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1769. foot stalk; the plant, pafling from this state, shoots January,


in stalks that are sometimes two feet high, at the top of which are small white blossoms, and these are succeeded by long pods; the whole plant greatly resembles that which in England is called Lady’s-smock, or Cuckoo flower. The wild celery is very like the celery in our gardens, the flowers are white, and stand in the same manner, in small tufts at the top of the branches, but the leaves are of a deepér green. It grows in great abundance near the beach, and generally upon the foil that lies next above the spring tides.

It may indeed easily be known by the taste, which is between that of celery and parsley. We used the celery in large quantities, particularly in our soup, which, thus medicated, produced the same good effeas which seamen generally derive from a vegetable diet, after having been long confined to falt pro

visions. Sunday 221

On Sunday, the 22d of January, about two o'clock in the morning, having got our wood and water on board, we failed out of the Bay, and continued our course through the Streight.

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A general Description of the S. E. part of Terra del

Fuego, and the Streight of Le Maire, with some
Remarks on Lord Anson's Account of them, and Di-
rections for the Passage westward, round this part of
America, into the South Seas.


LMOST all writers who have mentioned the

ifland of Terra del Fuego, describe it as destitute of wood, and covered with snow. In the winter it may possibly be covered with snow, and those who saw it at that season might perhaps be easily deceived, by its appearance, into an opinion that it was deftitute of wood. Lord Anson was there in the beginning of March, which answers to our September; and we were there in the beginning of January, which answers to our July, which may account for the difference of his description of it from ours. We fell in with it about twenty-one leagues to the westward of the Streight


of Le Maire, and from the time that we first saw it, 1769. trees were plainly to be distinguished with our glasses ;

January and as we came nearer, tho' here and there, we discovered patches of snow, the sides of the hills and the fea coast appeared to be covered with a beautiful verdure. The hills are lofty, but not mountainous, though the summits of them are quite naked. The soil in the valleys is rich, and of a considerable depth; and at the foot of almost every hill there is a brook, the water of which has a reddish hue, like that which runs through our turf bogs in England, but it is by no means ilt tasted, and upon the whole proved to be the best ihat we took in during our voyage. We ranged the coast to the Streight, and had soundings all the way from 40 to 20 fathoms, upon a gravelly and sandy bottom The most remarkable land on Terra del Fuegois a hill in the form of a sugar-loaf, which stands on the west side not far from the sea ; and the three hills, called the Three Brothers, about nine miles to the westward of Cape St. Diego, the low point that forms the north entrance of the Streight of Le Maire.

It is said in the account of Lord Anson's Voyage, that it is difficult to determine exactly where the Streight lies, though the appearance of Terra del Fuego be well known, without knowing also the appearance of Staten Land; and that some navigators have been deceived by three hills on Staten Land, which have been mistaken for the Three Brothers on Terra del Fuego, and so overshot the Streight. But no ship can possibly miss the Streight that coasts Terra del Fuego within sight of land, for it will then, of itself, be sufficiently conspicuous ; and Staten Land, which forms the east side, will be still more manifestly distinguished, for there is no land on Terra del Fuego like it. The Streight of Le Maire can be missed only by standing too far to the eastward, without keeping the land of Terra del Fuego in fight : if this is done, it may be miffed, however accurately the appearance of the coaft of Staten Land may have been exhibited ; and if this is not done, it cannot be missed, tho' the appearance of that coast cannot be known. The entrance of the Streight should cot be attempted but with a fair wind and moderate weather, and upon the very beginning


1769. January

of the tide of flood, which happens here, at the full, and change of the moon, about one or two o'clock; it is also best to keep as near to the Terra del Fuego shore as the winds will admit. By attending to these particulars, a ship may be got quite through the Streight in one tide; or, at least, to the southward of Success Bay, into which it will be more prudent to put, if the wind should be southerly, than to attempt the weathering of Staten Land with a lee wind and a current, which may endanger her being driven on that island.

The Streight itself, which is bounded on the west by Terra del Fuego, and on the east by the west end of Staten Land, is about five leagues long, and as many broad. The Bay of Good Success lies about the middle of it, on the Terra del Fuego side, and is discovered immediately upon entering the Streight from the northward ; and the south head of it may be distinguished by a mark on the land, that has the appearance of a broad road, leading up from the sea into the country : at the entrance it is half a league wide, and runs in westward about two miles and an half. There is good anchorage in every part of it, from ten to seven fathoms, clear ground; and it affords plenty of exceeding good wood and water. The tides flow in the Bay, at the full and change of the moon, about four or five o'clock, and rise about five or fix feet perpendicular. But the flood runs two or three hours longer in the Streight than in the Bay; and the ebb, or northerly current, runs with near double the strength of the flood.

. In the appearance of Staten Land, we did not discover the wildness and horror that is ascribed to it in the account of Lord Anson's voyage. On the north side are the appearances of bays or harbours; and the land when we saw it, was neither destitute of wood nor verdure, nor covered with snow. The island seems to be about twelve leagues in length, and five broad.

On the west side of the Cape of Good Success, which forms the S. W. entrance of the Streight, lies Valentine's Bay, of which we only saw the entrance ; from this bay the land trends away to the W. S. W. for twenty or thirty leagues; it appears to be high and mountainous, and forms several bays and inlets.


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At the distance of fourteen leagues from the bay of Good Success, in the direction of S. W. 1 w. and, between two and three leagues from the shore, lies New Island. It is about two leagues in length from N. E. to S. W. and terminates to the N. E. in a remarkable hillock. At the distance of seven leagues from New Island, in the direction of S. W. lies the isle Evouts; and a little to the west of the south of this island lie Barnevelt's two small flat islands, close to each other; they are partly surrounded with rocks, which rise to different heights above the water, and lie twenty-four leagues from the Streight of Le Maire. At the distance of three leagues from Barnevelt's islands, in the direction of S. W. by S. lies the S. E. point of Hermit's islands : these islands lie S. E. and ·N. W. and are pretty high : from most points of view they will be taken for one island, or part of the main.

From the S. E. point of Hermit’s islands to Cape Horn the course is S. W. by S. diftant three leagues.

It can scarcely be doubted, but that most, if not all of the bays and inlets, of which we saw only the openings, afford anchorage, wood and water. The Dutch squadron, commanded by Hermit, certainly put into some of them in the year 1624 ; and it was Chapenham, the Vice Admiral of this squadron, who first discovered that the land of Cape Horn consisted of a number of islands. The account, however, which those who failed in Hermit's fleet have given of these parts is extremely defeative ; and those of Schouton and Le Maire are still worse: it is therefore no wonder that the charts hitherto published should be erroneous, not only in laying down the land, but in the latitude and longitude of the places they contain. I will, however, venture to affert, that the longitude of few parts of the world is better ascertained than that of the Streight of Le Maire and Cape Horn, as it was laid down by several observations of the sun and moon, that were made both by myself and Mr. Green.

The variation of the compass on this coast I found to be from 23° to 25o. E, except near Barnevelt's islands and Cape Horn, where we found it lers, and unsettled ; probably it is disturbed here by the land, as Hermit's squadron, in this very place, found all their VOL. I.

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compasTes differ from each other. The declination of January

the dipping needle, when set up on shore in Success Bay, was 68° 15' below the horizon.

Between Streight Le Maire and Cape Horn we found a current setting, generally very strong, to the N. E. when we were in with the shore ;' but lost it when we were at the distance of fifteen or twenty

leagues. Thurf. 26.

On the 26th of January we took our departure from Cape Horn, which lies in latitude 50° 53' S. longitude 68° 13' W. The fartheft southern latitude that we made was 60° 10', our longitude was then 74° 30'W. and we found the variation of the compass, by the mean of eighteen azimuths, to be 27° 9' E. As the weather was frequently calm, Mr. Banks went out in a small boat to shoot birds, among which were some albatrosses and sheerwaters. The albatrosses were observed to be larger than those which had been taken northward of the Streight; one of them measured ten feet two inches from the tip of one wing to that of the other, when they were extended : the Theerwater, on the contrary, is less, and darker coloured on the back. The albatroffes we skinned, and having foaked them in salt water till the morning, we parboiled them, then throwing away the liquor, stewed them in a very little fresh water till they were tender, and had them served up with favoury sauce ; thus dressed, the dish was universally commended, and we eat of it very heartily, even when there was fresh pork upon the table.

From a variety of observations which were made with great care, it appeared probable in the highest de

gree, that, from the time of our leaving the land to the February. 13th of February, when we were in latitude 49° 32', Mond. 13. and longitude 90° 37', we had no current to the west.

At this time we had advanced about 12° to the westward, and 3 and to the northward of the Streight of Magellan : having been just three and thirty days in coming round the land of Terra del Fuego, or Cape Horn, from the east entrance of the Streight to this situation. And though the doubling of Cape Horn is so much dreaded, that, in the general opinion, it is more eligible to pass through the Streight of Magellan, we were not once brought under our close


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