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bring the statue of Diana from the land of the Tauri. He undertook the task, in company with his faithful friend Pylades.-30. Evincti geminas manus, see II. 3, 13, sparsus tempora.31. The strangers (advenae) who were destined for sacrifice were first consecrated by the sprinkling of holy water (lustralis aqua), and then crowned with a white woollen fillet, which served as an ornament both for victims and for priests.-35. Non ego crudelis must be connected with facio sacra: the contrast is expressed in the word gentis; "I (am) not cruel (though) I perform sacrifices which are (even) more barbarous than the place itself;" lit. "their own place," i. e. the country where such enormities are perpetrated. -37. Qua urbe, see I. 4, 10, carcere missus.-38. parum fausta puppe, "in an ill-fated ship," but literally ?39. Construe et pia virgo, audito nomine patriae illorum, comperit eos consortes esse urbis suae, "of her native city," Mycenae in Argolis.41. votis (particip.) Dianae a gente Taurica.-43. periturus, "willing to die."-44. pugnare, with inf., meaning, "to strive to or "be eager to," is a poetical use of the word.-45. quod non convenerit illis, " on which they were not agreed." The subjunctive as I. 4, 18-46. Cetera, "in other respects," acc. used absolutely; par, "the pair," Dict. par, III.-Construe par fuit concors et sine lite.-47. Construe pulchri amoris.-48. exarat, "she writes," Dict, exaro, II.-scriptas notas, "written characters," i. e. a letter. 49. Construe cuique (et is cui) illa dabantur, frater erat.-51. Nec mora (est or fuit): a common phrase in Ovid: in translating connect with the following clause, and translate as an adv.-53. quamvis abiere, the poes often use quamvis as quamquam with the indic.-54. nunc quoque, " even now," or even yet."
11. BUSIRIS AND PHALARIS.
1. Aegyptos, Greek nominative.— 3. Busiris, a mythical king of Egypt, who sacrificed strangers, and was himself slain by Hercules.-4. Hospitis effuso sanguine, i. e. by the sacrifice of a stranger.-5. Fies . . . . dabis, "thou shalt," see repetes, I. 3, 24.7. Phalaris, a tyrant of Agrigentum in Sicily, notorious for his cruelty. The artist Perillus brought over from Athens, and presented to the tyrant, a hollow brazen bull, so contrived, that when victims were placed inside and a fire was kindled below, their cries resounded like the roaring of a bull, as they perished by slow torture. Phalaris tried the first experiment upon the artist himself.-8. imbuit, "inaugurated," i. e. was made the first example.-10. conciliare here," to recommend." artes suas, otherwise termed (v. 17) inventa.-11. usus, sed imagine major, e. an advantage, but greater than might be supposed from its outward appearance.-13. a dextra (parte) "on the right."-14. perdes, "you intend to destroy."-20. praesens, i. e. now, on the spot.-21. Nec mora, see II. 10, 51.stratis," as he had shown the way.' 22. geminos, a metaphor borrowed from the likeness of twins, " similar," resembling" the roar of a bull.-24. sua, artifices, "inventors." phatic," their own." Compare Shaksp. Haml. III. 4, "For 'tis the sport, to have the engineer hoist with his own petard" (i.e. blown up with his own engine).
12. CERES AND PROSERPINA.
a. The Rape.
2. Trinacris (adj.) "the Trinacrian (i. e. three-pointed or three-peaked): in translating take this adj. after the words of the first line. Trinacria was the oldest Greek name for Sicily, so called from its three promontories
(here scopula). 3. Grata domus Cereri, on account of the remarkable fertility of the soil.-ea, Ceres, because she had temples there.-5. Arethusa, a Sicilian fountain-nymph. Her fountain (or well-spring) was near Syracuse, whereas Henna, where the rape took place, was in the centre of the island. -vocarat, "had invited' matres caelestum, "the female deities," for mater is a title of honour applied to goddesses as pater to gods. Observe the form of the gen. caelestum.-6. dea flava, Ceres, so termed from the colour of ears of corn.-7. filia, Proserpina, by the Greeks called Persephone, daughter of Jupiter and Ceres.
-consuetis comitata puellis, see I. 4, 46.-8. sua prata, because Henna was her favourite residence.-9. sub valle, "down in a shady vale."-10. Construe Uvidus aspergine multa aquae ex alto desilientis.-11. fuerant, i. e.
before the occurrence which is now related.-12. dissimili, i. e. inter se.16. non sentitur, one idea, "is unperceived."-17. lento, see II. 1, 3.20. Comas, i. e. flores.-21. tenes... moraris; for the apostrophe, see II. 8, 9.-23. Plurima, see I. 3, 18, prona.-With sunt supply lecti.-24. Ipsa, Proserpina.-27. patruus, Pluto or Dis, brother of Jupiter, and ruler of the Lower World. - 28. caeruleis, "dark-coloured, sable," like everything else belonging to the infernal regions.30. abscideratque sinus; sometimes the poets attach que to a word which is not the first in the sentence; see below, 156.-The tearing of a garment from the breast, was a sign of the deepest grief.-31. via, a cleft in the earth, leading to the realms below.33. aequalis, see virgineo, II. 10, 16.-34. ad tua dona, to the flowers which we have gathered for thee.-36. nuda, because they had rent their garments.-38. Nec mora, see II. 10, 51.39. rapitur, denotes her wild haste in running to and fro. 40. Maenadas, Greek acc. The Maenades (i. e. raving women) or Bacchantes, were women who celebrated the feast
of Bacchus with frantic dances;
was especially remarkable for these wild festivals.-41. sua, used in reference to vitulo ab ubere rapto (abl. abs.), cf. II. 5, 8, ut sua, quod peperit, vix ferat arbor onus.—46. Construe and supply ut ales loca querelis implet, cum gemit amissum Ityn. Philomela, from revenge against her husband Tereus, had killed their little son Itys. She was changed into a nightingale, and still bewails the loss of her boy. See the old ballad :
"As it fell upon a day
In the merry month of May," &c. -47. per vices, "alternately;" not differing in meaning from alternis (i. e. vicibus), vv. 48 and 50. Dict. alternus, III.-48. ciet, "calls upon." Dict. cieo, VI.
53. Typhoëos, the Greek gen. of Ty. phoeus, the son of Earth and Tartarus, represented as a monstrous giant, from whose mouth flames proceeded, and who tried to take heaven by storm. But Jupiter, hurling down thunderbolts, subdued his violence, and buried him beneath the island of Sicily, where he still vomits fire through mount Aetna.-56. Hinc, "wherefore," in remembrance of this-sacris datur, "is offered in her worship," i. e. is lighted when sacred rites are performed in her honour, cf. II. 31, 19.-nunc quoque, as II. 10, 54.-58. regio non homini adeunda, non ferae. The gerundive may often be translated by a verbal adj. in "-able."-59. Ceres rode through the air upon a chariot drawn by dragons (or serpents); hence sicca, not wet by the waves of the sea.-61. Syrtes, two bays, notorious for their dangerous sandbanks, on the African coast, southward of Sicily.-Zanclaea; the whirlpool Charybdis is situated in the strait of Messana (Messina), anciently called Zancle.-62. Nisaei canes, in reference to Scylla, a sea-monster haunting the coasts of Italy and Sicily: from her sides dogs were produced, who destroyed
any ships that came near them. The epithet Nisaei is an oversight on the part of Ovid, who has confounded this Scylla with another of the same name, the daughter of Nisus, king of Megara. -66. Cecropidae, the Athenians, from the name of their ancient king Cecrops. -67. sub Jove, i. e. sub dio; Jupiter, the god of heaven, is used for the sky itself.-multis diebus, "during many days." What would be the more usual form?-68. lunae; in southern climates the light of the moon is supposed to have an injurious influence upon the health, cf. Psalm 121, 6, "The sun shall not smite thee by day, nor the moon by night."-69. Quo and Hoc (abl.) refer to loco.-Eleusin or Eleusis (-inis) a town in Attica, where the famous mys. teries of Ceres were celebrated.-70. Dicitur, with the acc. and inf. is rare. -71. glandes, the eatable acorns or beech-nuts of southern climes: mora, "blackberries." In early times the people used any substitute they could find for corn, the cultivation of which was first introduced among the Greeks by Triptolemus. -72. arsuris focis, i. e. for lighting the fire; but literally? Ardere is an intransitive verb: cf. I. 1, 35.-73. redigebat rupe, see I. 4, 10, carcere missus: cf. 90, seque levat saxo.-76. solis, "lonely.”—77. senior must often be translated by the positive.-quamvis with the indic. as II. 10, 53.-orat subeat, the subj. denoting a purpose, the conj. omitted. 78. quantulacumque, here, not relative "how small soever," but adjective, "however lowly."-80. Instanti, with entreaties.-81. semper parens, i. e. never bereaved of thy children.-83. ut lacrimae, "tear-like," but without actual tears: so Milton, "Tears such as angels weep," Par. Lost, I. 620.-87. Sic, sometimes introduces a wish, which presupposes the fulfilment of some entreaty: the meaning is, so or in proportion as my request is granted.-88. nec, as 1. 4, 9.-89. qua (via) = qua ratione.-92. invigilet malis," he is
kept awake by pain."-93. penates, the household gods are often employed
to signify the house itself.-94. lene, on account of its soothing qualities.95. oblito, "forgetful," i. e. 66 unconscious."-96. imprudens, "unawares." -In exsoluisse the ▾ changed into u forms a separate syllable (Diaerėsis).— 105. liquefacta coagula lacte, rennet dissolved in milk, i. e. curdled milk, lac coactum, for by the dissolution of rennet in milk, the latter curdles, and coagulation takes place.-106. cerae, here, the "cells," "honeycomb."-107. somni causas, "the means of producing sleep," in apposition with papavera. -110. Triptolemus was the name of the boy.-gremio suo (dat.) sustulit, "raised him to her lap." This use of the dative is poetical.-111. Even from the oldest times the number three was held sacred or mysterious: so, too, Shakespeare, Macbeth, I. 3.
"Thrice to thine, and thrice to mine, And thrice again, to make up nine." -carmina, "charms," or "incantations."-112. non referenda, see 58. -114. humanum onus, the gross and heavy burden of humanity; for she wished to make him immortal.-115. Excutitur somno, "is startled out of sleep."-stulte pia, "foolishly affectionate," "fond."-117. Dum non es scelerata, scelerata fuisti, without being criminal, thou hast made thyself criminal, by allowing maternal fondness to stand in the way of thy child's happiness.-119. Ceres afterwards taught Triptolemus the arts of agriculture, and ordered him to propagate them in other countries.-121. nubem trahit, she draws a cloud with her, i. e. she soars away in a cloud, cf. II. 10, 21.-dracones, for the chariot drawn by dragons or serpents.-122. axe, see puppis, I. 2, 12.
c. The Recovery.
123. immunia ponti signa, the constellations of the greater and smaller Bear, which never set, and consequently never appear to dip into the sea. They are called Parrhasides stellae, because the Arcadian nymph Callisto was changed into a she-bear, and then raised to the heavens as Ursa major. Parrhasia was a town in Arcadia: hence
Parrhasian poetically for Arcadian. Another name for this constellation was Helice.-131. aditus, particip.-vana, acc. plur.-Construe (ea) quam quaeris, tertia regna tenet, nupta Jovis fratri. Jupiter ruled the heaven, Neptune the sea, Pluto the lower world: cf. 145.
-136. The meaning is, she has as much claim upon thine (her father's) care, as upon mine.-137. injuria facti, "the wrongful deed." The idea is, "I know merely that she is carried off, but I have not recovered her."-139. marito, "as-."-142. novis factis, i. e. by restoring the captive.-144. nec ait, i. e. et ait, non est pudendus, &c. -145. caelo, i. e. in caelo, so 160.146. alter alter, meorum fratrum.-chaos, here, the yawning gulf of the Realm of the Dead.-148. Stat, "it stands fast, it is determined."torus, here," the marriage."-150. Si minus, "if not."-151. Caducifer, Mercury, the messenger of the gods: he carried a herald-staff (caduceus) in his hand, and wore winged shoes on his feet.-152. Spe may be expanded in translation into a subordinate clause.154. Punica poma, pomegranates." -lento, tough, tenacious."-157. ita, namely, vix refecta.-Nec, as I. 2, 16.-158. Taenaria valle, "in the Taenarian gorge," a cavernous glen near the promontory Taenarum, at the southern point of Laconia, where there was, according to tradition, an entrance to the infernal regions. Here the entrance is used for the lower world itself. -159, factura fuit nisi is stronger than fecisset nisi; she fully intended to do so, and would certainly have carried out her intention, had not, &c.-160. Bis tribus mensibus, as multis diebus, v. 67.-illa, Proserpina,-foret = futura esset.-161. vultum, i. e. her accustomed cheerful countenance. 163. cessatis, i. e. quae cessaverant. Observe this unusual perf. part. of an intransitive verb. During the wandering of Ceres, agriculture had been neglected.
13. THE GOLDEN AGE.
1. prima, "at first," "in the beginning." vindice nullo, abl. abs., "without any protector."
vindex, "a protector, preserver;" Dict. vindex, I.-3. verba minacia, referring to the edicts of praetors and censors, inscribed upon brazer tablets, which were hung up in the Capitol and other public places.-4. supplex turba, the accused person surrounded by his friends, who endeavoured to work upon the compassion of the judges.-5. ora, "the countenance," see pectora, I. 4, 22.-erant, "men were."-6. Construe Nondum descenderat pinus caesa (in) suis montibus.-orbem, here "part of the world," "quarter of
the globe."-10. directi aeris and flexi aeris, gen. of the quality.-11. sine militis usu, "without needing soldiers."-12. otia peragere, here "to live in peace."-mollia, gentle."13. Construe Ipsa tellus-immunis, "free from service."-14. per se, as I. 4, 5.-15. nullo cogente, "without constraint," see v. 1.-16. Arbuteos, see virgineo, H. 10, 16.-17. mora, as II. 12, 71. At the same passage, see the note on glandes.-18. quae glandes, see I. 4, 30. The oak was sacred to Jupiter.-20. mulcere, "to fan, caress;" Dict. mulceo, I.-21. Mox, i. e. so that after the blossom the ripeness shortly followed.-22. Nec renovatus," and without being tilled afresh."-cānebat, from caneo.-23. jam. jam, "at one time another."-nectar, here for wine.
14. CERES CHANGES A Boy
INTO A LIZARD.
perus.-udis, because she arises from the ocean.-4. duabus manibus, so that she holds one in each hand.-7. alma dies, see I. 4, 39.-8. solis occasus and ortus refer to the quarters of the heaven, west and east.-9. sitim colligere, "to contract thirst," "to become very thirsty." - ora, mouth," see pectora, I. 4, 22.-13. Dulce (here subst.) a sweet drink.". tosta quod texerat, &c., she had, according to old custom, besprinkled the drink with roasted and ground barley, something like our meal and water.14. duri," rude," audax, "bold, forward, pert." 16. Construe and resolve et, nondum epota parte (turn the particip. into "as with a verb) diva perfudit loquentem ("him in the act of speaking "), polenta mixta cum liquido (subst.).-18. Combibit, "absorbs."-quae, &c. "What just now as arms he bore, he bears as legs."
22. monstra, "the marvellous creature, see above ora. - parantem, "endeavouring."— 24. Nomen, i. e. stellio, "the star-lizard," called "the Gecko;" Dict. stellio.-stellatus, resolve into "because," with a verb. For the acc. corpora, see tempora sparsus, II. 3, 13.
1. Delphicus, Apollo. time he was in Elis and Messenia, tending a herd of cattle, which belonged to the gods.-3. Alterius manus onus: for the quantity, see I. 1, 76.-dispar, see inaequali arundine, Il. 5, 13.4. Dum amor est curae; in a hasty fit of anger he had killed a beloved nymph, Corōnis.-mulcet, as II. 8, 34.-5. Pylos, a town in Elis, in the Peloponnesus. 6. Atlantide Maia natus, Mercury, whose mother was Maia, daughter of Atlas (hence called Atlantis): his father was Jupiter, and so, v. 18, he is styled Jove natus.-7. sua, "peculiar to himself," or "his own peculiar," for Mercury was the god of theft.-occultat abactas, “he
drives away and hides them :" in translation it is often necessary to turn a pass. part. into an act. verb followed by and."-10. Nelei, a dissyllable, Neleus, the father of Nestor, was king of Pylos.-11. Construe greges nobilium equarum.-12. Hunc Battum timuit Mercurius.-14. aliquis, with emphasis, "any one," thinking all the time of the rightful owner.-facto, "for thy service."-16. Accepta, abl. abs.; what subst. must be supplied?
-19. versa figura, abl. abs.-21. Silence is a kind of concealment in cases of theft.-22. femina, for vacca. -juncta may be translated by a prep.-23. senior, see II. 12, 77.25. Atlantiades, "the descendant of Atlas," see 6.-26. pectora, the part for the whole person.-27. In silicem, with reference to v. 17.-nunc quo que, as II. 10, 54.-Index, "the Informer."
1. Daedalus, a famous artist, and father of Icarus, had been guilty of homicide in his native Athens, and had fled to Crete, where he constructed the Labyrinth; he was further detained against his will by king Minos.-perosus and tactus may be resolved into verbs with concessive particles, "since, because, &c."-3. licet, with the sub
junctive to be rendered by "may."obstruat, Minos.-5. possideat, see I. 1, 11.-6. animum dimittit, "he lets his thonghts soar."-7. Naturam novat, "he changes his nature," by assuming that of a bird.- Nam, "namely," "that is to say."-8. longam breviore sequente, describes the contrivance generally without special reference to a minima coeptas.-9. Ut (in) clivo crevisse putes, for trees which grow upon a declivity, grow in order one above another.-quondam, not always of a past time, but indefinitely sometimes."-10. disparibus, cf. II. 15, 3.-13. veras aves for veras avium alas.-14. sua se tractare