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pericla, "that he was sporting with his own danger," but literally?-15. renidenti, "beaming' with glee.17. mollibat, an older form for molliebat.-19. libravit corpus in alas, "balanced his body upon the wings.' -20. mota, by means of the wings.21. Construe et ait, moneo ut medio limite curras (here "fly").-22. demissior, "too low." 23. gravet, "should weigh down;" Dict. gravo.— ignis,solis.-24. carpere viam, "to travel over a course,' see litus carpere, I. 2, 11.-26. Inter opus refer to accommodat alas.-monitus, acc. plur.-28. non repetenda, "" which would never again be given."-31. Hortatur, Daedalus: according to rule, what should the following construction be?— erudire has here the same construction as docere.-33. arundo, here "a fishing-rod."-34. baculo, as well as stiva, depends upon innixus.-35. Construe et credidit deos esse (eos) qui . . . possent. aethera carpere ("to fly through") formed on the model of viam carpere.-36. Junonia, because Juno was worshipped with peculiar honours upon the island of Samos. -The verb erat, in v. 38, belongs to this clause also. The flight was first in a northerly direction over the Cyclades; and when these had been passed, the course turned eastward between Samos and two small islands Lebynthos and Calymne, which lie to the south of Samos.-41. Rapidi, here "consuming."-43. nudos, deprived of wings. 44. non ullas percipit auras, "gets hold of no air" to support him.-45. patrium nomen, "the name of his father."-46. nomen, the name mare Icarium, between Chios and Cos. -47. nec jam, "and no longer."
50. devovit, "he execrated;" Dict. devoveo, II. -51. tellus, the island Icaros, south of Chios.
17. LATONA CHANGES PEASANTS
1. agris, for in agris, see latis fundis, I. 3, 22.-2. deam, Latona, the mother of Apollo and Diana.-3. obscura, i. e. "little known."-ignobilitate virorum, because the persons transformed were mere peasants.-4. praesens, "personally." The narrator is a countryman.-5. grandis aevo, "advanced in years."-6. Impatiens viae, "not able to endure the journey.
."-7. inde, i. e. from Lycia.-Construe ducem illius (i. e. Lyciae) gentis.-eunti, "to me on my way."-9. Construe ara vetus, nigra (nom.) favilla (abl.) sacrorum.-11. Restitit, subject-nom. dux.-13. Construe rogabam tamen, ara foret Naïadum, Faunine, indigenaeve dei. Observe the connecting particles, ne . . . ve. -Naiades, water-nymphs; Faunus, a woodland deity.-15. Construe hac in ara.-16. Illa, dea.-17. Orbem interdixit; Juno, through hatred of Latona, had forbidden every land to receive her. She found no other refuge than the island of Delos which at that time floated "wandering ("erratica") in the sea: on this island she gave birth to Apollo and Diana.— 18. Errantem, see above eunti.-19. puerpera, Latona.-21. Construe Lyciae Chimaeriferae, "which produced the Chimaera," a monster vomiting fire, having the head of a lion, the body of a goat, and the form of a serpent from the haunches downwards. gravis, "oppressive."-22. Finibus in, prep. after its case.-23. sitim collegit, as II. 14, 9.-ab aestu, "in consequence of "-sidereo, i. e. solis.-25. mediocris,"moderately large."-in imis vallibus, translate as in summum solum, II. 2. 6.-27. gratam paludibus, growing freely in marshes.28. posito, "bent." Titania, an epithet applied to Latona, because she was descended from the Titan Coeus. Hence v. 48, Coei filia.29. pressit, here, "knelt upon." potura," as a draught;" but literally? -30. turba vetant, why is the verb
in the plural?-31. prohibetis, whom? -32. proprium, "as an exclusive possession."-33. publica, i. e. common to all.-34. Construe et tamen (quamquam ad publica munera veni) supplex peto ut ea detis.-35. artus, lit. "joints," but used generally for "limbs," which, however, is the usual translation of membra: we may render the passage, "my limbs and wearied body."-parabam, as II. 14, 22.-36.
loquentis, see above v. 7, eunti.-39. dederitis, the i in the terminations is, imus, itis of the perf.-sub. and the fut. perf. was originally long.-in unda, i.e. in giving me water.-40. nostro tendunt sinu, for e nostro sinu, cf. carcere missus equus, I. 4, 10.-48. Distulit, i. e. caused her to forget for the moment.-Neque jam, see II. 16, 47.50. minora dea, "too submissive for a goddess."-ad sidera, for ad caelum. -51. Aeternum, "evermore."-52. juvat, illos.-53. modo for the more usual modo -cava palude, "in the hollow of the marsh."-54. summo gurgite, see v. 25, in imis vallibus.-57. Lites, 'brawls," or "brawling clamour."pulso may be rendered by a prep.-58. The sound of this line is intended to imitate the "quacks" of frogs.-intercepta, "to have been taken away from between (the head and the back): Dict. intercipio.-63. novae ranae, as newly-formed frogs."
18. PHILEMON AND BAUCIS.
2. peractum est, see I. 3, 8.-3. Quoque minus, as II. 10, 10. The meaning is and in proof of this stands an oak, &c.-6. celebres, "much frequented."-8. Atlantiades, Mercury, see II. 15, 6, 25; for caducifer, see II. 12, 151.-positis, as II. 3, 11.
-13. Illa, construe with casa.-14. fatendo, i. e. because they were not ashamed of their poverty.-15. nec
iniqua mente, i. e. et aequa mente, "without dejection or ill-humour."-16. Nec refert," and it is much the same." -dominos illic famulosne requiras, a dependent question, and disjunctive. The meaning is: they are at once masters and servants, and consequently have no attendants.-17. idem, i. e. iidem.18. penates, as II. 12, 93.-21. Quo, adv.-22. dimovit, Baucis.-24. anili, i. e. weak through age.-25. faces, "faggots."-tecto, "from the floor of the house."-26. minuit, chopped them small."-aënum, "the copper kettle."-27. Construe et olus quodsuus, not for ejus, but to point out the intimate union between the pair, "her own dear husband."-28. truncat foliis, "strips of leaves," i. e. strips the leaves from the herbs to make a saladlevat, "lifts down," "takes down."29. suis, from sus.-sordida, by smoke.
-31. domat," boils soft:" Dict. domo II.-32. Fallere tempus, "to beguile the time, ," "to pass the time."-medias horas, "the interval."-33. torus is here only the "cushion," lectus the "couch upon which the cushion is laid, sponda, the "framework" of the couch. The good old people do their best to make such preparation that the guests may recline at their meal, in fashionable style.-34. sponda pedibusque salignis, abl. of the quality: the adj. qualifies both nouns.— 35. Vestes, here, "coverlets."-non nisi, cf. nec nisi, II. 6, 9.-37. lecto (dat.) non indignanda is said in jest," so that the couch had no need to distress itself," as though the covering were too costly. -38 accubuere, "reclined at table:" Dict. accumbo.-succincta, "tucked up," i. e. with her clothes girt up, as was the custom with servants, that their flowing dresses might not hinder them in their work.-40. clivum, "the inclination" of the table to one side. -41. aequatam, mensam.-42. baca Minervae, the olive; for the olive tree was sacred to Minerva.-bicolor, green and black.-43. Condita, "steeped."44. Intibum, "endive," radix, dish," used in making the salad.—lac coactum, see II. 12, 105; massa lactis coacti," cheese."-45. non acri
favilla, " on a slow fire," lit. " on embers not briskly" blazing.-ova leviter versata, referring probably to a kind of pancake or omelette, which must be skilfully turned at the right moment.-46. fictilibus for in fictilibus. eodem argento, "in the same kind of silver," i. e. earthenware, said in jest. --48. qua cava sunt, i. e. in the hollow.-50. Construe et vina non longae senectae (gen. of the quality) rursus referuntur. The first course consisted of rashers of bacon; but as the second course (mensae secundae) appeared at the same time, the wine-bowl was taken away again (rursus referuntur), and placed a little on one side (paulum seducta), to make room for the dishes.52. Hic, at the second course or dessert. -palmae, here, "dates: rugosae, because they were dried.-54. pur.
pureis, on account of the grapes which hang upon them.-55. nec negatives both iners and pauper: "a goodwill neither slow nor niggardly," i. e. an active and generous goodwill.. 57. toties haustum, "though so often drained."-58. per se, as I. 4, 5,
59. novitas, here, "the wonderful manifestation."-manibus supinis, "with uplifted hands," in the attitude of prayer.-60. concipiunt preces, "utter prayers," strictly, express them in words.-61. nullis, as good as none, i. e. "insignificant, poor."-62. minimae, see the note on justissima, I. 3, 22.-custodia, for custos, so below, v. 89. templi tutela fuere. The Romans considered the goose a peculiarly wakeful animal; and, according to tradition, the vigilance of the geese saved the Capitol in the Gallic war, whence the proverb "sicut anseres Capitolium." -63. parabant, as II. 14, 22.-65. est visus, "was seen;" so v. 79, videntur.-67. Dique, to what word does the conjunction belong? cf. II. 16, 21. -68. vobis dabitur ("it shall be granted") immunibus esse, the dat. with inf. as after licet.-69. modo, "only."-70. The active form comito is found in poetry only, cf. I. 4, 46.—
in ardua montis, "to the top of the mountain."-71. simul, i. e. nobiscum. -73. Constiue semel missa, "at one shot."-76. ea, the marvellous occurrence.-suorum, i. e. of their neighbours.-77. Construe illa vetus casa, dominis etiam (as I. 4, 68) duobus parva.-78. furcas subiere columnae, "in place of the fork-shaped props (which supported the roof) came columns."79. flavescunt is explained by aurata tecta, "the roof.". 81. Saturnius, Jupiter, the son of Saturn.-82. justus, here, righteous," "honest." -89. fides, here, "the fulfilment " of the promise.-90. soluti, "worn out.' –92. Inciperent, "began to speak of." -93. senior, as II. 15. 23.-95. mutua reddebant may be translated by one word.Valeque, see above v. 67.— 97. Tyanëius of Tyana, which, however, was not in Phrygia, but in Cappadocia. 98. de gemino corpore, "which had been formed of the two
bodies."-99. vani, "deceitful."-non est cur, "there is no reason why."-101. Serta, which were hung up as dedicatory offerings.-102. see I. 1, 2. [Dean Swift has written a humorous imitation of this passage, entitled “Baucis and Philemon. On the ever-lamented loss of the two Yew-trees in the parish of Chilthorne, Somerset."]
1. Pactolos (Greek nom.) a river in Lydia, which brought down golden sands. -For quamvis, with the indic., see II. 10, 53.-2. invidiosus, "enviable, an object of envy."-3. cohors, here "the train, retinue:" Satyri, see II, 9, 11: Bacchae, "the Bacchantes," women who accompanied Bacchus upon his expeditions, and celebrated his festivals (orgia) with a wild enthusiasm which bordered on madness.-4. Silenus, see II. 9, 19.-5. vinctum coronis, with wreaths of leaves or flowers in sportive procession.-6. Midas, king of Phrygia, son of the goddess Cyběle, who was worshipped on the Phrygian mountain
Berecyntus. Hence he is called, v. 20, Berecyntius heros.-Orpheus, a famous singer of the earliest antiquity. He was the teacher of Midas, whose fellow pupil was Eumolpus of Athens (hence called Cecropius).-7. tradere =docere. Observe the hiatus in the fifth foot.-8. simul, as I. 4, 48.sacrorum, Bacchi.-9. adventu, abl. of the cause. - 10. junctas, diebus: ordine, i. e. one after another. - 11. agmen cogere, a military phrase, "to bring up the rear."-12. Lucifer, the day-star or morning star, which is the last to disappear.—13. juveni (adj.) alumno, i. e. Baccho: who then is meant by altor, v. 15? see II. 9, 19. -14. Construe optandi muneris.-16. usurus; the fut. part. here expresses the decree of destiny, "who was to use," so, v. 18, nocitura.-17. vertatur, the subjunctive, after effice (without any connecting particle), as commonly after fac.-18. solvit, as a debt, because he had promised to grant whatever he requested.-20. heros, a name of honour, applicable to a descendant of the gods.-21. Polliciti fidem, "the credibility of the promise."-22. sibi, i. e. the power which was conferred upon him. Construe ilice non alta detraxit virgam fronde virentem, and lay an emphasis upon fronde, in contrast with aurea. - 24. palluit, "looked yellow;" Dict. palleo, I. 2.26. Massa, here "a lump of gold;" what our Australian miners call a "nugget." Ceres often stands for 66 corn," as Bacchus for "wine."-28. Hesperides, the daughters of Atlas, in whose gardens golden apples grew. putes, one might think; 29. videntur, see II. 18, 65.-31. fluens palmis, flowing from his hands," see I. 4, 10, carcere missus. Danae, the mother of Perseus: she had been shut up for safety, by her father Acrisius, in a lofty tower, but Jupiter obtained access to her in the form of a shower of gold.-32. fingens, "imagining." 34. Exstructas, "heaped up."-tostae frugis, i. e. bread. In very ancient times it was the custom to parch the corn and then bruise it.-35. sive... sive, "whether
- 36. rigebant, because they were turned to gold.-38. premebat, as II. 4, 26. 39. auctorem muneris, i. e. Bacchum = vinum, see v. 26.-40. videres vidisses, si tum affuisses. The imperf. is used because the poet, in imagination, conceives himself present at the scene. Translate you might see."-41. que . que shows that both conditions exist at the same time," at once," &c.-44. meritus, adverbially, "deservedly."-ab auro, literally?-45. splendida, his very skin is supposed to be glittering with gold, see v. 50, circumlitus -46. Lenaeus, an epithet of Bacchus, as "god of the wine-press." For pater, see the note on II. 9, 33.-47. specioso splendido. - 48. Mite, est. deum (i. e. deorum) numen is often used to signify the godhead. 49. Restituit, &c. "restored him to his former condition, and repealed the grant that this should happen, (even) the gift conferred, (i. e. that every thing which he touched should turn to gold)." Facti fidem is in apposition to data munera.—50. Construe et ait ne maneas, &c. ; cf. II. 12, 144.-51. amnem, Pactolon. -52. Construe per (as II. 4, 23) jugum montis carpe viam. - 54. plurimus, in richest fulness."-55. Construe corpus with elue.-56. Vis aurea, "the golden (i. e. the gold producing) power."-58. Nunc quoque, as II. 10, 54.-semen jam veteris venae ("vein of gold"), is the golden sand.-59. auro madidis, "impreg nated with gold."-60. colebat, belongs also to the phrase Panaque, &c.; but the verb cannot be rendered by the same word in both clauses.-Pan was the god of shepherds. 62. Pingue, i. e. dull, stupid."-nocitura, as v. 16.-63. domino, "the owner:" praecordia (opéves), "the midriff," considered in the most ancient times as the seat of sensation and thought: praecordia mentis, a circumlocution for mens.-64. Nam, "for" or "now," introduces the following narrative as an explication of the judgment passed upon
Midas.late, construe with prospiciens.-riget arduus alto in ascensu,
steep on the precipitous side," as opposed to the two sloping sides.-65. Tmolus, a mountain in Lydia.—66. Hypaepa, a town in the neighbourhood.-67. jactat, "extols, vaunts." -68. leve," insignificant."
dine, see II. 5, 13.-cerata, because the reeds were joined together by wax. -69. Ausus (referring to Pan), resolve with, "and."-Apollineos, see II. 8, 11. prae se, "in comparison with himself." 70. Judice sub Tmolo, "under the arbitration of Tmolus," who must here be understood as the god of the mountain-certamen ad impar, namely, with Apollo, who was the god of music.-71. senior, see II. 15, 23. aures liberat arboribus, why? The poet transfers to the god an expression borrowed from the woody heights of the mountain.-72. Quercu, i.e." with oakleaves."-coma caerula, on account of the blue haze which hangs upon distant hills. 74. In judice nulla mora est, "the judge is ready;" literally? 76. Barbarice, Pan, here represented as a Phrygian god, plays a Phrygian, that is, a barbaric tune.77. delenit, "charms."-78. vultum sua silva secuta est, "his native wood followed his countenance," i. e. as he turned, his face was accompanied by the forest which crowned his head.
79. For the acc. caput, see sparsus tempora, II. 3, 13.-Parnaside, from mount Parnasus, near Delphi, which was sacred to Apollo and the Muses.80. saturata, see II. 8, 25, bis tinctam, and compare the whole passage.
-81. fides (gen. is) " a stringed instrument," either lyre or cithara.-dentes Indi, "ivory."-82. a laeva parte, see a dextra, II. 11, 13.-83. Artificis status ipse fuit, "his very attitude was that of an artist."-stamina, "the strings" Dict. stamen, II. 2.— docto, as I. 4, 44.-85. submittere, "to lower in honour of," "to place in subordination to:" our nearest English word is "to vail," i. e. to let fall, as in the phrase "to vail topsails.”—86. que,
belongs to sententia.-88. Nec, as I. 4, 69.-Delius, i. e. Apollo, see II. 17, 17. 90. trahit in spatium, "elongates."-91. posse moveri, the object of the verb dat, "the faculty of moving."-92. Cetera, "the other parts of his body.-partem in unam, "with regard to one portion." -93. Induitur aures, with verbs passive of clothing, the poets often use the acc. to express the object worn.-94. pudore, as II. 7, 13.-97. hoc, Midam aures asini habere.-98. cupiens, resolve, "how much soever, with a verb. -efferre sub auras, "to bring to light," "to tell."-101. parva, "soft, light." haustae . 102.
regesta, in scrobem. 105. ut primum simulac. 106. agricolam, "the husbandman," in jesting allusion to the servant who had sowed the secret in the ground.
20. CADMUS FOUNDS THEBES.
Cadmus, the son of the Phoenician king Agenor (hence called Agenorides), had been ordered by his father, on pain of exile, to seek and find his sister Europa, who had been carried off by Jupiter. As he was unable to discover her, he wandered to Greece.-2. Phoebi oracula, at Delphi.-4. solis, as II. 12, 76.-6. carpe vias, as II. 16, 24. -herba, for in herba.-7. Moenia, often used by the poets in the sense of a city" or "town."-fac condas, see I. 4, 9.-Boeotia (adj.): Thebes in Boeotia was sometimes called the "Boeotian," to distinguish it from other cities of the same name, and especially from Thebes in Aegypt. The word Boeotia was supposed to be derived from the Greek Boûs, bos.-8. Vix bene, "but just."-Castalium antrum is the name of a cavern at Delphi, where oracles were delivered; so called from the Castalian spring which issued forth in the neighbourhood on Mount Parnassus. For the abl. see I. 4, 10, carcere missus.-11. legere vestigia, "to follow a track," see above, carpe vias. presso gressu, "with firm, i.e. slow step."-13. Cephisus, a river