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fertile; after that the hills stretched quite to the water's edge, and a little farther ran out into the sea, so that they were obliged to climb over them. These hills, which were barren, continued for about three miles more, and then terminated in a large plain, which was full of good houses, and people who appeared to live in great affluence. In this place there was a river, much more considerable than that at our fort, which issued from a deep and beautiful valley, and, where our travellers crossed it, though at some distance from the sea, was near one hundred yards wide. About a mile beyond this river the country became again barren, the rocks every where proje&ing into the sea, for which reason they resolved to return. Just as they had formed this resolution, one of the natives offered them refreshment, which they accepted. They found this man to be of a kind that has been described by various authors, as mixed with many nations, but distind from them all. His skin was of a dead white, without the least appearance of what is called complexion, though some parts of his body were in a small degree less white than others : his hair, eye-brows, and beard were as white as his skin ; his eyes appeared as if they were bloodshot, and he seemed to be very short-sighted.
At their return they were met by Tubourai Ta. maide, and his women, who, at seeing them, felt a joy, which not being able to exprefs, they burst into tears, and wept some time before their passion could be retrained.
This evening Dr. Solander lent his knife to one of these women, who neglected to return it, and the next morning Mr. Banks's also was missing; upon this occalion I must bear my testimony, that the people of this country, of all ranks, men and women, are the errantest thieves upon the face of the earth: the very day after we arrived here, when they came on board us, the Chiefs were employed in stealing what they could in the cabin, and their dependants were no less induftrious in other parts of the ship; they snatched up every thing that was possible for them to secrete till they got on shore, even to the glass ports, two of which they carried off undetected. Tubourai Tamaide was the
only one, except Tootahah, who had not been found guilty, and the presumption, arising from this circumstance, that he was exempt from a vice, of which the whole nation besides were guilty, cannot be supposed to outweigh strong appearances to the contrary. Mr. Banks therefore, though not without some reluctance, accused him of having stolen his knife: he solemnly and steadily denied that he knew any thing of it; upon which Mr. Banks made him understand, that whoever had taken it, he was determined to have it returned : upon this resolute declaration, one of the natives who was present, produced a rag, in which three knives were very carefully tied up. One was that which Dr. Solander had lent to the woman, another was a table knife belonging to me, and the owner of the third was not known. With these the Chief immediately set out, in order to make reftitution of them to their owners at the tents. Mr. Banks remained with the women, who expressed great apprehentions that some mischief was designed against their lord. When he came to the tents he restored one of the knives to Dr. Solander and another to me, the third not being owned, and then began to search for Mr. Banks's in all the places where he had ever seen it. After some time, one of Mr. Banks's servants, understanding what he was about, immediately fetched his master's knife, which it seems he had laid by the day before, and till now knew nothing of its having been missed. Tubourai Tamaide, upon this demonstration of his innocence, expressed the strongest emotions of mind, both in his looks and gestures ; the tears started from his eyes, and he made signs, with the knife, that, if he was ever guilty of such an action as had been imputed to him, he would submit to have his throat cut. He then rushed out of the lines, and returned hastily to Mr. Banks, with a countenance that severely reproached him with his suspicions. Mr. Banks foon understood that the knife had been received from his fervant, and was scarcely less affected at what had happened than the Chief; he felt himself to be the guilty person, and was very desirous to atone for his fault. The poor Indian, however violent his passions, was a stranger to fullen resentment; and upon Mr.
1769. Banks's spending a little time familiarly with him, and April,
making him a few triling presents, he forgot the wrong that had been done him, and was perfe&ly reconciled.
Upon this occasion it may be observed, that these people have a knowledge of right and wrong from the mere dictates of natural conscience; and involuntarily condemn themselves when they do that to others, which they would condemn others for doing to them. That Tubourai 'Tamaide felt the force of moral obligation, is certain; for the imputation of an a&tion which he considered as indifferent, would not, when it appeared to be groundless, have moved him with such excess of passion. We must indeed estimate the virtue of these people, by the only standard of morality, the conformity of their condua to what in their opinion is right; but we must not hastily conclude that theft is a testimony of the same depravity in them that it is in us, in the instances in which our people were sufferers by their dishonesty ; for their temptation was such as to surmount would be considered as a proof of uncommon integrity among those who have more knowledge, better principles, and stronger motives to resist the temptations of illicit advantage: an Indian among perny knives, and beads, or even nails and broken glass, is in the fame state of trial with the meanest servant in Europe among unlocked coffers of
jewels and gold. Wednes. 26. On the 26th, I mounted six swivel guns upon the
fort, which I was sorry to see struck the natives with dread: some fishermen who lived upon the point, removed farther off, and Owhaw told us, by signs, that in four days we should fire great guns.
On the 27th, Tubourai Tamaide, with a friend, who eat with a voracity that I never saw before, and the three women that usually attended him, whose names were TERAPO, TIRAO, and Omir, dined at the fort : in the evening they took their leave, and set out for the house which Tubourai Tamaide had set up
in the skirts of the wood; but in less than a quarter of an hour he returned in great emotion, and hasily seizing Mr. Banks's arm, made signs that he should follow him. Mr. Banks immediately complied, and they soon came up to a place where they found the ship's
but c h
butcher, with a reaping-hook in his hand: here the 1769.
April. Chief stopped, and in a transport of rage which rendered his signs scarcely intelligible, intimated that the butcher had threatened, or attempted, to cut his wife's throat with the reaping-hook. Mr. Banks then signified to him, that if he could fully explain the offence, the man should be punished. Upon this he became more calm, and made Mr. Banks understand that the offender, having taken a fancy to a stone hatchet which lay in his house, had offered to purchase it of his wife for a nail : that she having refused to part with it upon any terms, he had catched it up, and throwing down the nail, threatened to cut her throat, if she made any resistance: to prove this charge, the hatchet and the nail were produced, and the butcher had so little to say in his defence, that there was not the least reason to doubt of its truth.
Mr. Banks having reported this matter to me, I took an opportunity, when the Chief and his women, with other Indians, were on board the ship, to call up the butcher, and after a recapitulation of the charge and the proof, I gave orders that he should be punished, as well to prevent other offences of the same kind, as to acquit Mr. Banks of his promise; the Indians saw him stripped and tied up to the rigging with a fixed attention, waiting in silent suspense for the event ; but as soon as the first stroke was given, they interfered with great agitation, earnestly intreating that the rest of the punishment might be remitted : to this, however, for many reasons, I could not confent; and when they found that they could not prevail by their intercession, they gave vent to their pity by tears.
Their tears indeed, like those of children, were always ready to express any passion that was strongly excited, and like those of children they also appeared to be forgotten as soon as shed; of which the follow
Friday 28. ing among many others, is a remarkable instance. Very early in the morning of the 28th, even before it was day, a great number of them came down to the fort, and Terapo being observed among the women on the outside of the gate, Mr. Banks went out and brought her in ; he saw that the tears then stood in her eyes, and as soon as she entered, they began to flow in
3769; great abundance : he enquired earnestly the cause, but April.
instead of answering, she took from under her garment a Thark's tooth, and struck it six or seven times into her head with great force; a profusion of blood followed, and she talked loud, but in a most melancholy tone, for some minutes, without at all regarding his enquiries, which he repeated with still more impatience and concern, while the other Indians, to his great surprize, talked and laughed, without taking the least notice of her distress. But her own behaviour was still more extraordinary. As foon as the bleeding was over, the looked up with a smile, and began to collect some small pieces of cloth, which during her bleeding she had thrown down to catch the blood; as soon as the had picked them all up, she carried them out of the tent, and threw them into the sea, carefully dispersing them abroad, as if she wished to prevent the fight of them from reviving the remembrance of what she had done. She then plunged into the river, and after having washed her whole body, returned to the tents with the same gaiety and cheerfulness as if nothing had happened.
It is not indeed strange that the sorrows of these artless people should be transient, any more than that their passions should be suddenly and strongly expressed: what they feel they have never been taught either to disguise or suppress, and having no habits of thinking which perpetually recal the past, and anticipate the future, they are affected by all the changes of the palling hour, and reflect the colour of the time, however frequently it may vary: they have no projeđ which is to be pursued from day to day, the subject of unremitted anxiety and solicitude, that first rushes into the mind when they awake in the morning, and is last dismiffed when they sleep at night. Yet if we admit that they are upon the whole happier than we, we must admit that the child is happier than the man, and that we are losers by the perfe&ion of our nature, the increase of our knowledge, and the enlargement of our views.
Canoes were continually coming in during all this forenoon, and the tents at the fort were crowded with people of both sexes from different parts of the