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ness ‘tq lay before the house he should have done it before that time.’ And being then made acquainted with the pro~ posed time of adjournment, which was till the first of December, he said.....[t was very well. I

The house, therefore, having first resolved to continue

the supplies granted by the former assembly to the Indians.

on their frontier, adjourned accordingly, having sat but four (lays.

Fifteen days of this adjournment were also sufl'ered to elapse, as if all danger and apprehension were at an end. But then the governor, being armed at all points, summoned them to meet him, with all the circumstances of alarm and terror his imagination could furnish’

Intelligence (probably the same intelligence contained in the two letters communicated by his secretary to the speaker) that a party of French and Indians, to the number of fifteen hundred, as he was informed, had passed the Allegheny hills, and having penetrated as far as the Kittochtiny hills, within about eighty miles of Philadelphia, were encamped on the

Susquehanna, was the business he had to impart to themf

and from his manner of imparting it, he seemed more delighted than shocked with the recital. ‘This invasion, said he, was what we had vthe greatest reason to believe would be the consequence of general Braddock’s defeat, and the retreat of the regular troops.’ Why did they retreat then from the actualseat of war? was the wild country on the Ohio better worth defending than Pennsylvania? was any projected acquisition of more importance to the public than the preservation of such a country? did not thisv very governor talk of the plenty of the province andv its defenceless

'7 state, from time to time, almost in the style of invitation, as

if he meant to bespeak the very event he was now expatiatin'g upon? and is not he more to be upbraided for suffering

V 7 those troops to be recalled, if he did no more, Without mak

ing the strongest‘ remonstrances against it, than' the assembly

"' who besought their protection; and if- it should appear from

his whole conduct, that he desired nothing more ardently

than that such an event should happen 5 and that his princi

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pal endeavour was, to improve it when it did happen to proprietary purposes, at the expence of the fortunes, liberties, and lives of the inhabitants, with what abhorrence must we reflect on the pains taken in this speech, to aggravate the ca

lamitous state of the province, and to,place it to the account ‘

of those, who had in a most signal manner deserved the thanks, not only of the Pennsylvanians, but also of all the friends and lovers of liberty and virtue distributed through

the British empire? . , ‘Had my hands been sufficiently strengthened (so he pro

lrceeded) I should have put this province into such a posture

of defence, as might have prevented the mischiefs that have

since happened.’ A dose of venom apparently prepared and,

administered to poison the province; if the governor might have been their saviour, and was not, for want of proper powers, the assembly accused of having withheld them, were

to be considered as public enemies. To be treated as such

could not but follow. The populace are never so ripe for mischief as in times of most danger. A provincial dictator he wanted to ‘be constituted; he thought this would be the

surest way of carrying his. point; and if the Pennsylvanians _

had taken so frantic a turn, they would not have been the first, who like the flock in the fable, had, in a fit of despair, taken a wolf for their shepherd.

But to return: ‘That the Delaware and Shawanese In

dians had been gained over by the French, under- the‘ ensnaring pretence of restoring them to their country,’ consti— tuted his next inflammatory. And then in order to magnify his own merits, h’e farther suggested, ‘That he had sent the same intelligence, both to the king’s ministers, together with a representation of the defenceless state of the province, and to the neighbouring governments, Ithat?v the latter might be at once prepared to defend themselves and succour them; that the back inhabitants having upon this occasion, behaved

(themselves with uncommon spirit and activity, he. had given

commissions to such as were willing to take them, and encouragement to all to defend themselves, till the government was enabled to protect them; but that they had complained

much of want of order and discipline, as well as of arms and ammunition; and he was without power, money, or means to form them into such regular bodies, as the exigency required, &c. that the designs of the enemy could only be conjectured from their motions and numbers; and that from those and~the known circumstances of the province, it ‘was reasonable to apprehend, they had something more in view,~than barely cutting off and destroying some of the frontier settlements.’ And for a conclusion he summed-up his lords the proprietaries’ will and pleasure, as follows:

‘His majesty and the proprietaries having committed the people of this province to my charge and care, I have done, and still shall very readily do, every thing in my power} to fulfil that important trust; and to that end, I think it my duty to call upon you to. grant such supplies of money as his ma

jesty’s service, at this important and dangerous crisis, may

require, and to prepare a bill for establishing a regular militia, exempting such as are conscientiously scrupulous of bearing arms, it being impossible, without such a law, though large sums of money should be raised, to prevent confusion and disorder, or conduct matters with any degree of regularity. \

‘As the enemy are now laying waste the country, and slaughtering the inhabitants, there is no time to be lost; I therefore think it necessary upon this occasion to inform you,

that I am ready and willing to consent to a law for emitting '

any sum in paper-money the present service may require, if funds are established for sinking the same in five years ; but I

Y cannot think it consistent either with the powers of my com, mission, or the duty I owe the crown, to pass any bills of the

same or a like tenor of those I have heretofore refused. And I hope you will not waste your time in offering me any such bills, as you must know from what has passed between me and the late assembly, and the information I now give you, it is not in my power to consent to; and I earnestly recommend it to you, to afford in time that assistance whichv your bleeding country stands so much in need of.’

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So that in case they would not wave their pritlileges in the manner prescribed, and protect the proprietary Estate gratis, their country might bleed to death, if it would; or they were not to be permitted to make use of their own hioney their own way, to save it. ‘ l

One act of parliamentu there is, and one only, which not only admits, that governors and deputy-governor may abuse their power and oppress the subject, but also a cts to provide for the punishment of such oppressors. ut then the word oppression is left so vague and indefinite, hat no subject ever did, or can derive any benefit from it. Of all the

several species of oppression, that, now pract' ed by this‘ ~. _ man upon a whole province, was surely the mo

grievous; and as it required no common share of firmn s to withstand it, so it required an equal degree of prud cc to temper that firmness, in such a manner as might ob iate all the misconstructions and misrepresentations, the thstanders had good reason to be sure would be put upon i

Petitions from various quarters, and many f them of such an opposite tendency that they were irrecon leable with each other, poured in upon them. Some of the petitioners declaring themselves highly sensible of the zeala ddiligence the assembly had shewn for the interest and wel re of their constituents, in contending for what ought in tice to‘ be granted. Others pretending to pray, that the h use would not keep up unnecessary disputes with the gover or, not by reason of their religious scruples longer neglect e defence of the province. Both requiring to have arms p into their hands. And others expressing their fervent sires that measures might be pursued consistent with thei peaceable principles, and that they would continue humbl to confide in the protection of that almighty power, which (1 hitherto been as walls and bulwarks round about them. i

The assembly received all withvcomposure ; resolved. to give all the satisfaction they could to all. Tti the points inforced by the governor they‘ attended first; and to take off the panic which prevailed in the province, undertook to ree


1 I 11. and 12 of Will. 11!. Cap- 12.

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tify the intelligence he had given, which could not but contribute greatly to the increase of it. In their reply to that part of his speech, for instance they told him, “they could not find by the letters and papers, he had'been pleased to lay before them, that any such number of French and Indians were encamped on any part of the river Susquehanna.”—

What they admitted was, “ that the back settlers were greatly '

alarmed and terrified; that cruelties had been committed on > the inhabitants by the Delaware and Shawanese Indians, ' principally within the lands purchased by the proprietaries at Albany bu: the year before; that, perhaps, there might be a few of the French ’Mohawks among them; ‘but this was not very clear; and that these were to be followed, as several of the accou'rts said, by a large number of Indians and French from fort Duquesne, with a design of dividing themselves into parties, in order to fall on the back settlements, of Pennsylvania and Virginia; and that the Indians still inclined to preserve their alliance with the province, seemed on the other hand, as much terrified, lest provoked with these hostilities, the English generally should revenge upon them the barbarities so committed by the invaders ; that therefore great care and judgment was, in their opinion requisite, in conducting their Indian affairs at that critical conjuncture; that as the Six N atiois were in alliance with the crown of Great Britain, and numbers of them then acting with great fidelity and bravery 111C181‘ general Johnson, it seemed absolutely necessary on tleir part to make it their request to the governor to be info‘med, whether he knew of any disgust or injury the Delavares or Shawanese had ever received from Pennsylvania, and by what means their afl‘ections could be so

alienated, as, not only'to take up the hatchet against the said

province, in breach of their dependence on the Six Nations, by whom they had been so long since subdued, but also of the friendly interviews and treaties, which they (the Pennsylvanians) had so repeatedly and very lately held both with them and the Six united Nations, both before and after the defection of part of the Shawanese, for whom they had particularly interposed their good oflices, in procuring the liberty

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