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From the State of Pennsylvania:
ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF THE SENATE Messrs. EDWARD MARTIN and JAMES
On motion by Mr. TAFT that the SenH. DUFF.
ate do now proceed to the election of a From the State of Rhode Island and President of the Senate pro tempore, Providence Plantations:
It was determined in the affirmative; Messrs. THEODORE FRANCIS GREEN
Whereupon and JOHN O. PASTORE.
Mr. TAFT submitted the following resFrom the State of South Carolina:
olution (S. Res. 4): Messrs. BURNET R. MAYBANK and
Resolved, That Hon. STYLES BRIDGES, a OLIN D. JOHNSTON.
Senator from the State of New HampFrom the State of South Dakota:
shire, be, and he is hereby, elected PresiMessrs. KARL E. MUNDT and
dent of the Senate pro tempore, to hold FRANCIS CASE.
office during the pleasure of the Senate, From the State of Tennessee:
in accordance with the resolutions of the Messrs. ESTES KEFAUVER and AL
Senate adopted on the 12th day of March BERT GORE.
1890, on the subject. From the State of Texas:
The Senate proceeded to consider the Messrs LYNDON B. JOHNSON and
said resolution. PRICE DANIEL.
On motion by Mr. JOHNSON of Texas to From the State of Utah:
amend the resolution by striking out the Messrs. ARTHUR V. WATKINS and
words "STYLES BRIDGES, a Senator from WALLACE F. BENNETT. From the State of Vermont :
the State of New Hampshire," and insert
ing in lieu thereof the words Walter F. Messrs. GEORGE D. AIKEN and
George, a Senator from the State of
It was determined in the negative; and
The resolution was then agreed to. From the State of Washington:
The VICE PRESIDENT appointed Mr. Messrs. WARREN G. MAGNUSON and GEORGE as a committee of one to escort HENRY M. JACKSON.
the President pro tempore to the rostrum From the State of West Virginia:
for the purpose of taking the oath of ofMessrs. HARLEY M. KILGORE and fice; and MATTHEW M. NEELY.
Mr. BRIDGES was escorted to the rosFrom the State of Wisconsin:
trum, and the oath of office was adminMessrs. ALEXANDER WILEY and
istered to him by the Vice President. JOSEPH R. MCCARTHY. From the State of Wyoming:
ELECTION OF SECRETARY OF THE SENATE Messrs. LESTER C. HUNT and FRANK Mr. TAFT submitted the following resA. BARRETT.
olution (S. Res. 5): A quorum being present,
Resolved, That J. Mark Trice, of Mary
land, be, and he is hereby, elected SecreCOMMITTEE TO NOTIFY THE PRESIDENT
tary of the Senate. Mr. TAFT submitted the following resolution (S. Res. 1), which was considered
The Senate proceeded to consider the
said resolution; and by unanimous consent and agreed to: Resolved, That a committee consisting
On motion by Mr. JOHNSON of Texas of two Senators be appointed by the Vice
to amend the same by striking out the President to join such committee as may
words "J. Mark Trice, of Maryland," and be appointed by the House of Repre
inserting in lieu thereof the words Leslie sentatives to wait upon the President of
L. Biffie, of Arkansas, the United States and inform him that a It was determined in the negative; and quorum of each House is assembled and The resolution was then agreed to. that the Congress is ready to receive any The VICE PRESIDENT designated the communication he may be pleased to retiring Secretary (Mr. Biffle) to escort make.
· Mr. Trice to the rostrum for the purThe VICE PRESIDENT appointed Mr. pose of taking the oath of office; and TAFT and Mr. JOHNSON of Texas as the
Mr. Trice was escorted to the rostrum members of the committee on the part of
and the oath of office was administered the Senate.
to him by the Vice President. NOTIFICATION TO THE HOUSE
ELECTION OF SERGEANT AT ARMS AND DOORMr. JOHNSON of Texas submitted the
KEEPER OF THE SENATE following resolution (S. Res. 2), which Mr. JENNER submitted the following was considered by unanimous consent resolution (S. Res. 6): and agreed to:
Resolved, That Forest A. Harness, of Resolved, That the Secretary inform
Indiana, be, and he is hereby, elected the House of Representatives that a
Sergeant at Arms and Doorkeeper of the quorum of the Senate is assembled and
Senate. that the Senate is ready to proceed to
The Senate proceeded to consider the business.
said resolution; and HOUR OF DAILY MEETING
On motion by Mr. JOHNSON of Texas to Mr. SALTONSTALL submitted the fol
amend the same by striking out the lowing resolution (S. Res. 3), which was
words "Forest A. Harness, of Indiana,” considered by unanimous consent and
and inserting in lieu thereof the words agreed to:
Joseph C. Duke, of Arizona, Resolved, that the hour of daily meet It was determined in the negative; ing of the Senate be 12 o'clock meridian and unless otherwise ordered.
The resolution was then agreed to.
NOTIFICATION TO THE PRESIDENT OF ELEC
TION OF PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE AND
Mr. TAFT submitted the following resolution (S. Res. 7), which was considered and agreed to:
Resolved, That the President of the United States be notified of the election of Hon. STYLES BRIDGES, a Senator from the State of New Hampshire, as President of the Senate pro tempore, and of J. Mark Trice, of Maryland, as Secretary of the Senate. NOTIFICATION TO THE HOUSE OF ELECTION
OF PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE AND SECRE-
Mr. TAFT submitted the following resolution (S. Res. 8), which was considered and agreed to:
Resolved, That the House of Representatives be notified of the election of Hon. STYLES BRIDGES, a Senator of the State of New Hampshire, as President of the Senate pro tempore, and of J. Mark Trice, of Maryland, as Secretary of the Senate. ELECTION OF SECRETARY FOR THE MINORITY
Mr. JOHNSON of Texas submitted the following resolution (S. Res. 9), which was considered and agreed to:
Resolved, That Felton M. Johnston, of Mississippi, be, and he is hereby, elected secretary for the minority of the Senate. JOINT SESSION FOR COUNT OF
ELECTORAL VOTE Mr. JENNER submitted the following concurrent resolution (S. Con. Res. 1), which was considered by unanimous consent and agreed to:
Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), That the two Houses of Congress shall meet in the Hall of the House of Representatives on Tuesday, the 6th day of January 1953, at 1 o'clock post meridian, pursuant to the requirements of the Constitution and laws relating to the election of President and Vice President of the United States, and the President of the Senate shall be their Presiding Officer; that two tellers shall be previously appointed by the President of the Senate on the part of the Senate and two by the Speaker on the part of the House of Representatives, to whom shall be handed, as they are opened by the President of the Senate, all the certificates and papers purporting to be certificates of the electoral votes, which certificates and papers shall be opened, presented, and acted upon in the alphabetical order of the States, beginning with the letter A; and said tellers, having then read the same in the presence and hearing of the two Houses, shall make a list of the votes as they shall appear from the said certificates; and the votes having been ascertained and counted in the manner and according to the rules by law provided, the result of the same shall be delivered to the President of the Senate, who shall thereupon announce the state of the vote, which announcement shall be deemed a sufficient declaration of the persons, if any, elected President and Vice President of the United States, and, together with a list of the votes, be entered on the Journals of the two Houses.
Ordered, That the Secretary request On motion by Mr. Buss, as a further
House Resolution 11 the concurrence of the House of Repre- mark of respect to the memory of the
Resolved, That the House has heard sentatives therein. late Senator,
with profound sorrow of the death of The Senate adjourned until Tuesday Hon. BRIEN MCMAHON, a Senator
of the JOINT COMMITTEE TO ARRANGE FOR THE
next. INAUGURATION OF THE PRESIDENT-ELECT
United States from the State of ConUnder the authority of the order of the
necticut Senate of July 7, 1952, the Vice President TU'ESDAY, JANUARY 6, 1953
Resolved, That the Clerk communicate during the adjournment of the Senate
these resolutions to the Senate and appointed Mrs. SMITH a member on the
The VICE PRESIDENT called the transmit a copy thereof to the family of part of the Senate of the Joint Commit Senate to order, and the Chaplain of the deceased. tee to Arrange for the Inauguration of fered prayer.
House Resolution 8 the President-elect of the United States,
Resolved, That the House has heard vice Mr. MCFARLAND, resigned.
On motion by Mr. Tart, and by with profound sorrow of the death of Mrs. SMITH having been unable to ac
unanimous consent, cept the appointment, the Vice Presi
Hon. ADOLPH J. SABATH, a Representative
The Journal of the proceedings of Sat- from the State of Ilinois. dent appointed Mr. WELKER to fill the
urday, January 3, 1953, was approved. Resolved. That the Clerk communicate vacancy.
MESSAGE FROM THE HOUSE
these resolutions to the Senate and ASCERTAINMENT OF ELECTORS POR PRESIDENT
transmit a copy thereof to the family of AND VICE PRESIDENT A message from the House of Repre
the deceased. sentatives, by Mr. Chaffee, one of its The VICE PRESIDENT laid before the clerks:
House Resolution 9 Senate two communications from the
Mr. President: I am directed to inform Administrator of General Services, trans
Resolved. That the House has heard the Senate that a quorum of the House mitting. pursuant to law, certified copies
with profound sorrow of the death of of Representatives has assembled; that of the final ascertainment of the electors
Hon. EDWARD EUGENE Cox, a RepresentaJOSEPX W. MARTIN, JR., a Representative for President and Vice President of the
tive from the State of Georgia. from the State of Massachusetts, has United States from the States of Ala
Resolved. That the Clerk communicate been elected Speaker; that Lyle 0. bama, Arizona, California, Colorado,
these resolutions to the Senate and Snader, a citizen of the State of Illinois, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia,
transmit a copy thereof to the family of has been elected Clerk; and that the Idaho, Ilinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas,
House Resolution 10
that the House has passed the following Resolved. That the House has heard Mississippi,
with profound sorrow of the death of Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico,
Resolved, That a committee of three Hon. WILLIAM G. STIGLER, a RepresentaNew York, North Carolina, North Dako
Members be appointed by the Speaker on live from the State of Oklahoma. ta, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsyl
the part of the House of Representatives vania, Rhode Island, South Carolina,
Resolved. That the Clerk communicate to join with a committee on the part of South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah,
these resolutions to the Senate and the Senate to notify the President of the Virginia Washington, West Virginia,
transmit a copy thereof to the family of United States that a quorum of each Wisconsin, and Wyoming; which, with
the deceased. House has been assembled, and that the accompanying papers, were ordered Congress is ready to receive any com
REPORT OF NOTIFICATION COMMITTEE to lie on the table. munication that he may be pleased to
Mr. TAFT, from the committee apRULES OF THE SENATE make.
pointed to join a similar committee of On motion by Mr. ANDERSON (for him The House has agreed to the concur
the House of Representatives to wait self, Mr. IVES, Mr. LEHMAN, Mr. TOBEY. rent resolution (s. Con. Res. 1) provid
upon the President of the United States Mr. GREEN, Mr. HUMPHREY, Mr. HEN- ing for a joint session of the two Houses
and inform him that a quorum of each
House has assembled and ready to proDRICKSON, Mr. NEELY, Mr. DUFP, Mr. Pas on January 6, 1953, to count the elecTORE, Mr. KILGORE, Mr. MURRAY, Mr. toral votes for President and Vice Presi
ceed to business, reported that it had MANSFIELD, Mr. MAGNUSON, Mr. JACKSON, dent of the United States.
performed that duty, and the President
had requested that the committee state Mr. DOUGLAS, Mr. KENNEDY, Mr. MORSE, I am directed to inform the Senate
that he would communicate a message and Mr. HUNT), that in accordance with
that, pursuant to the provisions of Senarticle 1, section 5 of the Constitution ate Concurrent Resolution 1, the Speaker
in writing to the Congress on tomorrow. which declares that "* ... Each of the House has appointed Mr. LE
COUNT OF ELECTORAL VOTE House may determine the rules of its COMPTE and Mr. Ranns as tellers on the In accordance with the provisions of proceedings •," the Senate take part of the House to ascertain and count Senate Concurrent Resolution in the up for immediate consideration the the electoral votes for President and Vice President appointed Mr. JENNER adoption of rules for the Senate of the Vice President of the United States. and Mr. HAYDEN as the tellers on the Eighty-third Congress,
The House has agreed to the following
part of the Senate to count the electoral The consideration of the motion, was, by unanimous consent, postponed until in which it requests the concurrence of concurrent resolution (H. Con. Res. 1), votes for President and Vice President of
the United States Tuesday next. the Senate:
PINAL ASCERTAINMENT OF ELECTORS FOR RESOLUTION ON DEATH OF THE LATE SENATOR Resolved by the House of Represent
PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT 'MAHON atives (the Senate concurring), That ef
The VICE PRESIDENT laid before the Mr. BUSH submitted the following res fective from January 3, 1953, the joint
Senate a communication from the Adolution (S. Res. 10)
committee created by Senate ConcurResolved, That the Senate has heard
ministrator of the General Services Adrent Resolution 69, of the Eighty-second
ministration, transmitting. pursuant to with profound sorrow and deep regret Congress, to make the necessary ar
law, & certified copy of the final ascerthe announcement of the death of Hon rangements for the inauguration of the
tainment of electors for President and BRIEN MCMAHON, late a Senator from the President-elect of the United States on
Vice President of the United States from State of Connecticut. the 20th of January 1953, is hereby con
the State of Montana; which, with the Resolved, That the Secretary commu tinued and for such purpose shall have
accompanying paper, was ordered to lie nicate these resolutions to the House of the same power and authority as that
on the table. Representatives and transmit a copy conferred by such Senate Concurrent thereof to the family of the deceased. Resolution 69, of the Eighty-second Con
RECESS The Senate proceeded to consider the gress.
On motion by Mr. Tart, at 12 o'clock said resolution; and
The House has passed the following and 7 minutes p. m., Resolved, That the Senate unani resolutions, which I am directed to com The Senate took a recess until 12:40 mously agree thereto. municate to the Senate:
p. m. today.
“Electoral votes of each State
Dwight D. Eisenhower, of
Adlai E. Stevenson,
John J. Sparkman, of
AT 12 O'CLOCK AND 40 MINUTES P. M.
The VICE PRESIDENT called the
QUESTION OF QUORUM
The VICE PRESIDENT directed the roll to be called;
Ninety-four Senators answered to
Johnson, Tex. Smathers Cordon
Johnston, S. C. Smith, Maine Daniel
Kefauver Smith, N.J.
Kennedy Smith, N. C.
Magnuson Welker Fulbright Malone
The two Houses being assembled,
The certificates of the electors of the several States for President and Vice President were opened by the President of the Senate and handed to the tellers appointed for the purpose; who, having read the same in the presence and hearing of the two Houses, made a list thereof; and, the votes having been ascertained and counted, the result was delivered to the President of the Senate, as follows:
"The undersigned, WILLIAM E. JENNER and CARL HAYDEN, tellers on the part of the Senate, KARL M. LECOMPTE and ALBERT RAINS, tellers on the part of the House of Representatives, report the following as the result of the ascertainment and counting of the electoral vote for President and Vice President of the United States for the term beginning on the 20th day of January 1953:
“The state of the vote for Vice PresiFor For Vice
dent of the United States, as delivered President President
to the President of the Senate, is as follows:
“The whole number of the electors appointed to vote for Vice President of the
United States is 531, of which a majority States
RICHARD M. NIXON, of the State of California, has received for Vice President of the United States 442 votes;
“JOHN J. SPARKMAN, of the State of Alabama, has received 89 votes.
“This announcement of the state of 11 Alabama...
11 the vote by the President of the Senate 4 Arizona..
shall be deemed a sufficient declaration 8 Arkansas.
8 32 California
of the persons elected President and Vice 6 Colorado.
President of the United States, each for 8 Connecticut..
the term beginning on the 20th day of 3 Delaware....
January 1953, and shall be entered, to12 Georgia.
gether with a list of the votes, on the 4 Idaho..
Journals of the Senate and House of 13 | Indiana
The count of the electoral vote having 8 Kansas.
8 10 Kentucky
10 been completed, and the result an10 Louisiana.
nounced, the joint session of the two 5 Maine.
Houses was dissolved; and the Senate, at 16 Massachusetts.
1:45 p. m., returned to its Chamber.
COUNT OF ELECTORAL VOTE
Mr. JENNER, one of the tellers ap4 | Montana.
pointed on the part of the Senate, in 6 Nebraska.
pursuance of Senate Concurrent Resolu4 New Hampshire.
tion 1, to ascertain the result of the 16 New Jersey.
election for President and Vice President 4 New Mexico.
of the United States, reported that the 14 | North Carolina.
two Houses had met in joint session and 4 North Dakota.
that thereupon the certificates of the 8 Oklahoma
electors of the several States of their 6 Oregon..
votes for those offices were opened by 4 Rhode Island
the President of the Senate and deliv8 South Carolina.
8 4 South Dakota.
ered to the tellers, and, on being exam4
ined, it appeared that the votes of the 24 Texas.
several States had been cast in accord4 Utah..
ance with the list hereinbefore stated. 12 Virginia
From those votes it appeared that the 9 Washington
9 8 West Virginia
8 whole number of electors appointed to 12 Wisconsin.
vote for President and Vice President 3 Wyoming
of the United States for the term of 531 Total..
442 89 442 89
office beginning January 20, 1953, was
531, of which a majority is 266. “WILLIAM E, JENNER,
The state of the vote for President of “CARL HAYDEN,
the United States appeared to be“Tellers on the Part of the Senate.
For Dwight D. Eisenhower, of the State "KARL M. LECOMPTE,
of New York, 442 votes. "ALBERT RAINS,
For Adlai E. Stevenson, of the State of "Tellers on the part of the House of
Illinois, 89 votes.
The state of the vote for Vice PresiRepresentatives."
dent of the United States appeared to The VICE PRESIDENT made the fol belowing statement:
For RICHARD M. NIXON, of the State of "The state of the vote for President of California, 442 votes. the United States, as delivered to the For JOHN J. SPARKMAN, of the State of President of the Senate, is as follows: Alabama, 89 votes.
“The whole number of electors ap Which result, having been ascertained pointed to vote for President of the and counted by the tellers, was delivered United States is 531, of which a majority by them to the President of the Senate. is 266.
The PRESIDENT of the Senate an"Dwight D. Eisenhower, of the State of nounced the state of the vote to be that New York, has received for President of Dwight D. Eisenhower, of the State of the United States 442 votes;
New York, had received 442 votes and “Adlai E. Stevenson, of the State of that Adlai E. Stevenson, of the State of Illinois, has received 89 votes.
Illinois, had received 89 votes for the
office of President of the United States; received from the House of Representa legislative program falls properly to my and that Richard M. Nixon, of the State tives, announcing the death of Hon. successor, not to me, and I would not of California, had received 442 votes, ADOLPH J. SABATH, late a Representative infringe upon his responsibility to chart and that John J. Sparkman, of the State from the State of nlinois; which was the forward course. Instead, I wish to of Alabama, had received 89 votes for read.
speak of the course we have been followthe office of Vice President of the United Mr. DOUGLAS thereupon submitted ing the past 8 years and the position at States.
the following resolution (s. Res. 12); which we have arrived. QUESTION OF QUORUM
which was considered and unanimously In just 2 weeks, General Eisenhower Mr. TAFT raised a question as to the agreed to:
will be inaugurated as President of the
Resolved, That the Senate has heard United States and I will resume-most presence of a quorum;
with profound sorrow the announcement gladly-my place as a private citizen of Whereupon
of the death of Hon. ADOLPH J. SABATH, The VICE PRESIDENT directed the
this Republic. The Presidency last late a Representative from the State of changed
hands 8 years ago this coming roll to be called;
April. That was a tragic time; a time of Resolved. That the Secretary com- grieving for President Roosevelt—the Ninety-four Senators answered to
municate these resolutions to the House great and gallant human being who had their names, as follows:
of Representatives and transmit a copy been taken from us; a time of unrelieved Alken Green
thereof to the family of the deceased. anxiety to his successor, thrust so sud. Barrett Hayden Milikin DEATH OF REPRESENTATIVE WILLIAM G.
denly into the complexities and burdens Bes11 Hendrickson Morse
of the Presidential ofce. Bennett Hennings Mundt
STIGLER, OF OKLAHOMA
Not so this time. This time we see the
The PRESIDING OFFICER laid before
normal transition under our democratic Bush Hoey Pastore the Senate the resolution, this day re
system. One President, at the concluButler, Ma. Holland Payne
ceived from the House of RepresentaButler, Nebr. Humphrey Potter
sion of his term, steps back to private tives, announcing the death of Hon. Byrd Hunt Purtell
life; his successor, chosen by the people, Capebart
WILLIAM G. STIGLER, late a Representa-
begins his tenure of the office. And the Carison Jackson Russell tive from the State of Oklahoma; which
Presidency of the United States conCase Jenner Saltonstall
was read. Clements Johnson, Colo. Schoeppel
tinues to function without a moment's Johnson, Tex. Smathers
Mr. KERR thereupon submitted the
Since the election I have done my best
to assure that the transfer from one to: Douglas Kerr Sparkman
administration to another shall be
smooth and orderly. From General
Eisenhower and his associates I have had Ellender Langer
friendly and understanding collaboraPerguson Lehman Tobey STIGLER, late a Representative from the
tion in this endeavor. I have not sought Flanders Long
State of Oklahoma.
to thrust upon him-nor has he sought Pulbright Malone
the responsibility which must George Mansfeld Winiams
nicate these resolutions to the House of be mine unul 12 o'clock noon on JanuGillette Martin Young
Representatives and transmit a copy Goldwater Maybank
ary 20. But together I hope and believe Gore McCarran thereof to the family of the deceased.
we have found means whereby the inA quorum being present,
coming President can obtain the full and On motion by Mr. Tart, as a further
detailed information he will need to asRULES OF THE SENATE
sume the responsibility the moment he mark of respect to the memory of the The Senate resumed the consideration
takes the oath of office. late Representatives, of the motion of Mr. ANDERSON (for himThe Senate took a recess until 12
The President-elect is about to take self and others) that the Senate take up
up the greatest burdens, the most como'clock m. tomorrow. for adoption Rules for the Senate of
pelling responsibilities, given to any man the Eighty-third Congress,
And I, with you and all Americans, wish Pending debate,
WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 7, 1953
for him all possible success in under
taking the tasks that will so soon be his. DEATH OF REPRESENTATIVE EDWARD EUGENE (Legislative day of Tuesday, January 6, What are these tasks? The Preident COX, OF GEORGIA
is Chief of State, elected representative The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. Pot
of all the people, national spokesman for TER in the chair) laid before the Senate
The VICE PRESIDENT called the Sen
them and to them. He is Commander the resolution, this day received from ate to order at 12 o'clock m., and the
in Chief of our Armed Forces. He is the House of Representatives, announcChaplain offered prayer.
charged with the conduct of our foreign ing the death of Hon. EDWARD EUGENE
relations. He is Chief Executive of the Cox, late a Representative from the
On motion by Mr. Tart, and by Nation's largest civilian organization. State of Georgia; which was read. unanimous consent,
He must select and nominate all top Mr. GEORGE (for himself and Mr.
The Journal of the proceedings of
officials of the executive branch and all RUSSELL) thereupon submitted the fol
Federal judges. And on the legislative lowing resolution (s. Res. 11); which Tuesday, January 6, 1953, was approved.
side, he has the obligation and the opporwas considered and unanimously agreed ANNUAL MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE
tunity to recommend, and to approve or to:
veto legislation. Besides all this, it is to Resolved, That the Senate has heard The VICE PRESIDENT laid before the him that a great political party turns with profound sorrow the announcement Senate the following message from the naturally for leadership, and that, too, he of the death of Hon. EDWARD EUGENE Cox, President of the United States:
must provide as President late a Representative from the State of
This bundle of burdens is unique; there Georgia. To the Congress of the United States:
is nothing else like it on the face of the Resolved, That the Secretary com
I have the honor to report to the Con
earth. Each task could be a full-time municate these resolutions to the House gress on the state of the Union.
job. Together, they would be a tremenof Representatives and transmit a copy
This is the eighth such report that, as dous undertaking in the easiest of times. thereto to the family of the deceased. President, I have been privileged to pre But our times are not easy: they are
sent to you and to the country. On pre hard-as hard and complex, perhaps, as DEATH OF REPRESENTATIVE ADOLPH J. SABATR,
vious occasions, it has been my custom to any in our history. Now, the President OF ILLINOIS
set forth proposals for legislative action not only has to carry on these tasks in The PRESIDING OFFICER laid be in the coming year. But that is not my such a way that our democracy may grow fore the Senate the resolution this day purpose today. The presentation of a and flourish and our people prosper, but
he also has to lead the whole free world We answered that question-answered
Free enterprise has flourished as never This is a huge challenge to the human before. Sixty-two million people are being who occupies the Presidential of - now gainfully employed, compared with fice. But it is not a challenge to him fifty-one million 7 years ago. Private alone, for in reality he cannot meet it businessmen and farmers have inalone. The challenge runs not just to vested more than 200 billion dollars in him but to his whole administration, to new plant and equipment since the end the Congress, to the country.
of World War II. Prices have risen furUltimately, no President can master ther than they should have done—but his responsibilities, save as his fellow incomes, by and large, have risen even citizens—indeed, the whole people-com more, so that real living standards are prehend the challenge of our times and now considerably higher than seven move, with him, to meet it.
years ago. Aided by sound government It has been my privilege to hold the policies, our expanding economy has Presidential office for nearly 8 years now, shown the strength and flexibility for and much has been done in which I take swift and almost painless reconversion great pride. But this is not personal from war to peace, in 1945 and 1946; for pride. It is pride in the people, in the quick reaction and recovery-well before Nation. It is pride in our political sys Korea—from the beginnings of recestem and our form of government-balky sion in 1949. Above all, this live and sometimes, mechanically deficient per vital economy of ours has now shown the haps, in many ways—but enormously remarkable capacity to sustain a great alive and vigorous; able through these mobilization program for defense, a vast years to keep the Republic on the right outpouring of aid to friends and allies course, rising to the great occasions, ac all around the world-and still to procomplishing the essentials, meeting the duce more goods and services for peacebasic challenge of our times.
ful use at home than we have ever known There have been misunderstandings before. and controversies these past 8 years, but This has been our answer, up to now, through it all the President of the to those who feared or hoped for a deUnited States has had that measure of pression in this country. support and understanding without How have we handled our national fiwhich no man could sustain the bur nances? That was another question dens of the Presidential office, or hope arising at war's end. In the administrato discharge its responsibilities.
tion of the Government, no problem For this I am profoundly grateful takes more of the President's time, year grateful to my associates in the execu in and year out, than fashioning the tive branch-most of them nonpartisan budget, and the related problem of mancivil servants; grateful-despite our dis aging the public debt. agreements—to the Members of the Financing World War II left us with Congress on both sides of the aisle; a tremendous public debt, which reached grateful especially to the American peo 279 billion dollars at its peak in Februple, the citizens of this Republic, gov
ary 1946. ernors of us all.
Beginning in July 1946, when war and We are still so close to recent con reconversion financing had ended, we troversies that some of us may find it have held quite closely to the sound hard to understand the accomplish standard that in time of high employments of these past 8 years. But the ment and high national income, the Fedaccomplishments are real and very great, eral budget should be balanced and the not as the President's, not as the Con debt reduced. gress', but as the achievements of our For the four fiscal years from July 1, country and all the people in it.
1946, to June 30, 1950, we had a net Let me remind you of some of the surplus of 4.3 billion dollars. Using this things we have done since I first as surplus, and the Treasury's excess cash sumed my duties as President of the reserves, the debt was reduced substanUnited States.
tially, reaching a low point of 251 billion I took the oath of office on April 12, dollars in June 1949, and ending up at 1945. In May of that same year the 257 billion dollars on June 30, 1950. Nazis surrendered. Then, in July, that In July of 1950, we began our rapid great white flash of light, man-made at rearmament, and for 2 years held very Alamogordo, heralded swift and final close to a pay-as-we-go policy. But in victory in World War II-and opened the current fiscal year and the next, risthe doorway to the atomic age.
ing expenditures for defense will subConsider some of the great questions stantially outrun receipts. This will that were posed for us by sudden, total pose an immediate and serious problem victory in World War II. Consider also, for the new Congress. how well we as a Nation have responded. Now let me turn to another question
Would the American economy col we faced at the war's end. Would we lapse after the war? That was one take up again, and carry forward, the question. Would there be another de great projects of social welfare-so pression here-a repetition of 1921 or badly needed, so long overdue—that the 1929? The free world feared and dread New Deal had introduced into our naed it. The Communists hoped for it and tional life? Would our Government built their policies upon that hope.
continue to have a heart for the people,
or was the progress of the New Deal to be halted in the aftermath of war as decisively as the progress of Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom had been halted after the First World War?
This question, too, we have answered. We have answered it by doubling oldage insurance benefits and extending coverage to ten million more people. We have answered it by increasing our minimum wage. We have answered by the three million privately constructed homes that the Federal Government has helped finance since the war, and the 155,000 units of low-rent public housing placed under construction since 1949.
We have answered with the 42,000 new hospital beds provided since 1946 through the joint efforts of the Federal Government and local communities.
We have answered by helping 8,000,000 veterans of World War II to obtain advanced education, 196,000 to start in business, and 64,000 to buy farms.
We have answered by continuing to help farmers btain electric power, until today nearly 90 percent of our farms have power line electric service.
In these and other ways, we have demonstrated, up to now, that our democracy has not forgotten how to use the powers of the Government to promote the people's welfare and security.
Another of the big postwar questions was this: What we would do with the Nation's natural resources, its soils and water, forests and grasslands Would we continue the strong conservation movement of the 1930's, or would we, as we did after the First World War, slip back into the practices of monopoly, exploitation, and waste?
The answer is plain All across our country, the soil conservation movement has spread, aided by Government programs, enriching private and public lands, preserving them from destruction, improving them for future use. In our river basins, we have invested nearly $5,000,000,000 of public funds in the last 8 years, invested them in projects to control floods, irrigate farm lands, produce low-cost power, and get it to the housewives and farmers and businessmen who need it. We have been vigilant in protecting the people's property, lands and forests and oil and minerals.
We have had to fight hard against those who would use our resources for private greed; we have met setbacks; we have had to delay work because of defense priorities, but on the whole we can be proud of our record in protecting our natural heritage, and in using our resources for the public good.
Here is another question we had to face at the war's close: Would we continue, in peace as well as war, to promote equality of opportunity for all our citizens, seeking ways and means to guarantee for all of them the full enjoyment of their civil rights?
During the war we achieved great economic and social gains for millions of our fellow citizens who had been held back by prejudice. Were we prepared, in peacetime, to keep on moving toward