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initiă, cělěritěr. Ŏněrabunt, gěněrōsī. ulciscitur, sōlāměně.
ēripiunt, simplicitās. inēxhaūstus, pĕrīllūstris.
Obs. Two Iambi, Trochees or Spondees together, are sometimes called
§ 40. Verses are called Monometer, Dimeter, Trimeter, Tetrameter, Pentameter, or Hexameter, according to the number of measures (μérpa) which they contain.
Obs. A Dactyl or Choriambus constitute each one measure: an Anapaest,
Hence a line consisting of six Dactyls is called Hexameter (, six); while a line consisting of the same number of Iambi or Trochees, is called Trimeter (rpeic, three); and a line consisting of four Anapaests, Dimeter (dis, twice).
§ 41. Elision (ēlisio) or Synaloepha (ovvaλoon) is the striking-out of a vowel, or a syllable ending with m, at the end of a word, when the following word begins with a vowel or h, and is indicated by the sign ~: as,
Conticuere omnes (read, cōntică|ēr❜ōmnļēs)
Mē miserum exclāmāt (mē misèr'ļēxclām ǎt).
Pērque hiěmēs (pērqu'hie mēs).
Umbrārum haec sēdēs (ūmbrār'|haec sēdļēs).
Obs. 1. Monosyllabic words are rarely elided, and least of all at the beginning of a verse: as,
Si ad vitulam spectas.
Obs. 2. The Elision of a long vowel before a short one should be avoided: as,
Obs. 3. The Elision of an iambus should always be avoided: as,
disce měō exemplo.
Obs. 4. If est follows a final vowel, the e of est is elided, and not the final vowel: thus,
nostra est, nostri est, nostrum est, should be written and read
Obs. 5. Sometimes a final long vowel remains in Hiatus, and is not elided:
Obs. 6. The Interjections ô, heu, ah, proh, are not elided: as,
Ō pater | ō hominum dil vumque aeterna pot estas.-Virg.
Obs. 7. Occasionally a long vowel or diphthong at the end of a word becomes short before a word beginning with a vowel: as,
Te Corydon, Ŏ Alexi; trahit sua | quemque voluptas.—Virg.
Obs. 8. Earlier writers sometimes elide s: as,
Nam si de nihilo fierent, ex omnibu' rebus.-Lucr.
§ 42. Synaeresis (ovvaiperic) is the combination of two vowels into one, and is indicated by the sign ~, ~. It is admissible only in the case of words which metrical laws would otherwise exclude, and more especially in the case of proper names at the end of a verse: as,
Si lento fuerint al věĕaria | vimine | texta.-Virg.
Caucasi|asque refert volucres furtumque Promethei.—Virg.
So Orphea, Typhoča.
Synaeresis is chiefly found in the following words:
deinde, proinde, abiete, arîěte, děêsse and its derivatives,
antěhāc, and in the whole verb anteire.
§ 43. Diaeresis (diaípeσiç) is the separation of a diphthong into two syllables: as, pictaï.
I. DACTYLIC HEXAMETER METRE.
§ 44. The Dactylic Hexameter, usually called simply Hexameter, is employed especially in epic poetry, whence it is also termed the Heroic Verse. It consists properly of six dactyls (~~), the last of which is shortened by one syllable, so that the place of the last syllable is supplied by a trochee (-), or, as the final syllable of each verse is common, by a spondee (--). Instead of the first four dactyls, spondees may be used, but the fifth foot is regularly a dactyl. Hence, the following is the scheme of the verse :
$45. The following are examples of the different combinations of the first four feet:
1. Four Dactyls.
(a) Rádit itér líquidúm celérés něquè commovet alas.
(b) impenséque suí potěrít săpărare cruoris,
(c) Témpără lábuntúr tăcitísque senescimus annis,
3. Two Spondees and Two Dactyls. (f) Dúm vīrés ānniquě sinunt tolěrate labores,
(g) Quárum quae mědïá'st nõn ést hăbĭtabilis aestu,
(k) Númînă néc spērní síně poenā nostra sinamus,
4. Three Spondees and One Dactyl. (m) Nátūram éxpēllás fūrcá tăměn usque recurret, (n) Út děsínt virés tăměn ést laudanda voluntas,
(0) Aut prōdéssě volúnt aut délectare poetae,
5. Four Spondees.
(q) Ex aequo captís ārdébānt mentibus ambo.
§ 46. Sometimes, but rarely, the fifth foot is a spondee, but then the fourth foot is a dactyl. Such a verse is called Spondaic. It usually concludes with a word of four syllables or one syllable: as,
Constitit atque oculis Phrygia ágmină círcumspexit :
Obs. Very rarely indeed do we find such a line as,
Aut levis ocreas lentō dūcūnt argento.-Virg. Aen. VII. 634.
§ 47. Every Hexameter verse must have at least one Caesura (from caedo, "to cut") which is a division of the foot, so that one part of it is in one word, and another part of it in another word. Hence the following line has five Caesuras:
Donec || erís || felíx || multós || numerábis || amicos.
§ 48. The Caesura may be either strong or weak. The strong Caesura is when the foot is cut after its first long syllable: as,
Árma virúmque canó || Trojaé qui prímus ab óris.
The weak Caesura is when the foot is cut after the first short syllable of a Dactyl: as,
Ó passí gravióra || dabít deus hís quoque finem.
$49. The Caesuras are named after the number of the half feet in Greek (μ- and μépos): hence, Triemimeral, after the first three half feet; Penthemimeral, after the first five half feet; Hephthemimeral, after the first seven half feet; Ennehemimeral, after the first nine half feet.
Obs. The two short syllables of the Dactyl are counted as one half foot.
§ 50. Every Hexameter verse ought to Penthemimeral, or Hephthemimeral Caesura. meral strong Caesura is the most common. mimeral is generally used along with the Triemimeral: as, Fáma malúm || quo nón aliúd || velócius úllum.
have either the The PenthemiThe Hephthe
§ 51. Besides the Pause of the Caesura, a Hexameter usually has another pause, when the foot terminates with
the word. Thus, in the following line, there are two pauses in addition to the Penthemimeral Caesura: as,
Tántae | mólis erát || Románam | cóndere géntem.
§ 52. The Hexameter should end with a word of two or of three syllables: a monosyllabic ending is rare: a quadrisyllabic or polysyllabic rarer still. In the verses
Vertitur íntereá coelum ét ruit óceanó nōx (Virg.),
the structure is intentionally subservient to the idea. In Áëriaé quercús aut cóniferaé căpăríssī,
the Greek origin of the last word justifies its position. In Dámonís musám dicémus et Álphěsìboei,
we recognize the exigencies of metre. The ear, however, is not offended when the closing monosyllable is preceded by another as in
Príncipibús placuísse virís non última laús est,
or when the closing monosyllable is united with the preceding by elision: as,
Ad quem túm Junó suppléx his vócibus úsa est.—Virg.
§ 53. It is not usual except for the conveyance of a particular idea, to make the first four feet of a Hexameter entirely dactyls or entirely spondees. An accumulation of dactyls produces a rapid movement: an accumulation of spondees a heavy movement. These effects are designedly produced by Virgil in the following lines:
Quádrupedánte putrém sonitú quatit úngula cámpum
§ 54. In the construction of a Hexameter beginners should have an eye first of all to the formation of the last two feet, next of the first foot, and then to the establishment of one of the principal Caesuras.
II. DACTYLIC PENTAMETER.
55. The Dactylic Pentameter is found only in conjunction with a Hexameter, the distich thus formed being called an Elegiac couplet: as,