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years, much to their credit and advantage; and, as far as example goes, not less to the advantage of their neighbourhood. Marks of their good husbandry were long visible in the village in which they lived. They were visited and respected by the gentry around them, as they deserved to be ; and, not unfrequently, in the same day, they divided their hours in the labours of the farm, and in receiving company of the highest rank and distinction. To many of their poorer relations, they were not only kind but useful. And when they died, they were very sincerely regretted.
4. The knitters. “ Travelling through the counties of Aberdeen and Bamf,” says lord Kames, in a letter to the duchess of Gordon, dated August, 1770, “it is pleasant to see the young creatures turning out every where from their little cottages, full of curiosity, but not less full of industry; for every one of them is employed; and in knitting stockings, they lose not all the while a single motion of their fingers. This sight I have never beheld without delight.”—In most parts of Wales, and in many other places, women and girls are seldom seen without their knitting, at any spare moment; or when carrying their milkpails, or driving cattle, or engaged in any work that leaves their hands at liberty.
5. The collier husbandman. James Croft worked in the colliery of William Danby, esq. of Swinton, in the North Riding of Yorkshire. His master let him have about seventeen acres of moor land; which, in the course of a few years, he improved in a surprising manner, and rendered very productive. His work in the colliery was regular ; equal, in every respect, to that of the other men, and, in some respects, superior. His hour of going to the mine was twelve o'clock at night; and the work was over at noon the next day. The remainder was all the time he had to perform his wonders in husbandry. He never expended one shilling in hiring the labour of another man: nor received assistance of any kind, except some little in weeding potatoes, and other slight work, from his children; only one of whom was a boy, who worked with him in the colliery. The quantity of lime which he laid on his land, was very great, and much more than was commonly used by the neighbouring farmers; and the number of ploughings which he gave his fields, was equally superior : yet all this labour was performed with a single galloway; and the lime brought six miles.
6. Wise savings. William White, a Dorsetshire day-labourer, having nothing but his own labour to depend upon, saved regularly ten pounds a year: an example of frugality and sobriety which is much to his honour; and which numbers of his brethren all over the kingdom might imitate, if they had but the resolution. These savings he continued for twenty years ; laying up, in this manner, the sum of two hundred pounds. He then took about four acres of land, part of it bog-land, which he cultivated very industriously, with his own hands. He kept gradually adding to his land, till, at length, he became a considerable farmer : and was highly distinguished for the excellent management of his land ; and particularly for the skill and diligence with which he improved boggy
soils.—He met with considerable losses by fire, but repaired his buildings, with his own hands; being his own carpenter, mason, and thatcher.
7. The farm labourer. 21 In the year 1786, died George Barwell, aged seventythree : whose honesty, industry, and good sense, were such as are rarely found in a farm labourer. From the earnings of hard labour, he reared five children to maturity. After they were grown up, and able to maintain themselves, he saved, by the same industry and frugality which, in his younger days, had supported his family, enough to support himself in his old age; and died worth a hundred pounds. Having once been asked how a common farm labourer, with his small earnings, could rear a large family, without any assista ance, he said, he had frequently been hard put to it; " but," added he, with a sigh, “no man knows what he can do, till he is tried.” At his death, he owed only sixpence; and he entreated his children to remember to pay it.
8. The young printer. When Benjamin Franklin was a young man, he worked in a printing-house, in London, as a pressman, and afterwards as a compositor. He applied assiduously to his business ; and was very desirous of laying by some money. He drank nothing but water. The other workmen, to the number of about fifty, were great drinkers of beer. They were surprised to see, that he was much stronger, and more active, than those who drank porter. The beer-boy had sufficient em
ployment, during the whole day, in serving that house alone. Franklin's fellow-pressman drank several pints of beer in the course of the day; and had every Saturday night a score of four or five shillings to pay: an expense from which Franklin was wholly free. “Thus,” said he,“ do these poor creatures continue, all their lives, in a state of wilful wretchedness and poverty.” He lived in the utmost harmony with his fellow-labourers; and soon acquired considerable influence among them. His example prevailed with several of them, to give up the practice of having bread and cheese, and beer, for breakfast: and they procured, like him, from a neighbouring house, a good basin of warm gruel, in which was a slice of butter, with toasted bread, and nutmeg. “This," said he, “ was a much better breakfast, which did not cost more than a pint of beer; and, at the same time, preserved the head clearer.” He gained the esteem of his master, by his assiduous application to business, never observing “ Saint Monday." His extraordinary quickness always procured him such work as was most urgent; and which is commonly best paid. The early hours he kept, and the little trouble he occasioned in the family where he lodged, gave so much satisfaction, that the mistress of the house, rather than part with him, let him have the lodging at a much lower rate, than she usually charged. He was so careful of his money, that he bought nothing for himself that was not absolutely necessary, except a few books.
When he began business for himself, at Philadelphia, his unwearied industry, the punctuality of his payments, and the justice of his dealings, gained him great reputation and credit. “The industry of this Franklin," said Dr. Bard, “ is superior to any thing of the kind I ever saw. I see him still at work when I return home at night; and he is at it again in the morning before his neighbours are out of bed.” “I took care,” said Franklin, “not only to be really industrious and frugal, but also to avoid every appearance of the contrary. I was plainly dressed ; and never seen in any place of public amusement. I never went a fishing, or a hunting. And to show that I was not above my business, I sometimes conveyed home in a wheelbarrow, the paper which I purchased at the warehouses. The merchants solicited my custom; and my little trade went on prosperously.”
Walter Scott, the son of John Scott, a carpenter, was born at Ross, in Herefordshire ; and brought up in the blue coat school, in that town. At the age of thirteen, he went to London, to an uncle, who was a plasterer ; with whom he found employment. In course of time, he succeeded to his uncle's business ; and, by his honest application and diligence, gained a very handsome fortune. Towards the close of life, he visited the place of his birth, which he had never seen from the time he first left it. When he was there, he inquired into the state of the school, in which he had been educated, It was not then very prosperous ; and he declared there should be a better blue coat school at Ross, than there ever had been. He provided by his will for the endowment of a school, for clothing and educating thirty boys, and twenty girls.
Soon after his death, a spot of ground was purchased, for the building of the schoolhouse ; and on a square plate, in the middle of the foundation stone, was en