1. indice (adj.) causa, "of an explanatory reason."-4. nullo sollicitante (eam), see nullo serente, I. 4, 57.-sollicitare is here used of tilling the soil.-5. modo
nunc, see II. 17, 53. For the abl. vivaci cespite, see II. 17, 40.-6. tenera fronde, construe as an abl. of the quality with cacumen. They eat the extreme and tender leaves of trees or shrubs.-7. glans, see II. 12, 71.8. bene erat, "it was well with them," i. e. they were well off.-10. mutavit, "exchanged for."
12. soles, "the sunshine, the light.' -13. Aes, as the material for making agricultural implements; for the working in copper was known before the use of iron (chalybëia massa).-14. debuit tegi, "ought to have remained in concealment," because iron is employed in making weapons of war. -15. Pace, abl. of the cause.—Et, "also, too."-16. ducem, here" a prince."-17. honorem, as II. 9, 1. -mica saliens, salt, because it jumps and crackles in the fire. Salt, mixed with ground spelt (farra) was used in sacrifices; such a mixture received the name of mola salsa; Dict. mola, II. -19. unctas, with wax or perfumed rosin. This was in remembrance of the torches with which Ceres went in search of Proserpine, see II. 12, 55. -21. succincti, see II. 18, 38.ministri, "the sacrificial attendants."
32. THE FESTIVAL OF THE
1. placare and ferre, take in apposition with honor.-2. pyras, of the same meaning as v. 10, foci.-3. Manes, or di Manes, the souls of the dead. pietas, "dutiful affection " towards the departed.-grata est pro gratior (iis) est, quam: but literally?-4. Styx, a river in the infernal regions, here used for the Lower World generally.-6. sparsae fruges, &c., see II. 31, 17.-7. Ceres, see II. 19, 26.- solutae, "loose, unbound," in opposition to coronae.— 8. media via, tombs were often erected by the wayside.-10. sua verba, i. e. suitable words: such as vale, or salve, or placide requiescas.-11. auctor here, "an example." Aeneas had rescued his aged father Anchises, by carrying the old man on his shoulders from the flames of Troy.-12. Latinus was king of Latium, when Aeneas landed there.-13. patris Genio, "the spirit of his deceased father," who worn out with the long wandering had died in Sicily.
33. THE TEMPEST.
On the voyage to his place of banishment (see II. 10), Ovid was overtaken by a violent storm.-1. supersunt, the plur. used to agree with vota, which stands nearest to the verb, rather than with quid. 2. parcite solvere = nolite solvere.-5. subsidunt, as II. 21, 26.-12. sero vespere missus, see carcere missus, I. 4, 10.-Vesper, to denote a quarter of the heaven, “ the west," is poetic.-14. adversa, boreae. -16. ambiguis, "doubled" by storm
and waves. 21. dolet nil aliud, quam me exule, "than about my exile." The verb dolere may be followed by an acc. denoting the object of grief: so here nil aliud. The cause of grief is expressed by the abl.
me exule; Dict. doleo, II. 1.-22. Hoc unum, "this one portion."-23. corpora, see pectora, I. 4, 22.-25. conscendere, it is easy to supply both subject and object. Ovid's wife wished to accompany him into banishment, but at his request she remained at home.-27. ut, as I. 1, 17.-33. Construe fluctus, qui hic venit, supereminet omnes fluctus, see quem taurum, I. 4, 30.-34. The tenth wave (fluctus decumanus) was considered, by the Romans, as the largest and most powerful-35. genus, lay an emphasis on this word.-39. mandare, object sepulchra, i. e. ut (or) quomodo nos sepeliant. -aliqua is emphatic, and the meaning is: or even if a man can give no injunctions to his friends, yet at all events to hope that he will be buried in some way or other.-40. Et non, not nec, because of the stress which is laid upon the negation.-42. trahit, as I. 3, 4.43. Pro, interjection.-virides dei, the sea-gods.-curae sunt.-44. Utraque turba (gods of heaven and gods of the sea), in apposition to the subject of sistite.-45. Quamque, to what word does que belong? cf. II. 16, 35.dedit, "bestowed," because he punished Ovid with banishment, and not with death. .46. Caesaris, Augusti. sinite feram, see II. 12, 77, orat subeat.
34. OVID'S ACCOUNT OF HIS OWN LIFE.
1. Sulmo, a city of the Peligni, situated in a spacious valley, which is intersected by several streams, hence gelidis uberrimus undis. Elsewhere he terms it gelidus Sulmo. It is now called Sulmona, and is situated in the Abruzzi.-2. millia, sc. passuum.— novies decem, 10×9=90. Ninety Roman miles would be nearly eightythree miles English.-3. editus natus.-nec non, "and besides."-4. The two consuls C. Vibius Pansa and A. Hirtius fell in the battle at Mutina, A.U.C. 711, B.C. 43, the year after
Caesar's death.-5. si quid id est, "if that is anything: " if there is anything in that. usque a proavis, "all the way down from my forefathers." -ordinis, sc. equestris. - 6. non modo, &c., i. e. not a mere upstart.7. genito fratre, abl. abs. The name of this brother was Lucius.-8. tribus ante quater mensibus, "twelve months before: 3 x 412.-10. duo liba. On birthdays it was customary to offer to the Genius a libum, i. e. a cake made of flour, milk, honey, and oil, liba genitale notantia tempus, as Ovid elsewhere expresses it. The brothers were born on the same day of their respective years.-11. Construe haec (dies) est (ea) de quinque festis (diebus) armiferae Minervae, quae (dies), &c. The festival here mentioned (quinquatrus, or quinquatria) began on the 14th day before the Calends of April (19th March), and lasted five days. On the four concluding days alone, combats of gladiators took place. On which day was
Ovid born?-14. insignes ab arte, 'distinguished in respect of art," cf. Dict. ab, IV. 2. The arts taught by these professors were grammar, rhetoric, and philosophy. M. Arellius Fuscus and M. Porcius Cato are mentioned as Ovid's teachers in rhetoric. -17. coelestia sacra, i. e. the art of poetry, which is elsewhere called Pieridum sacra. The poet was cosidered a priest or servant of the Muses. -19. quid, "why?"-20. Maeonides," the Maeonian," another name for "Lydian." This is a poetical designation of Homer, who according to some accounts was born in Maeonia (Lydia). Two of the seven cities said to contend for the birthplace of Homer are in Ionia, which geographically belongs to Lydia: Smyrna, Chios, Colophon, Salamis, Rhodos, Argos, Athenae.-21. toto Helicone relicto, i.e. having entirely abandoned poetry. Mount Helicon in Boeotia was sacred to Apollo and the Muses. A description of it is given in the Classical Dictionary.-22. verba soluta mo
dis, "words free from measures,' i. e. prose. In the next line they are called numeri, for all poetical measure ("metre") is based upon number. Hence every metre can be represented by a number, as Hexameter, Penta-meter, Tetra-meter, Tri-meter, &c.-26. liberior toga. Children wore the toga praetexta, which boys laid aside, generally upon completing their fifteenth year, in order to assume the toga virilis or pura, here called liberior, because from this period somewhat of manly freedom was enjoyed. The ceremony attendant upon this change took place on the 16th March, during the Festival of Bacchus (Liberalia) in the forum (tirocinium fori).-27. Augustus allowed the sons of senators, and (as it would seem from this passage) the sons of the most distinguished equites, to wear the toga adorned with a broad purple stripe (toga laticlavia), which was the peculiar ornament of senators; otherwise the equestrian toga was angusticlavia (" narrow-striped")-31. cepifui, this variation of number is not uncommon in the poets. -32. de viris tribus, "of the triumviri," i. e. he was one of three commissioners. He was made one of the Triumviri Capitales who had to decide petty causes, to superintend the prisons, and the execution of criminals.
Afterwards he was appointed one of the Centumviri, or judges who tried testamentary and even criminal causes; and in due time he was promoted to be one of the Decemviri who presided over the court of the Centumviri.-quondam, "for some time."-33. coacta = coarctata, i. e. angusta facta est. As Ovid declined to enter the Senate, when the proper time arrived, he was obliged to give up wearing the toga laticlavia, and to assume the angusticlavia.-34. illud onus, i. e., munus senatorium.-37. Aoniae sorores, i. e. the Muses, so called from Aonia, an old name for the district of Mount Helicon in Boeotia: so Milton,
"to my adventurous song That with no middle flight intends to soar Above the Aonian mount."-Par. Lost, I. 15.
-suadebant petere, c. inf., see Dict. suadeo, iii.-39. quot vates (poetae) tot deos.-41. legit, recitavit. It was usual for poets, before publishing, to read their works aloud to larger or smaller circles; and thus they had the benefit of criticism, while it was not too late to make corrections. These recitations were sometimes very tedious. On an occasion of this kind, after three hours of it, Diogenes the Cynic, being near the reader, and looking over his shoulder, saw the blank parchment at the close of the composition: "Cheer up, friends," cried he, "I see land.". 41. suas volucres, "his birds,” i. e. his poem on birds.-42. Construe quae serpens necet, quae herba juvet.Macer. Aemilius Macer of Verona died B.C. 16, three years after his friend Virgil. He wrote a poem on birds, snakes, and medicinal plants. - 43. Sextus Aurelius Propertius, a distinguished elegiac poet, was born in Umbria, on the borders of Etruria. The date of his birth is uncertain, being variously placed between B.C. 57 and 46. Clinton thinks that B.C. 51 is the most likely date. His poetry is chiefly devoted to a description of his love (ignes) for Cynthia. 45. Ponticus, the composer of an epic poem, Thebäis, on the war of the Seven Chiefs against Thebes.-heroo, we may supply versu or "pede." The heroic verse was the hexameter; for the epos or narrative heroic poem was written in hexameters. The heroic foot is, strictly speaking, the dactyl, in place of which a spondee may be substituted.-Bassus: of this poet little is known unless he be the Bassus familiarly addressed by Propertius.-46. convictus mei, lit. "of my intimacy," i. e. of my intimate acquaintance or intimate circle of friends. - 47. tenuit, "held fast,' delectavit.-Q. Horatius Flaccus of Venusia, on the confines of Lucania and Appulia (Lucanus an Appulus, anceps, as he says), was born B.C. 65, and died B.C. 8. He was the greatest of the Latin lyric poets, and was the first who introduced the Greek style into Roman lyrical poetry (Ausonia lyra). -numerosus, cf. above vv. 22, 23.
48. ferit carmina lyrâ, i. e. ferit (pulsat) lyram, quum canit. The lyre was struck with an instrument called the "plectrum:" but instead of saying "he strikes the lyre," the poet turns the phrase, "he strikes songs on the lyre." We should remember that lyrical poetry was set to music; and it would be worth while inquiring whether Horace was actually able to play upon a musical instrument, or whether his lyre" was merely a figure of speech. -49. Virgilium vidi tantum, "Virgil I saw, and that was all," i. e. there was no intercourse between us. Το translate "I saw only once," is straining the passage. When Virgil died, B.C. 19, Ovid was in his twenty-fourth year; but Virgil's latter days were spent in Naples. This passage may remind the English reader of the poet Pope, who, at the age of twelve years, was taken to Will's coffee-house to see Dryden.-nec amara, &c. Construe nec amara fata dedere Tibullo tempus am. meae.-Albius Tibullus, a distinguished elegiac poet: the date of his birth is not exactly ascertained, B.C. 59-54 he died young (amara fata), shortly after Virgil.-50. tempus am. meae, "time for my friendship," i. e. to become my friend.-51. hic and illi both refer to Tibullus, in successive relation: when he is spoken of as flourishing, he is hic; when he has passed away, he becomes ille. The poet enumerates the cultivators of elegiac poetry: (1) Gallus, (2) Tibullus, (3) Propertius, (4) Ovidius. C. Cornelius Gallus was born at Forum Julii (Fréjus) in Gaul. He died B.C. 26, and as he was forty (others read forty-three) years old at the time of his death, he must have been born B.C. 66 or 69. He was employed as a general by Augustus, but falling into disgrace, and threatened with exile, he threw himself upon his own sword. His poetical works have perished. 54. Thalia, strictly, the Muse of Comedy: here for poetry, and so Thalia mea, "my muse."-55. populo," to the public;" public recitation was the first step towards publishing in a written form, see v. 41, legit. -56. barba, &c. i. e. I was a mere
youth.-57. The success which attended a poem of Ovid's upon a lady, whom he celebrated under the name of Corinna, excited him to new efforts.-60. emen
daturis ignibus, to the correcting flames."-61. His father made an early match for him, but the choice was unfortunate, and the poet procured a speedy divorce.-64. sustinuit, "had fortitude enough,” èτóλμnσev.-conjux esse, nom. with inf., referring to the subject-nom. of the sentence.-66. altera lustra novem, "other nine lustres:" the lustrum was a period of five years: 9 x 5=45; 45 x 2 = so that Ovid's father died ninety years old.-67. fleturus fuit, "would have wept."-ademptum, "had I been taken away," but literally?-68. proxima justa tuli, "I performed the next funeral rites;" see Dict. justum, II. 2. The mother died soon after the father. 70. poenae meae, alluding to his banishment.-71. me quoque felicem, acc. of exclamation, sometimes called the interjectional acc. The attempt to explain this acc. by supplying any verb, is unsatisfactory; and to say that it is governed by an interjection understood, is no explanation at all, for the difficulty would only be thrown back a step further.-viventibus illis, "during their lifetime."-75. parentales
brae, vocative, separated by intervening words; so v. 79, studiosa.. pectora. -vos contigit, "has reached you.". 76. crimina nostra. The old books read carmina. If crimina be correct, the literal sense of "charges, accusations," seems the best, "charges against us (i. e. me)."—in Stygio foro, "in the infernal court."-77. causam, &c. "that error and not crime was the cause of the banishment decreed against me."-fas refers to divine law, as jus to human. The manes or souls of the dead were held in religious reverence. 79. studiosa, sc. mei, "favourable to