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1768. before it; one of which, called Rodona, is high and December.
round like a hay-stack, and lies at the distance of two leagues and an half from the entrance of the bay, in the dire&tion of S. by W.but the firft islands which are met with, coming from the east, or Cape Trio, are two that have a rocky appearance, lying near to each other, and at the distance of about four miles from the fhore: there are also, at the distance of three leagues to the westward of these, two other islands which lie near to each other, a little without the bay on the east fide, and very near the shore. This harbour is certainly a good one; the entrance indeed is not wide, but the jea breeze, which blows every day from ten or twelve o'clock till funfet, makes it easy for any ship to go in before the wind; and it grows wider as the town is approached, fo that a-breast of it there is room for the largest fleet, in five or fix fathoms water, with an oozy bottom. At the narrow part, the entrance is defended by two forts. The principal is Santa Cruz, which ftands on the east point of the bay, and has been menrioned before: that on the west side is called Fort Lozia, and is built upon a rock that lies close to the main ; the distance between them is about of a mile, but the channel is not quite fo broad, because there are sunken rocks which lie off each fort, and in this part alone there is danger: the narrowness of the channel causes the tides, both flood and ebb, to run with confiderable strength, so that they cannot be ftemmed without a fresh breeze. The rockyness of the bottom makes it also unsafe to ancher here; but all danger may be avoided by keeping in the middle of the channel. Within the entrance, the course up the way is first N. by W.
W. and N. N. W. something more than a league ; this will bring the vessel the length of the great road; and N. W. and W. N. W. one league more will carry her to the Isle dos Cobras, which lies before the city : the should then keep the north side of this island close on board, and anchor above it, before a monastery of Benedictines which stands upon a hill at the N. W. end of the city.
The river, and indeed the whole coaft, abounds with a greater variety of fish than we had ever seen; a day seldom passed in which one or more of a new species
were not brought to Mr. Banks : the bay also is as well 1768:
December. adapted for catching thefe fish as can be conceived; for it is full of small islands, between which there is shallow water, and proper beaches for drawing the seine. The fea, without the bay, abounds with dolphins, and large mackerel of different kinds, which readily bite at a hook, and the inhabitants always tow one after their boats for that purpofe.
Though the climate is hot, the situation of this place is certainly wholesome: while we staid here, the thermometer never rose higher than 83, though we had frequent rains, and once a very hard gale of wind
Ships water here at the fountain in the great square, though, as I have observed, the water is not good; they land their casks upon a smooth sandy beach, which is not more than an hundred yards distant from the fountain, and upon application to the Viceroy, a centinel will be appointed to look after them, and clear the way to the fountain where they are to be filled.
Upon the whole, Rio de Janeiro is a very good place fór ships to put in at that want refreshment: the harbour is safe and commodious; and provifions, except wheatbread and four, may be easily procured : as a fuccedaneum for bread, there are yams and cassada in plenty; beef, both fresh and jerked, may be bought at about two-pence farthing a pound; though, as I have before remarked, it is very lean. The people here jerk their beef by taking out the bones, cutting it into large but thin slices, then curing it with salt, and drying it in the shade: it eats very well, and, if kept dry, will remain good a long time at sea. Mutton is scarcely to be procured, and hogs and poultry are dear; of garden stuff and fruit there is abundance, of which, however, none can be preserved at sea but the pumpkin; rum, sugar, and molasses, all excellent in their kind, may be had at a reasonable price ; tobacco also is cheap, but it is not good. Here is a yard for building shipping, and a small hulk to heave down by; for, as the tide never rises above six or seven feet, there is no other
way of coming at a ship's bottom.
When the boat which had been sent on shore returnel, we hoisted her on board, and stood out to sea.
C H A P.
The Passage from Rio de Janeiro to the Entrance of the
Streight of Le Maire, with a Description of some of the inhabitants of Terra del Fuego.
N the gth of December we observed the sea to December.
be covered with broad streaks of a yellowish coFriday 9.
lour, several of them a mile long, and three or four hundred yards wide : some of the water thus coloured was taken up, and found to be full of innumerable atoms pointed at the end, of a yellowish colour, and none more than a quarter of a line, or the fortieth
part of an inch long : in the microscope they appeared to be Fasciculi of small fibres interwoven with each other, not unlike the nidus of some of the Phyganeas, called Caddices; but whether they were animal or vegetable substances, whence they came, or for what they were designed, neither Mr. Banks nor Dr. Solander could guess. The same appearance had been observed before, when we first discovered the continent of South
America. Sunday 11. On the Irth we hooked a shark, and while we
were playing it under the cabin window, it threw out and drew in again several times what appeared to be its stomach: it proved to be a female, and upon being opened, fix young ones were taken out of it; five of them were alive and swam briskly in a tub of water,
but the sixth appeared to have been dead some time. Friday 30.
Nothing remarkable happened till the 30th, except that we prepared for the bad weather, which we were fhortly to expect, by bending a new suit of sails; but on this day we ran a course of one hundred and sixty miles by the log, through innumerable land insects of various kinds, some upon the wing, and more upon the water, many of which were alive ; they appeared to be exactly the same with the Carabi, the Grylli, the Phalanæ, Aranea, and other flies that are seen in England, though at this time we could not be less than thirty leagues from land; and some of these insects, particularly the Grylli and Aranea, never voluntarily leave it at a greater distance than twenty yards.
We judged ourselves to be nearly opposite to Baye sans 1768,
December. fond, where Mr. Dalrymple supposes there is a passage quite through the continent of America; and we thought from the insects that there might be a very large river, and that it had overflowed its banks.
On the 3d of January, 1769, being in latitude 470 1769. 17 S. and longitude 610 25 45" W. we were all look- January ing out for Pepys’ island, and for some time an appearance was seen in the east which so much resembled land, that we bore away for it; and it was more than two hours and an half before we were convinced that it was nothing but what failors call a Fog-bank.
The people now beginning to complain of cold, each of them received what is called a Magellanic jacket, and a pair of trowsers. The jacket is made of a thick woollen-stuff, called Fearnought, which is provided by the government. We saw, from time to time, a great number of penguins, albatrosses, and sheer-waters, seals, whales, and porpoises : and on the 11th, having Wednes.11. passed Falkland's islands, we discovered the coast of Terra del Fuego, at the distance of about four leagues, extending from the W. to S. E. by S. We had here five and thirty fathoms, the ground soft, small flate stones. As we ranged along the shore to the S. E. at the distance of two or three leagues, we perceived smoke in several places, which was made by the natives, probably as a signal, for they did not continue it after we had passed by. This day we discovered that the ship had got near a degree of longitude to the weftward of the log, which, in this latitude, is 35 minutes of a degree on the equator : probably there is a small current setting to the westward, which may be caused by the westerly current coming round Cape Horn, and through the Streight of Le Maire, and the indraught of the Streight of Magellan *.
* The celebrated navigator who discovered this Streight was a native of Portugal, and his name in the language of his country, was Fernando de Magalhaens ; the Spaniards call him Herpando Magalhanes, and the French Magellan, which is the orthography that has been generally adopted: a Gentleman, the fifth in descent from this great adventurer, is now living in or near London, and communicated the true name of his ancestor to Mr. Banks, with a request that it might 'be inserted in this work
1769. Having continued to range the coast, on the 14th Jannary.
we entered the Streight of Le Maire; but the tide turnSaturd. 14. ing against us, drove us out with great violence, and Enter the raised such a sea off Cape St. Diego, that the waves Le Maire. had exa&tly the same appearance as they would have
had if they had broke over a ledge of rocks; and when the ship was in th's torrent, the frequently pitched, so that the bowsprit was under water.
About noon, we got under the land between Cape St. Diego and Cape St. Vincent, where I intended to have anchored ; but finding the ground every where hard and rocky, and shallowing from thirty to twelve fathoms, I sent the Matter to examine a little cove which lay at a small distance to the eastward of Cape St. Vincent. When he returned, he reported, that there was anchorage in four fathoms, and a good bottom, close to the eastward of the first bluff point, on the east of Cape St. Vincent, at the very entrance of the Cove, to which I gave the name of VINCENT’S Bay: before this anchoring ground, however, lay several rocky ledges, that were covered with sea-weed; but I was told that there was not less than eight and nine fathoms over all of them. It will probably be thought strange, that where weeds, which grow at the bottom, appear above the surface, there should be this depth of water ; but the weeds which grow upon rocky ground in these countries, and which always diftinguish it from sand and ooze, are of an enormous size. The leaves are four feet long, and some of the stalks, though not thicker than a man's thumb, above one hundred and twenty : Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander examined some of them, over which we founded and had fourteen fathoms, which is eightyfour feet; and, as they made a very acute angle with the bottom, they were thought to be at least one half longer : the foot stalks were swelled into an air vessel, and Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander called this plant Fucus giganteus. Upon the report of the Master, I stood in with the thip; but not trusting implicitly to his intelligence, I continued to found, and found but four fathoms upon the first ledge that I went over ; concluding, therefore, that I could not anchor here without rilk, I determined to seek fome port in the Streight,