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3765. July

monkey newly dressed : we also gave him bread, which he eat with a voracious appetite, and after having played a thousand antic tricks, he leaped overboard, jacket and trowsers and all, and swam back again to his proa ; after this several others swam to the ship, ran up the side to the gun-room ports, and having crept in, snatched up whatever lay in their reach, and immediately leaped again into the sea, and swam away at a great rate, though some of them, having both hands full, held up their arms quite out of the water, to prevent their plunder from being spoiled. These people are tall, well proportioned, and clean-limbed : their skin is a bright copper colour, their features are extremely good, and there is a mixture of intrepidity and cheerfulness in their countenances that is very striking. They have long black hair, which some of them wore tied up behind in a great bunch, others in three knots: fome of them had long beards, fome only whiskers, and some nothing more than a small tuft at the point of the chin. They were all of them ftark naked, except their ornaments, which consisted of shells, very prettily disposed and ftrung together, and were worn round their necks, wrists, and waists: all their ears were bored, but they had no ornaments in them when we saw them : fuch ornaments as they wear, when they wear any, are probably very heavy, for their ears hang down almost to their shoulders, and some of them were quite split through. One of these men, who appeared to be a person of some consequence, had a string of human teeth about his waist, which was probably a trophy of his military prowess, for he would not part with it in exchange for any thing that I could offer him. Some of them were unarmed, but others had one of the most dangerous weapons I had ever seen: it was a kind of spear, very broad at the end, and stuck full of thark's teeth, which are as sharp as a lancet, at the fides. for about three feet of its length. We shewed them some cocoa-nuts, and made signs that we wanted more ; but instead of giving any intimation that they could supply us, they endeavoured to take away those we had:

I sent out the boats to sound after we brought to off the island, and when they came back, they reported



that there was ground at the depth of thirty fathom, 1765.

July. within two cables length of the shore ; but as the bottom was coral rock, and the soundings much too near the breakers for a ship to lie in safety, I was obliged again to make fail, without procuring any refreshments for the fick. This island, to which my officers Byron's gave the name of Byron's ISLAND, lies in latitude 1° 18' S. longitude 173° 46' E. the variation of the compass here, was one point E.

In our course from this place, we saw, for several days, abundance of fish, but we could take only sharks, which were become a good dish even at my own table. Many of the people now began to fall down with Auxes, which the Surgeon imputed to the excessive heat, and almost perpetual rains.

By the 21st, all our cocoa-nuts being expended, our Sunday 2”. people began to fall down again with the fcurvy. The effect of these nuts alone, in checking this disease, is aftonishing : many whose limbs were become as black as ink, who could not move without the assistance of two men, and who, besides total debility, suffered excruciating pain, were in a few days, by eating these nuts, although at sea, so far recovered as to do their duty, and could even go aloft as well as they did be.fore the distemper seized them. For several days, about this time, we had only faint breezes, with smooth water, so that we made but little way, and as we were dow not far from the Ladrone Islands, where we hoped some refreshments might be procured, we most ardently wilhed for a fresh gale, especially as the heat was still intolerable, the glass for a long time having never been lower than eighty-one, but often up to eighty-four; and I am of opinion that this is the hottest, the longest, and most dangerous run that ever was made.

On the 18th, we were in latitude 13° 9' N. longitude 158° 50' E. and on the 22d, in latitude 14° 25' N. Monday 22 longitude 153o II' E. during which time we had a northerly current.' Being now nearly in the latitude of Tinian, I shaped my course for that iland.

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3765. July



The Arrival of the Dolphin and Tamar at Tinian, a

Description of the present Condition of that Ifand, and an Account of the Transactions there.

"Tucs. 30.


Sund. 28. N the 28th, we saw a great number of birds

about the ship, which continued till the 30th, when about two o'clock in the afternoon we saw land, bearing W. 1 N. which proved to be the islands Saypan, Tinian, and Aiguigan. At sunset, the extremes of them bore from N. W. | N. westward to S. W. and the three islands had the appearance of one. At

féven, we hauled the wind, and stood off and on all Wedn. 31. night, and at fix the next morning the extremes of

the islands, which still made in one, bore from N. W. by N. to S. W. by S. distant five leagues. The east side of these islands lies N. E. by N. and S. W. by S. Saypan is the northernmost ; and from the north-east point of that island to the south-west point of Aiguigan the distance is about seventeen leagues. These three islands are between two and three leagues distant from each other ; Saypan is the largest, and Aiguigan, which is high and round, the smallest. We steered along the east side of them, and at noon hauled round the south point of Tinian, between that island and Aiguigan, and anchored at the south-west end of it, in sixteen fathom water, with a bottom of hard fand and coral rock, opposite to a white sandy bay, about a mile and a quarter from the shore, and about three quarters of a mile from a reef of rocks that lies at a good distance from the shore, in the very spot where Lord Anson lay in the Centurion. The water at this place is so very clear that the bottom is plainly to be seen at the depth of four and twenty fathom, which is no less than one hundred and fortyfour feet.

As soon as the ship was secured, I went on shore, to fix upon a place where tents might be ere&ted for the sick, which were now very numerous ; not a single man being wholly free from the scurvy, and


many in the last stage of it. We found several huts 1765. which had been left by the Spaniards and Indians the

July. year before ; for this year none of them had as yet been at the place, nor was it probable that they should come for some months, the sun being now almost vertical, and the rainy season set in. After I had fixed upon a spot for the tents, fix or seven of us endeavoured to push through the woods, that we might come at the beautiful lawns and meadows of which there is so luxuriant a description in the account of Lord Anson's Voyage, and if possible kill some cattle. The trees ftood so thick, and the place was so overgrown with underwood, that we could not see three yards before us, we therefore were obliged to keep continually hallooing to each other, to prevent our being separately lost in this trackless wilderness. As the weather was intolerably hot, we had nothing on besides our shoes, except our shirts and trowsers, and these were in a very short time torn all to rags by the bushes and brambles ; at laft, however, with incredible difficulty and labour, we got through ; but, to our great furprife and disappointment, we found the country very different from the account we had read of it: the lawns were entirely overgrown with a stubborn kind of reed or brush, in many places higher than our heads, and no where lower than our middles, which continually entangled our legs, and cut us like whipcord; our stockings perhaps might have still suffered •more, but we wore none. During this march we were also covered with Alies from head to foot, and whenever we offered to speak we were sure of having a mouthful, many of which never failed to get down our throats. After we had walked about three or four miles, we got sight of a bull, which we killed, and a little before night got back to the beach, as wet as if we had been dipt in water, and so fatigued that we were scarcely able to stand. We immediately sent out a party to fetch the bull, and found that during our excursion some tents had beengot up, and the sick brought on fhore.

The next day our people were employed in setting Auguft. up more tents, getting the water-casks on shore, and Thurid. I. clearing the well at which they were to be filled. This well I imagined to be the same that the Centurion


1765. Auguft.

watered at; but it was the worst that we had met with during the voyage, for the water was not only brackish, but full of worms. The road also where the ships lay was a dangerous situation at this season, for the bottom is hard fand and large coral rocks, and the anchor having no hold in the fand, is in perpetual danger of being cut to pieces by the coral; to prevent which as much as possible, I rounded the cables, and buoyed them up with empty water casks. Another precaution also was taught me by experience, for at first I moored, but finding the cables much damaged, I resolved to lie single for the future, that by veering away or heaving in, as we should have more or less wind, we might always keep them from being slack, and consequently from rubbing, and this expedient succeeded to my wish. At the full and change of the moon, a prodigious swell tumbles in here, so that I never saw ships at anchor roll so much as ours did while we lay here, and it once drove in from the westward with such violence, and broke so high upon the reef, that I was obliged to put to sea for a week; for if our cable had parted in the night, and the wind had been upon the shore, which sometimes happens for two or three days together, the ship must inevitably have been lost upon the rocks. .

As I was myself very ill with the scurvy, I ordered a tent to be pitched for me, and took up my residence on shore ; where we also erected the armourer's forge, and began to repair the iron-work of both the ships. I soon found that the island produced limes, four oranges, cocoa- nuts, bread-fruit *, guavas, and


in great abundance; but we found no water-melons, {curvy-grass, or forrel.

Notwithstanding the fatigue and distress that we had endured, and the various climates we had passed through, neither of the ships had yet lost a single man fince their failing froin England ; but while we lay here two died of fevers, a disease with which many were seized, though we all recovered very faft from the scurvy: I am indeed of opinion that this is one of The most unhealthy spots in the world, at least during

the * See a particular description.of the bread-fruit, at the end of this volume,

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