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1765. January

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resemblance to a fox. They are as big as a middle
sized mastiff, and their fangs are remarkably long and
sharp. There are great numbers of them upon this
coast, though it is not perhaps easy to guess how they
first came hither, for these islands are at least one hun.
dred leagues distant from the main : they burrow in
the ground like a fox, and we have frequently seen
pieces of feal which they have mangled, and the skins
of penguins, lie scattered about the mouth of their
holes. To get rid of these creatures, our people fet
fire to the grass, so that the country was in a blaze as
far as the eye could reach, for several days, and we
could see them running in great numbers to seek other
quarters. I dug holes in many places, about two feet
deep, to examine the soil, which I found first a black
mould, and then a light clay, While we lay here,
we set up the armourer's forge on shore, and com-
pleted a great deal of iron work that was much wanted.
Our people had every morning an excellent breakfast
made of portable soup, and wild celery, thickened
with oat meal: neither was our attention confined
wholly tó. Ourselves, for the Surgeon of the Tamar
surrounded a piece of ground near the watering place
with a fence of turf, and planted it with many escu-
lent vegetables as a garden, for the benefit of those
who might hereafter come to this place. Of this har-
bour, and all the neighbouring islands, I took possession
for his Majefy King George the Third of Great Bri-
tain, by the name of FALKLAND'S ISLANDS, and
there is I think little reason to doubt that they are the
same land to which Cowley gave the name of Pepys'

In the printed account of Cowley's voyage, he says,
“ We held our course S. W.till wecame into the lati-
“ tude of forty-seven degrees, where we saw land, the
“ fame being an island, not before known, laying to
“ the wellward of us : it was not inhabited, and I

gave it the name of PEPYS' ISLAND. We found “ it a very commodious place for ships to water at, and take in wood, and it has a very good harbour, where

a thousand sail of pips may safely ride. Here is great " plenty of fowls, and, we judge, abundance of fish,

" by

by reason of the grounds being nothing but rocks 1765. " and sands.”

Jauuary. To this account there is annexed a representation of Pepy's Island, in which names are given to several points and head-lands, and the harbour is called Admiralty-bay ; yet it appears that Cowley had only a diftant view of it; for he immediately adds, “ The wind

being so extraordinary high that we could not get “ into it to water, we stood to the southward, shaping

our course S. S. W. till we came into the latitude of 53;" and though he says that “ it was commodious

to take in wood,” and it is known that there is no wood on Falkland's INands, Pepys' Island and Falkland's Islands may notwithstanding be the same ; for upon

Falkland's Islands there are immense quantities of flags with narrow leaves, reeds and rushes which grow in clusters, so as to form bushes about three feet high, and then shoot about fix or seven feet higher : these at a distance have greatly the appearance of wood, and were taken for wood by the French, who landed there, in the year 1764, as appears by Pernetty's account of their voyage. It has been suggested that the latitude of Pepys' Illand might, in the M. S. from which the account of Cowley's voyage was printed, be expressed in figures, which, if ill made, might equally resemble forty-seven, and fifty-one ; and therefore as there is no island in these seas in latitude fortyseven, and as Falkland's Islands lie nearly in fifty-one, that fifty-one might reasonably be concluded to be the number for which the figures were intended to stand: recourse therefore was had to the British Mufæum, and a manuscript journal of Cowley's was there found. In this manuscript no mention is made of an island not before known, to which he gave the name of Pepys' Ifand, but land is mentioned in latitude fortyfeven degrees, forty minutes, expressed in words at length, which exa&tly answers to the description of what is called Pepys Island in the printed account, and which here, he says, he supposed to be the islands of Sebald de Wert. This part of the manuscript is in the following words : « January 1683. This “ month wee were in the latitude of forty-seaven degrees and forty minnetts, where wee espied an island


5765. “ bearing west from us; wee having the wind at eaft January,“ north-east, wee bore away for it, it being too late

for us to goe on shoare, we lay bye all night. The “ island seemed very pleasant to the eye, with many " woods, I may as well say the whole land was woods. " There being a rock lying above water to the easta ward of it, where an innumerable company of fowles, " being of the bignefse of a small goose, which fowles “ would strike at our men as they were aloft: some of *" them were killed and eat : they seemed to us very “ good, only tasted somewhat fishly. I failed along " that island to the southward, and about the south. “ west side of the island there seemed to me to be a

good place for shipps to ride: I would have had the “ boat out to have gone into the harbour, but the “ wind blew fresh, and they would not agree to go in “ with it. Sailing a little further, keeping the lead, and " having fix and twenty, and feaven and twenty fathoms " water, untill wee came to a place where wee faw the “ weeds ride, having the lead againe, found but sea

ven fathoms water. Fearing danger went about “ the shipp there, were then fearfull to stay by the “ land any longer, it being all rocky ground, but the harbour feemed to be a good place for shipps to ride “ there ; in the island seeming likewise to have water

enough, there seemed to me to be harbour for five hundred faile of shipps. The going in but narrow " and the north side of the entrance shallow water “ that I could fee, but I verily believe that there is

water enough for any shipp to goe in on the south “ fide, for there cannot be so great a lack of water, but “ must needs scowre a channell away at the ebbe deepe “ enough for shipping to goe in. I would have had “ them stood upon a wind all night, but they told me

they were not come out to go upon discovery. We " faw likewife another island by this that night, which * made me thinke them to be the Sibble D'wards.

“ The same night we steered our course againe west fouth west, which was but our south-west, the com

passe having two and twenty degrees variation easte wardly, keeping that course till wee came in the latitude of three and fifty degrees.”

In both the printed and manuscript account, this land


January is said to lie in latitude forty-seven, to be situated to the westward of the ship when first discovered, to appear woody, to have an harbour where a great number of ships might ride in safety, and to be frequented by innumerable birds. It appears also, by both accounts, that the weather prevented his going on shore, and that he steered from it W. S. W. till he came into latitude fifty-three: there can therefore be little doubt but that Cowley gave the name of Pepy's Island after he came home, to what he really supposed to be the island of Sebald de Wert, for which it is not difficult to assign several reasons'; and though the suppofition of a mistake of the figures does not appear to be well grounded, yet, there being no land in forty-seven, the evidence that what Cowley faw was Falkland's Ilands, is very strong. The description of the country agrees in almost every particular, and even the map is of the fame general figure, with a streight running up the middle. The chart of Faikland's Islands that accompanies this narrative, was laid down from the journals and drawings of captain Macbride, who was dispatched thither after my return, and circumnavigated the whole coaft : the two principal Islands were probably called Falkland's Iflands by Strong, about the year 1689, as he is known to have given the name of Falkland's Sound to part of the streight which divides them. The Journal of this navigator is still unprinted in the British Musæum. The first who saw these islands is supposed to be Captain Davies, the associate of Cavendith, in 1592. In 1594, Sir Richard Hawkins faw land, fupposed to be the same, and in honour of his mistress, Queen Elizabeth, called them Hawkins's MAIDEN LAND. Long afterwards, they were seen by some French ships from Saint Maloes, and Prezier, probably, for that reason, called them the Malouins, a name which has been fince adopted by the Spaniards.

Having continued in the harbour which I had called Port Egmont, till Sunday the 27th of January, we

Sunday 27 failed again at eight o'clock in the morning with the wind at S. S. W. but we were scarcely got out of the port before it began to blow very hard, and the weather


1765. became so thick that we could not see the rocky islands. January

I now most heartily wished myself again at anchor in the harbour we had quitted; but in a short time we had the satisfa&tion to see the weather become clear, though it continued to blow very hard the whole day. At nine the entrance of Port Egmont harbour bore E. S. E. distant two leagues ; the two low islands to the northward E. by N. diftant between three or four miles ; and the rocky island W. ; N. distant four leagues. At ten the two low iflands bore S. S. E. distant four or five miles ; and we then steered along the shore east by the compass, and after having run about five leagues, we saw a remarkable head-land, with a rock at a little distance from it, bearing E. S. E. į E. diftant three leagues. This head-land I called CAPE TAMAR. Having continued the same course five leagues farther, we saw a rock about five miles from the main bearing N. E. at the distance of four or five leagues: this rock I called the EDISTONE, and then steered between it and a remarkable head-land which I called CAPE DOLPHIN, in the direction of E. N. E. five leagues farther. From Cape Tamar to Cape Dolphin, a distance of about eight leagues, the land forms, what I thought, a deep found, and called CARLISLE SOUND, but what has since appeared to be the northern entrance of the streight between the two principal islands. In the part that I supposed to be the bottom of the sound, we saw an opening, which had the appearance of a harbour. From Cape Dolphin we steered along the shore EįN. sixteen leagues, to a low fat cape or head-land, and then brought to. In this day's run the land, for the most part, resembled the east fide of the coast of Patagonia, not having so much as a fingle tree, or even a bush, being all downs, with here and there a few of the high tufts of grass that we had seen at Port Egmont; and in this account I am sure I am not mistaken, for I frequently failed within two miles of the shore ; so that if there had been a fhrub as big as a goose-berry bush, I should have seen it. During the night we had forty fathom water with

rocky ground. Monday 28. The next morning, at four o'clock, we made fail, the low fiat cape then bearing S. E. by E. distant five

leagues :

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