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queen, that thou art not efl‘ectually represented here, and make that a motive for her to take us under her immediate care and protection, which would make thy surrender in some measure our act, which if thou should do without the consent

\ of the landholders and inhabitants of this province first ob

tained, would look too much like treachery.

“ That it appears, by several petitions now before us, that very great abuses have been and are put upon the inhabitants, and extortions used by thy secretary, surveyors, and other ofiicers, concerned in property as well as courts,which might have been prevented or sooner remedied, had thou been pleased to pass the hill proposed by the assembly in the year 1701 to regulate fees; as also the want of a surveyor-general, which is a great injury and dissatisfaction to the people ; as is likewise the want of an established judicature for trials between thee and the people; for if we exhibit our complaints against thee, or those who represent thee in state or property, they must be determined by or before justices of thy own ape poiniinent; by which means, thou becomes, in a legal sense, judge in thy own cause, which is against natural equity:

, therefore, we propose, that a man learned in the laws of Eng

land, may be commissioned bythe queen, to determine all

matiers, wherein thy tenants have just cause to complain.

against thee, thy deputies or commissioners ; or else restore the people to the privilege of electing judges, justices, and ‘otherofiicers, according to the direction of the first charter, and intent of the first. adventurers, and as the people of New England have by king William’s charter: that thy commissioners of property, are very unwilling to make good the deficiencies of those nos thou hast been many years ago paid for (though thou gave them power so to do) and so great is the difiiculty and trouble‘to get satisfar-iion in this particular, that it is better for one to forego his right: than wait on and attend the‘ coznilvissioners about it, unless the quantity wanting be very great. ‘ g

“ We have many other things to represent to thee as griev— ances ; as thy unheard of abuses to thy purchasers, &c. in


pretending'to give them a town, and then by imposing “II-L conscionable quit-rents, makes it worse by ten-fold than a purchase would have been: also the abuse about the bank. and want of common to the town, and not only so, but the very land the town stands on, is not cleared of the Swedes’ claims. ’

“ These are the chief heads, which we thought fit at this time to lay before thee, earnestly intreating thy serious consideratiOn of them, and that thouwill now at last, after we have thus long endured and groaned under these hardships ‘ (which of late seem to be multiplied upon us) endeavour as 1 far as in thee lies, to retrieve thy credit with us thy poor te‘ aunts and fellow-subjects, by redressing these aggrievances,

especially in getting our laws confirmed, and also to be eased l of oaths, and giving positive orders to thy deputy to unite heartily with us, upon our constitution; and that the char~ p ters thou granted us for city and country, may be explained, settled, and confirmed by law: and we further intreat, that cfl'ectual carev be taken for the suppressing of vice, which, to our great trouble we have to acquaint thee, is more rife \ and common amongst us since the arrival of thy deputy and son, especially of late, than was ever known before: nor are we capable to suppress it, whilst it is connived at, if not encouraged by authority; the mouths of the more sober magistrates being stopped by the said late order about oaths, and the governor’s licensing ordinaries not approven by the magistrates of the city of Philadelphia, and the roast chiefly ruled-by such as are none of the most exemplary for virtuous conversation: thy positive orders in the premises, will, be absolutely necéssary to thy deputy, who thinks it unreasonable, and, a great hardship on him, to give sanction to laws explanatory of thy grants, or to do any thing by way l of enlargement or confirmation of aught, save what is particularly and expressly granted by thee, it being by some of his council urged as an absurdity in us to expect: and we desire that thou would order the licensing of ordinaries and taverns, to be by the justices, according to thy letter dated in September, 1697 ; and we hope we need not be more exH ‘

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press in charging thee, as thou tenders thy own honour and
honesty, or the obligations thou art under to thy friends,
and particularly thy first purchasers and adventurers into
this provinbe, that thou donot surrender the government,
‘whatsoever terms thou may by so doing make for thyself
and family,_which we shall deem no less than a betraying
us, and at least§will look like first fleecing, then selling:
but rather use thy utmost interest with the queen, to ease
us in the premises: and if after thy endeavours used to keep
the government, it be per force taken from thee, thou will
be the clearer in the sight of God, and us the representatives
of the people of this thy province, who are thy real friends
and well wishers, as we hope is evident in that we have dealt
~ thus plainly with'thce.”

It was but natural, that such a paper as this should deeply
aife'ct those‘it was levelled against; and that\ it should ope-
rate differently on persons difi‘erently made and differently
situated. v

Those best acquainted with the necessity of keeping the first principles of government ever before their eyes, and the danger of admitting the least departure from them, could not but be pleased with the plain and firm language of this remonstrance: while those apt to be so dazzled with the outside of things, that they were incapable of looking into their contents, were as much softened with concern for the father and founder of their community, ‘and consequently inclined to think him hardly dealt by in it.

There is something in connexion and dependence which gives a secret bias to all we think and wish, as well as what 'we say: and in all disputes this must be duly allowed-for on both sides.

Seven persons, some of them of the council, made their application by petition to the next, assembly foria copy of it, but were flatly refused: and ev‘enxwhe'n the governor himself in (very high language required it, they were immoveable as before.

Willing as they might be to reclaim the proprietary to a ~due ‘sense of his first obligations, they might be equally un


h W




JOHN EVANS, ESQ, nap. oovrnnon. 51

willing to expose him: and, agreeable to this, the assembly of 1706-? in one of their remonstrances to the governor say, “that hoping the bill of courts then in dispute would have put an end to some of the grievances they had several years groaned under, they had hitherto forborn publicly to remonstrate; chusing rather to provide remedies for things amiss than to complain of them.” Some concern they might also be under for themselves; their ascendancy was precarious: it depended on the good will of numbers : and the in.firmity of nature above touched upon, might happen to ope; _ rate more powerfully in the people, than the consideration of justice and safety to themselves and their posterity. The province, at this time, had moreover their reasons on account of oaths, a militia, 8m. to apprehend some inconveniency if they fell under the immediate government of the crown; and therefore did not care to break with the proprietary entirely. . '

Nor was it long before, by partial and indirect practices, such as both influencing and awing the electors (factsip'ublicly charged on the instruments of government by the assembly of 1706-7) that the governor obtained both an assembly and a speaker, almost as complaisant as he could wish. Nor ought it to be forgot, that his successor Gaoiéz'n obtained such another in the year 1710. i ‘ 1 ' ‘

In all matters of public concern something personal will interfere. Thus we find during this turbulent pe'rijotlYtwo names frequently occurxas opposites, in principle and pur; pose, and the oracles of their respective parties, to wit, David Lloyd, speaker of the assembly, and Iames Logan, secretary to the governor and council. ’

Logan insults the members of the assembly sent from the house on a message to the governor. The house resent it, complain of it, arraign his conduct in otlice, and proceed. against him as a public delinquent.~ -The governor, on the other hand, conceives an insuperable aversion to the speaker, points him out to the public as an interested, factions, dangerous person, treats him arrogantly at two several confer.-v


ences, and complains of the house for not abandoning him to his resentments. '

Thus heat kindled heat; animosity excited animosity; and each party resolving to be always in the right, were often both in the wrong. ‘

By the way, this. And it is necessary still to add, that all this while, the charter of privileges and that for the city of Philadelphia, as well as that of property, remained unconfirmed at home {and‘the people were plainly told by Evans, that, till both’ the proprietary and his governor were put upon proper establishments, they were not to expect the fruits of hisfavour and protection.

The last of those charters, the said governor, in one, of his papers, was pleased to style a tedious bill of property, fitted so entirely to the people’s interest, and with so little regard to the proprietary, that it seemed strange how reasonable men could, without confusion, offer it: and in


1 another he discourses of it as a project of the speaker’s to

incorporate the whole province, and take away near the whole power opt of the hands of the proprietary and governor, and lodge it in the people.

To which the assembly replied in the remarkable words following;

‘ And as to what is said concerning‘ the charter prepared at the proprietary’s departure, the draughtsman has assured us, that no project or power is comprised in that charter but

- what was the proprietary’s direction, perused and corrected

by his cousin‘ Parmiter, before it was engrossed, and afterwards‘signed by himself: but whether the proprietary designed thereby to reverse the method of the government according to an- English constitution, and establish a republic in} its stead, or leave the vpeople to struggle with the queen’s governor-s‘, which he then expected swould be'the conse» quence of the bill t/zen moving in parliament against proprietary governments, the draughtsman cannot tell: but be well

, remembers, that the proprietary’told him, that he held him

selfiobliged to do what he could to confirm his tenants in;


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