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lishment one of the last upon the British list, and in point of rank one of ‘the most subordinate; as being not only subject, in common with the rest, to the crown, but also to the claims of a proprietary, who thinks he does them honor enough in governing them by deputy; consequently so much farther removed from the royal eye, and so much the more exposed to the pressure of self-interested instructions. _ V l '

Considerable, however, as most of them for happiness of situa' tion, fertility of soil, product of valuable commodities, number of inhabitants, shipping, amount of exportations, latitude of rights and privileges, and every other requisite for the being and wellbeing of society, and more considerable than any of them all for the celerity of its growth, unassisted by any human help but the vigor and virtue of its own excellent constitution.

A father and his family, the latter united by interest and-affec-v

tion, the former to be revered for the wisdom of his institutions, and the indulgent use of hlS authority, was the form it was at first presented in. Those who were only ambitious of repose found it here; and as none returned with an evil report of the land, numbers followed, all partook of the leaven they found; the commu— nity still wore the same equal face; nobody aspired; nobody was oppressed; industry was sure of profit, knowledge of esteem, and

virtue of veneration.

An assuming landlord, strongly disposed to convert free te- I

nants into abject vassals, and to reap what he did not sow, coun— tenanced and abetted by a few desperate and designing dependants, on the one side; and on the other, all who have sense enough to know their rights, and spirit enough to defend them, combined as one man against the said landlord, and his encroachments, is the form it has since assumed.

And, surely, to a nation born to liberty like this, bound to leave it unimpaired as they received it from their fathers in perpetuity to their heirs, and interested in the conservation of it in every‘ appendage ot the British empire, the particulars of such a contest cannot be wholly indifferent.

On the contrary, it is reasonable to think, the first workings of power against liberty, and the natural efforts of unbiassed men to secure themselves against the first approaches of oppression,

-must have a captivating power over every man of sensibility and

discernment amongst us. , ‘,d‘fwifl , A» _,__,“ , A M” _;,~_'_11


Liberty, it seems, thrives best in the woods. America best cul- \

tivates what Germany brought forth. And were it not for certain ugly comparisons, hard to be suppressed, the pleasure arising from such a research would be without alloy.

In the feuds of Florence, recorded by Machiavel, We find more to lament and less to praise. Scarce can we believe the. first citizens of the ancient republics had such pretensions to consideration, though sohighly celebrated in ancient story. And as to our

selves, we need no longer have recourse to the late glorious stand

of the French parliaments to excite our emulation. It is a known custom among farmers to change their corn i from season to season for the sake of filling the bushel: and in case the wisdom of the age should condescend to make the like experiment in another shape, from hence we may learn, whither to repair for the proper species. ' It is not, however, to be presumed, that such as have long

been accustomed to consider the colonies, in general, as only so '

many dependencies on the council-board, the board of trade, and

the board of customs;.or as ahot-bed for causes, jobs, and other

pecuniary emoluments, and as bound as effectually by instructions as by laws, can be prevailed upon to consider these patriot-rustics with any degree of respect.

Derision, on the contrary, must ‘be the lot of him who ima—

gines it in the power of the pen, to set any lustre upon them; and indignation theirs for daring to assert and maintain the inde—

become an improper ingredient, and therefore to be excised


But how contemptible soever these gentlemen may talk of the colonies, how cheap soever they may hold their assemblies, or how insignificant the planters and traders who compose them, truth will be truth, and principle principle notwithstanding.

Courage, wisdom, integrity and honor are not to be measured by the sphere assigned them to act in, but by the trials they undergo, and the vouchers they furnish; and if so manifested, need

i neither robes, nor titles to set them oil‘. '


pendency interwoven in their constitution, which now, it seems, is f

r \

A list of the several governors, deputy-governors, and presidents of Pennsylvania, with the times of their respective administrations, Ste.

Wm. Penn, proprietor, acted as governor from Oct. 1682 to Aug. 1684.

Thomas Lloyd, esq. president, from Aug. 1684 to Dec. 1688.

Captain John Blackwell, deputy-governor, from Dec. 1688 to Feb. 1689-90.

President and council, from Feb. 1689-90 to April 26, 1693.

Benjamin Fletcher, esq. governor, from April 26 to June 3, 1693.

Wm. Markham, esq. deputy-governor, from Jpne 3, 1693, toflDec. 1699.

'W m. Penn, esq. acted again as governor, from Dec. 3, 1699, to Nov. 1, 1701. “

Andrew Hamilton, es'q. deputy-governor, from Nov. 1, 1701, to Feb. 1702-3.

President and council, from Feb. 1702-3 to Feb. 1703-4.

John Evans, esq. deputy-governor, from Feb. 1703-4- to Feb. 1708-9.

Charles Gookin, esq. deputyIgOvernor, from March 1708-9 to 1717.

Sir Wm. Keith, bart. deputy-governor, from March 1717 to June 1726.

Patrick Gordon, esq. deputy-governor, from June 1726 to June 1736.

James Logan, esq. president, from June 1736 to June 1738.

George Thomas, esq. deputy-governor, from June 1738 to June 1747.

Anthony Palmer, esq. president, from June 1747 to 1748.

James Hamilton, esq. deputy-governor from June 1748 to June 1754.

Robert Hunter Morris, esq. deputy-governor from Oct. 1754- to Aug. 19, 1756. - '

W'm. Denny, the present deputy-governor from Aug. 19, 1756.

Note-The royal charter for Pennsylvania was granted, March 4, 1681.

The king’s declaration or proclamation of the said grant, April 2, 1681.

The agreement between William Penn and certain adventurers and purchasers, intitled, certain conditions or concessions, 8:0. was signed in England, July 11, 1681. I

The first frame of government forvthe province was made in England, April 25, 1682.

The first laws for the province were agreed upon in England, May 5, 1682.

The duke of York’s deed for Pennsylvania was signed Aug. 21, 1682.

The duke of York’s deed of feofl‘ment of Newcastle, and twelve 'miles circle, to William Penn, Aug. 24, 1682. \ ~

The duke of York’s deed offeofi'ment of a tract of land twelve miles south from Newcastle to the Whorekills, to William Penn, Aug. 24, 1682.

The first assembly held in the province at Chester, Dec. 4, 1682.

The act of union, annexing the Delaware counties to the province; and the act of settlement, containing a new frame of government, were passed, Dec. 6, 1682. ‘

Another frame of government was passed, April 2, 1683.

And another frame of government, Nov. 7, 1696. I

The charter of the city of Philadelphia passed, Oct. 25, 1701.

The charter of privileges for the province, being the present frame of government, passed Oct. 28, 1701.

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THE constitution of Pennsylvania is derived, first, from. the birthright of every British subject; secondly, from the royal charter granted to William Penn by king Charles II, and thirdly, from the charter qfprz'oz'leges granted by the said William Penn as proprietary and governor, in virtue of the. former, to the freemen of the said province and territories; being the last of four at several periods issued by the same authority. , The birthright of every British subject is, to have a property of his own, in his estate, person, and reputation; subject only to laws enacted by his own concurrence, either in

person or by his representatives; and which birthright acv

companies him Wheresoever he wanders or rests ; so long as he is within the pale of the British dominions, and is true to his allegiance.

The royal charter was granted to William Penn in the beginning of the year 1681. A most alarming period! The nation being in a strong ferment; and the court forming an arbitrary plan; which, under the countenance of a small


standing army, they began the same year to carry into exeeution, by cajoling some corporations, and forcing others by you warrantas to surrender their charters: so that by the abuse of law, the disuse of parliaments, and the terror of power, the kingdom became in effect the prey of will and pleasure. I The charter governments of America had, before this, afforded a place of refuge to the persecuted and miserable;

' ' ‘\and, as if to enlarge the field of liberty abroad, which had

‘i been so sacrilegiously contracted at home, Pennsylvania

i even then was made a new asylum, where all who wished or

i i ‘ desired to be free might be so for ever.

The basis of’the grant expressed in the preamble was,the merits and services of admiral Penn, and the commend-

5‘ _ able desire of his son to enIarge the British empire, to pro~ mote such useful commodities as might be of benefit to it, and to civilize the savage inhabitants.

, In the third section, which constitutes the said William Penn the true and absolute proprietary of the said province, there is a saving to the crown, of the faith and allegiance of the said William Penn, his heirs and assigns, and of all other proprietaries, tenants, ‘and inhabitants of the said province, as'also of the sovereignty thereof. . r

The fourth, professing to repose special trust and confidence in the fidelity, wisdom, justice, and provident circum

' i ‘ ’ spection of the said Penn, grants to him and his heirs, and

l 1 f0 his and their deputies, free, full, and absolute power, for


the good and happy government of the said country, to or- ‘

(lain, make, and enact, and under his or their seals, to publish any laws whatsoever, for the raising of money for public uses of the said province, or for any other end appertaining either unto the public state, peace, or safety of the said country, orunto the private utility of particular persons, ac‘cording to their hest discretion ,- by and with the advice, assent, and approbation of the 'reemen of thesaid country, ‘or the greater {part of them, or of their delegates and depu* ties, to be assembled in such sort and form, as to him and them ‘shall seem best, and as often as need shall require.

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