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d Occisus est from occido, comp. of ob and cado. See 11, h. e Filii ejus regis the son of that king. Filii is put in

apposition to Tarquinii Superbi. The latter substantive,

in this rule, does not repeat the sign of the case. f Uxorem as wife, put in apposition to quam the relative. 6 Euntibus to men going, part. from eo, a verb irregular,

for which see the Grammar. h Subegit from subigo, compound of sub and ago. i Questa fuisset had complained, subjunc. after eum, from

queror. j Occidit: remember that the second syllable is long: ob

and cædo, See 11, h. k Eum him, accus. after reliquit. 1 Exclusus est was shut out, from ex and claudo. Claudo,

quatio, lavo, rejiciunt a," in their compounds. m Regnatum est it was reigned, or the kingdom was go.

verned. Impersonal and therefore in the neuter. Ubi plurimum at most, as if ubi plurimum possedit where it possessed most. a Copere 3 pers. plur. of cæpi, began. b Causâ on this account, abl. governed by the preposition

in understood. “ Præpositio subaudita." c Placuit it pleased, it was thought proper. d Ne haberent, ne, as if ut non, that they should not have) e Insolentiores compar, of insolens, more insolent. f Civiles civil, courteous, like citizens. » & Futuros esse should be, infin. after the acc. se. h Pelleretur pot. imperf. from pellor.

Tarquinio Collatinn dat. after sublata est. Quædam acci.

piendi.
j Placuerat it had been thought proper. See c.
* Ne quisquam that no one.
| Loco ipsius in the place of him, in his stead.
m Urbi dat. after commovit. Dativum ferme regunt.”

Invicem se themselves by turns, one another.
o Recesserunt from recedo.
P Collegam, comm. gend. “ Compositum a verbo dans a."

In apposition to Tricipitinum, Duo substantiva."
q Quo who mortuo being dead morbo of a disease.
r Mortuus esset from morior; subj. after cum.

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Auxilium acc. after ferente. Ferente from fero, affording. a Neque Porsenna, then the relative with its sentence,

præstaret ei auxilium. b Præstaret compound of præ and sto. 6 Sto stas steti.rs c Contulit se betook himself, from confero. d Persenuit from persenesco. See 14, d. e Triumphatum est there was a triumph. See 17, m. f Sumptum acc. from sumptus ús, 4th decl. & Ad injuriam vindicandam to revenge the injury. h Dictatori dat. after obsequeretur. Verba obsequendi, et

repugnandi." i Acie in battle, or by the edge of the sword. j Quam habebant optimam which they reckoned their best,

or the best which they had. a Coriolos from Corioli, no sing. “ Et nomina plura locorum." b Ceperat from capio. c Accessit approached, from accedo. Ablatives absolute. When Cæso Fabius and Titus

Virginius were cousuls. e Implendum, esse understood, should be undertaken, fut.

in.dus from impleo, agreeing with certamen.
f Conciderunt the 2nd syllable short, con and cado, fell or

were slain.
& Superfuit preter. from supersum.

Jugerum gen. plur. after agrum.Magritudinis mensura,"
a diptote, see "quæ genus.” The plural like the plur.

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of opus.

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i Colebat tilled, or was tilling, colo.
j Prætextam woven, part. from prætexo.
a Bene egissent had acted well, ago.
b Virginei cujusdam of a certain Virginius, or man named

Virginius.
Ut Fidena. Obs. if in Latin the same verb serve to

several sentences, it is generally expressed in the last. In English we express the verb in the first sentence, and omit it in the succeeding. As, I saw your brother in the house, your sister in the garden, and your father in the field: here the verb saw is expressed in the first sentence, and not after. In Latin it would be, Fratrem tuum in domo, sororem in horto, et patrem in agro vidi. The verb vidi being in the last sentence.

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e

d Captæ et excise, from capio et excido, sunt understood.

Antiquissiman et ditissimam, superlatives from antiquus

and dives. The latter irregular. f Fame abl. from fumes, after laborarent. quodvis verbum.” & Supercentum est Gallis it was suddenly come upon the

Gauls, or the Gauls were surprised. Impersonal. Super

venio. a Datum fuerat from do. Preterplu. peuter, because its

nom. quod is' neuter, on account of its antecedent

aurum.
b Conditor a builder, a founder.

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NOTES UPON CÆSAR.

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like regnum.

a Vergit ad Septentrionem looks to the North, or lies towards

the North. The word Septentriones is compounded of septem and triones, being the name given to Ursa Major a constellation near the northern pole star. The seven

stars have the form of a plough, to which Triones refers. b Contendit endeavours. c Subministrata, esse understood. Subministro. d Ad bellum gerendum, see 13, k. e Usui fore would be of great use to him. Two datives

after fore. 6 Sum cum multis aliis." f Loca plur. of locus, in the sing. like dominus, in the plur.

Sibilus atque jocus locus.: Neque quidquam notum est iis ipsis, nor was any thing

known to themselves. h Neque followed by nec or neque is rendered, the first

neither, the second nor. 1 Esset was, the subjunc. mood after the indefinite word quanta. « Omnes denique voces indefinite positæ.Ob

The subjunctive mood is generally used in an indeterminate sense, as in the passage under consideration. He was not able to find out how large the island might be or was. With respect to the subjunctive mood in English, it should rarely, if ever, be used, except in an elliptical form, that is, when the sign of the potential might be inserted, as, if your father come to morrow, tell him I wish to see him, that 23 is, if your father should come to morrow. Though he

serve:

chide me, I will not repent; that is, though he should chide me. A careful observance of this rule will obviate many difficulties and blunders, liable to be made in the use of the subjunctive mood, especially in our own

language. j Institutis from institutum, abl. plur. after 'uterentur, con.

strued in this form, always without its sign, as if an acc.

Fungor, fruor, utor.k Reperire poterat, These words are to be construed after

the sentence, convocatis ad se undique mercatoribus. Pario

is generally of the 3rd conjug. its compounds of the 4th. | Idoneum arbitratus est he judged it proper. Idoneuin

negotium, ad hæc cognoscenda, priusquam, &c. m Navi abl. from navis. Many nouns of the 3rd decl. fem.

make the abl. in i. 24 a Quamprimum as soon as possible. In this sense quam is

frequently used with adverbs or adjectives of the super

lative degree. b Huc jubet naves, et classem, quam fecerat superiore æstate ad

bellum Veneticum, convenire undique ex, &c. Superiore

former, e Imperio dat. after obtemperare. Verba obsequendi.Obs.

also, that the preceding polliceantur is of the subjunctive

mood after qui. Qui causam significans.” a Domum. The preposition ad is omitted before the name

of a place, and before domus et rus. ' Ad eundem modum

utimur." e Et unà cum his mittit Comium. Mittit stands after the

succeeding sentences, because they are connected by

the relatives to Comium. | Huic dat. after imperat. Verba imperandi.& Horteturque and that he should exhort them. b Nunciet se venturum should tell them that he (Cæsar) would come.

Venturum (esse) infin. after se. i Quantum facultatis as far as the means of doing so, potuit

dari were given ei to him. Facultatis gen, after

quantum. Adjectivum in neutro genere."
i Renunciatque (eu) quæ ibi, &c.
k Causa for the sake.
! Pollicerenturque se facturos (esse) ea, quæ, &c.

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- Accidisse had happened.
* Sibi , anteponendas (esse) were to be preferred by him.

Sibi dat. instead of a se. Dat participia pussivæ vocis."

Imperat he commands them to give. a Navibus abl. absolute. Circiter is here an adverb, in

connection with octoginta. See a. b Quicquid præterea, &c. whatever long ships (galleys he had

beside. Navium gen. after quidquid. Adjectivum in

neutro genere,” or “ Nomina partitiva.” e Dedit exercitum reliquum deducendum, &c. • Nactus part, of the deponent verb nanciscor. Vigiliâ watch : the time when the guards were changed.

quæ significant partem temporis." f Paullo tardius somewhat too slow. & Circiter is here also an adverb in connection with quarta

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abl. 66

See a.

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h Attigit pret. from attingo.
i Dum while the other ships were assembling.
i He admonished them, that (as the manuer of military

business, especially as naval affairs required it, ut quæ
as being those things which had a speedy and uncertain
movement,) all things should be performed by them at
his nod, and at the moment.

Secundum adj. agreeing with æstum, favourable. a In alto (mari) in the deep (sea or water.) b Militibus autem erat pugnandum, but it was to be fought

by the soldiers, or the soldiers had to fight.“ Cum significatur necessitas.Thus, For the soldiers, in strange places, with eucumbered hands, being oppressed with the great and troublesome burden of their arms, had, at the same time, both to leap down from their ships, and to stand in the waves, and to fight with the enemy;

when they, that is the enemy, &c. e Expediti disencumbered, part. from expedior. d Quo which, ablat. after uti. Fungor, fruor, utor." Of

the neuter gender because its antecedents alacritate and

studio are things without life. • Inusitatior more unusual, compar. degree from inusitatus. Expeditior more ready, comparative from expeditus, Obs. Participles used in the sense of adjectives are compared.

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