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in Phocis, eastward of Delphi.-Panope, a town in the neighbourhood.-15. impulit, "shook."-16. Atque ita," and as she did this;" cf. II. 12, 157.—sua terga, we should say "behind her."18. agit grates, Phoebo.-21. Construe petere e vivis fontibus undas libandas, "to draw, from the running springs, water for the purposes of libation." For religious uses, it was customary to draw water from running streams.-23. densus, " thickly surrounded."-26. Martius, according to some the serpent was begotten by Mars. -cristis et auro for cristis aureis, two co-ordinate nouns substantive, for a subst. with an adj. (Hendiadyoin, one by two).-27. corpus tumet omne veneno; so Spenser, Faerie Queene, Bk. I. canto 11:

"His body monstrous, horrible, and vast, Which, to increase his wondrous greatness


Was swoln with wrath and poison, and with bloody gore."

-28. triplici stant ordine dentes; so Spenser, ibid.:

66 And, that more wondrous was, in either jaw
Three ranks of iron teeth enrangéd were,
In which yet trickling blood, and gobbets raw
Of late devouréd bodies, did appear."

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-29. Construe Quem lucum-Tyria de gente profecti, the Tyrian emigrants. 31. longo, extending far below the ground.-32. Caeruleus; cf. below, 57, atrae pellis. - 33. Effluere, here "to slip away from."sanguis relinquit corpus, from paleness consequent upon fear.-34. Attonitos, "stiff with terror, awe-stricken." -35. A redundancy of synonymous terms; compare Spenser, F. Q. I. 1: "And as she lay upon the dirty ground, Her huge long tail her den all overspread, Yet was in knots and many boughtes upwound,

Pointed with mortal sting."

And ibid. I. 11:

"His huge long tail, wound up in hundred folds,

Does overspread his long brass-scaly back, Whose wreathéd boughtes whenever he unfolds,

And thick-entangled knots adown does slack, Bespotted as with shields of red and black,"


-37. media plus parte, "more than the half."-38. quanto serpens est qui separat, &c., as large as the constellation of The Dragon, situated in the northern heavens, between the Great and Little Bear (geminae Arcti).— 39. totum, "in his whole length." 40. Nec mora, see II. 10, 51.-parabant, "were getting ready."-42. Occupat, II. 21, 33.-44. altissimus, i. e. at his meridian height, consequently at noon.-48. animus, " courage." 50. Victorem, used adjectively. — supra, adv.-52. fidissima corpora,


ye bodies of my trusty friends;" cf. II. 10, 16.-53. comes, mortis.molaris, here used for any large stone. -54. magnum magno: combinations of this kind are intended to strike the ear, and to draw attention to the magnitude of the thing described, and the effort required.-55. Illius, molaris.Construe ardua moenia cum turribus celsis. 57. Loricae depends upon modo; compare Spenser, F. Q. I. 11:

"And over all with brazen scales was armed Like plated coat of steel."

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-60. lentae, as II. 1, 3.-fixum constitit, "remained sticking fast."61. Supply et cujus (jaculi) ferrum totum descendit in ilia.-64. partem in omnem,“ on all sides.”—65. Vix, "with difficulty."-66. Tum vero, "then, and not till then."-67. guttura, see colla, II. 1, 2.-68. spuma, &c.; compare Spenser, F. Q. I. 1: Therewith she spued out of her filthy maw A flood of poison horrible and black.

-69. Construe et halitus, qui; cf. sub qua arbore, I. 4, 30. — 70. Stygio, i. e. fearful as the river Styx, "hellish."-vitiatas inficit, i. e. inficit ita, ut vitientur, "infects and corrupts." 72. modo is answered by interdum and nunc.-72. Cingitur, "curls himself." 73. Impete = impetu, "with a rush," an old abl.: the gen. impetis is found, but no nom. is in use; Dict. impetus.-74. Fertur, as rapitur, II. 12, 39.silvas, here "the trees of the forest." 77. ille, serpens. - inania val


nera," ineffectual bites."-81. ab, before."-82. dabat retro, "put back, drew back."-sedere, lit. "to sit," i. e. to penetrate, to come home.83. longius ire (plagam), "to enter further.' 84. conjectum ferrum pressit, "plunged the steel and drove it home; cf. II. 15, 7, oceultat abactas.-85. Usque sequens, "" following up (the stroke) all the way." in gutture belongs to pressit.-dum, "until."-retro eunti, serpenti.-86. robur, here as 88, sua robora, "the trunk of the oak. 88. Construe

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gemuit (arbor) sua robora flagellari imae parte caudae ("by the lower end of the tail.") 92. serpens, "as ;" Cadmus himself afterwards changed into a serpent.93. cum mente; cf. mentis inops, II. 12, 39.-96. motae, i. e. aratae.97. populi incrementa futuri, “the seedlings of his future people:" here incrementum means "the cause of growth;" Dict. incrementum, I. 3.— 98. presso, in terram.-99. jussos,

as he had been ordered;" cf. monstratis, II. 11, 21.-mortalia semina, "human seed."-100. fide majus, II. 8, 31.-101. Prima corresponds with the following mox.-102. picto, CO

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loured, variegated."-107. nec, see I. 4, 9.-civilia bella, here "wars among brethren."-108. Atque ita, as v. 16. -110. leto dederat, translate by one word.-111. auras, i. e. animam.113. Mars, for pugna, see Ceres, II. 19. 26. suo Marte, "in battle among themselves." subiti, "" who suddenly risen up."-115. tepidam, from the warm blood.-matrem, the Earth.-116. Quinque superstitibus, abl. abs.-117. humo is sometimes used by the poets for humi.-Tritonis, an epithet of Athena, from the lake Triton in Africa, where she is said to have been born.-118. fidem, "the promise."119. Sidonius hospes, Cadmus.-120. sortes, "the oracular responses," properly the "lots" which the soothsayers caused the inquirers to draw, in order that their destiny might be ascer


21. CACUS.

1. illuc, to Latium. Hercules (heros claviger) carried off the oxen of the giant Geryon, from the island Erythea, on the west coast of Spain (hence boves Erytheides), and drove them (applicat) to Latium. Here he was hospitably entertained by Evander, who had emigrated from Arcadia, and had settled on the Palatine Hill.-2. longi orbis, over the long circuit of the earth,' 'over the wide world."-3. domus




Tegeaea, the Arcadian house of Evander, from Tegea, a town in Arcadia.-5. excussus somno, as II. 12. 115.-Tirynthius, an epithet of Hercules, from the town of Tiryns in Argolis, where he resided. 8. aversos, backwards," by their tails, why? feri, here the oxen, on account of their enormous size.9. Aventinae; the Aventine Hill was opposite to the Palatine.-infamia, "that which brings into bad repute;' Dict. infamia, I. 2; cf. II. 18, 62, and 89.-11. pro, as I. 4, 22.-12, Mulciber (ĕris). an epithet of Vulcan, from mulceo.

"and in Ausonian land Men called him Mulciber."

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-22. juga, boum. 23. caelum sederat (in) illis, Hercules had supported the heaven upon his shoulders, while Atlas went to fetch for him the apples of the Hesperides.-24. motu, "with the movement," i. e. by pushing or heaving.-25. simul, as I. 4, 48.-26. subsedit, "sank in."-27. Prima, "at first:" movet, "begins;" collata dextra manu collata, "in a hand-to-hand fight."- 28. Rem gerit pugnat.-29. Quis, an old


form for quibus.— ubi, "when." male fortis, as above, male servata, "cowardly."-patrias, not as though Vulcan vomited fire; he was merely the god of fire.-31. credas, as putes, II. 19, 28. For Typhoeus see 11. 12, 53. -33. Occupat, 'anticipates" his assault. adducta, i. e. brought into action.-34. sedit, as II. 20, 82.88. vocat, as II. 12, 5. 40. de bove nomen habet, the forum boarium, at the foot of the Palatine Hill.



1. semina, "offspring:" caelestia, because Mars was their father: partu edere may be translated by a single verb.-2. patruo, Amulio.-4. Quid facis? an exclamation of the poet, see II. 8, 9.-5. recusantes, "with reluctance." -7. Tiberinus, a king of Alba, who is said to have been drowned in the river Albula, which was henceforth named after him, Tiberis (Tiberim reddidit, "made to be called Tiber").-9. videres, as II. 19, 40. -10. Quaque, as II. 4. 21. The Circus Maximus was situated in the valley between the Palatine and Aventine Hills. 14. iste, the speaker points to the future Romulus. imago, "the outward appearance."16. Construe suspicer nescio quem deum vobis esse; he would have added originis auctorem, but interrupts himself to state an objection. For nescio quis see I. 4, 50.-18. tempus, here "situation;" cf. Nep. Milt. 5. 1, in hoc tempore.-19. Ferret opem; the

PAGE 39.


subject-nom. is mater.-21. nata and moritura construe with corpora. 22. deposuit, whom ?-sinu, see II. 17, 40.-23. sensisse, "that they had understood" what was going on. -putares, see above, videres.-25. alveus, "the tub or tray," afterwards called tabella, "the little board."summa unda, as II. 4, 28. quantum fati, "what a mighty destiny."-28. deficiente, in contrast


with tumebat, v. 8.-29. erat, in the place where the little vessel stopped. -remanent, even to the poet's time, as manent, II. 10, 7.-quaeque, see above, quaque. "And the fig-tree

which is now called the Ruminian was (formerly) called the Romulian:" Livius, I. 4, ubi nunc ficus Ruminalis est (Romularem vocatam ferunt) pueros exponunt. 31. foeta, "who had brought forth young. 34. sustinuere, "endured, dared."-36. lingua fingere, "polishes over with her tongue," as animals are accustomed to do.-bina, sometimes used for duo, with objects which are reckoned in couples.37. Marte satos, esse.— scires, see above, videres; Ubera ducere, "to suck."-38. Construe et aluntur ope lactis sibi non promissi ("unexpectedly offered to them ").



1. frater Numitoris, Amulius, who had expelled his brother Numitor, and had ordered Romulus and Remus, grandsons of Numitor, to be thrown into the Tiber.-2. gemino sub duce, "under the government of the twins." -3. utrique convenit, as II. 10, 45. In contrast we have ambigitur and uter. -moenia, see II. 20, 7.-5. Nil (nihil) is sometimes an emphatic non,


by no means, not at all."-6. fides, "trust, confidence," because by means of birds the future is revealed.-7. Palatium for mons Palatinus.-9. hic, Romulus.-10. Stare aliqua re, "to abide by anything."-arbitrium, "rule, dominion."-11. moenia signet aratro, see below, v. 17.-12. Pales, the Italian goddess of shepherds. On her festival (sacra) Rome was founded.movetur, as II. 21, 27.-13. In the following lines we have a description of the religious ceremonies observed in founding a city: these observances are supposed to have been borrowed from the Etruscans. Fossa, "a trench or ditch," which was called mundus.-ad solidum, to firm ground, that is, very deep.-16. fungitur igne, i. e. serves

for the fire to burn upon it.-17. designat moenia, i. e. marks the direction in which the walls shall run.-19. Condenti, see eunti, II. 17, 7.-20. mater, see II. 12, 5.-ades, "be

PAGE 40.

present."-21. Construe et di cuncti, quos adhibere pium est ("it is a pious duty") advertite animos.-22. Auspicibus vobis, abl. abs.-23. huic and sub hac refer to urbs.-dominae terrae, gen., and dominae used as adj. "imperial."-24. oriens occiduusque dies, for the quarter in which the daystar rises and sets, the east and west. -25. Tonitru laevo, an omen which appeared on the left-hand side of the observer was considered propitious.28. erat, "stood, arose.' -29. urget, "hastens."-30. To what word does que belong? see II. 16, 21. So. v. 40. -curae tuae, nom.-35.-Nec mora, as II. 10, 51.-occupat, as II. 21, 33. -36. premit, i. e. lies upon it.-37. Construe introrsus devorat. 38. clausum habet, "keeps "-39.

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exempla fortia servat, "gives an example of courage."-41. nec jam, as II. 16, 47.-46. soluta comas, see sparsus tempora, II. 3, 13.-47. nondum facti Quirites; the Romans did not receive this appellation until after their union with the Sabines of Cures.-49. ulli, see I. 4, 48.-posset, we should say "could have."-50. Victorem, as II. 20, 50.

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PAGE 41.

- -san

raised to heaven and placed among the gods.-9. loco, i. e. the city was small in proportion to the fame of its inhabitants. - -10. Nec, as I. 4, 69.-11. Spernebant vicinia; cf. turba vetant, II. 17, 30.-12. male = vix. guinis generis.-15. dantur, see II. 18, 68-69.-17. patriam, i. e. bellicosam.-19. The narrative passes over the actual capture of the virgins, and goes on to speak of the consequences.Cures (plur.), a town of the Sabines, from which most of the maidens had come. Before quos supply ii.-21. fere, as I. 4, 33.-22. trahere, "to draw out, protract."-bella propinqua, i. e. cum propinquis.-23. dictam, i. e. which was named or appointed as the meeting-place.-24. mea nurus, the wife of Romulus, Hersilia.-25. pariter, i. e. as well as myself. quoniam hoc commune tenemus assigns a reason for the address pariter raptae. The meaning is: we are involved in one common fate, and have this bo of sympathy, that we have all ben captured.-26. lente piae, "calmly dutiful," i. e. true to our friends in the full enjoyment of peace and quietness. The contrast is consilium forte piumque, v. 30.-29. orbae, here "fatherless."-32. funerea, such as was worn at funeral ceremonies.-33. steterant, "had taken their places," opposite one another. - ferro, "for slaughter."38. posito, as II. 17, 28.-39. quasi sentirent, as II. 22, 23.-42. coactus erat, namely, by his mother.-44. Construe dant manus.-45. Laudatas, "with commendations," on account of their spirited resolution.



1. Caprese palus, "the Goat-marsh" in the Campus Martius.-2. jura dabas, as II. 7, 15.-3. Sol fugit is explained by the following words.

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5. aether for caelum.-abrumpitur, "is torn asunder."-6. patriis equis,


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his father Mars carried him in a chariot to heaven.-7. patres = senatores.—in crimine (erant) falsae caedis, i. e. falso caedis incusabantur.-8. fides, "belief."-9. Construe Proculus Julius. -10. usus est, with abl. or gen. for opus est.-11. saepes, the shrubs or trees lining the road.-sinistrae, see II. 23, 25.-12. Rettulit gradus, horruĕrunt, see sprang back." vagiĕrunt, II. 22, 23.-13. humano, i. e. quam humanum est.-trabea, the robe of state worn by kings.-15. dixisse, see I. 1, 68.-16. Nec, as I. 4, 9.numina nostra, "my godhead,' see II. 10, 7, templa.-17. novum Quirinum, after his elevation among the gods, Romulus received the name of Quirinus.—pia turba, in apposition with the subject-nom. of ferant and placent; cf. II. 27, 6.-18. patrias

mei patris.-20. populos, the Sabines were already united with the Romans. -21. Templa, see v. 16.-collis, namely, Quirinalis.-22. paterna, of Romulus, who was considered pater urbis.


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2. ad arma, "in respect of i. e. in war.-4. Gabii, a town in Latium.-5. trium (filiorum), minimus, Sextus Tarquinius. - manifesta, because his character so completely resembled that of his father.-8. cupiant, "would desire;" the very thing they would like.-13. bella tueri = administrare.-15. appellat, "consults him."-16. quod iterquam rationem.-17. suberat, "was near," i. e. to the palace of Tarquinius.-18. Sectus humum, see sparsus tempora, II. 3, 13.-lene, used adverbially-20. the highest, tallest." summa,



PAGE 43. Agnosco, "I understand."-24. Traduntur, to whom?-ducibus suis, abl. dependent upon nuda.



1. nefas, here "awful, dreadful.”2. exta, which were upon the altar, ready for burnt sacrifice. The prodigy occurred at Gabii, after the conquest of the town; and Tarquinius sent two of his sons, in company with Brutus, to Delphi, in order that they might consult the oracle upon the occurrence.➡ 3. Sors, as II. 20, 120.-4. princeps = primus.-victor erit, i. e. in the struggle for power.-5. quisque and credula turba refer to the sons of Tarquinius.-properata, i. e. as speedily as possible.-6. Non intellecto deo, resolve as a causal sentence.-7. stukti, "of imbecility."-9. Construe matris Terrae.-10. Creditus, resolve by a verb and a conj. "while."


66 en

1. Ardea, a town in Latium.-signis, the banners of the legions.- 2. patitur lentas obsidione moras, dures a slow and tedious siege," but literally? 3. vacat, impersonally, "there is leisure."-4. otia, as I. 4, 11.-5. Tarquinius juvenis, the Sextus mentioned II. 26, 5. He is afterwards called rege creatus (in translation one word).-6. Accipit, here "entertains."-7. difficilis, 66 'stubborn,"

cf. facilis, I. 3, 22.-8. ad patrios deos, i. e. to our homes.-9. Ecquid serves here to mark the question.torus socialis, i. e. "our wives." 11. studia, "jealous party feeling.' 13. Surgit cui, &c., Tarquinius Collatinus, the husband of Lucretia. Collatia, a town in the neighbourhood of Rome.-15. tolli equis, "to mount on horseback."-16. frenis impedire, may be translated by a single verb; Dict. impedio, I. 1.-17. Pertulerant, to their destination, i. e. to the city.

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