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three feet long, which was open at both ends; this he 1768.

November.
thrust into the cask through a small hole in the top,
and then, stopping the upper end with the palm of his
hand, drew it out; the pressure of the air against the
other end keeping in the water which it contained; to
this end the person who wanted to drink applied his
mouth, and the assistant then taking his hand from the
other, and admitting the air above, the cane immedi-
ately parted with its contents, which the drinker drew
off till he was satisfied.

We stood off and on along the shore till the 12th, Saturday 12.
and successively saw a remarkable hill near Santo Espe-
rito, then Cape St. Thomas, and then an island just
without Cape Trio, which in some maps is called the
island of Trio, and which being high, with a hollow in
the middle, has the appearance of two islands when
seen at a distance. On this day we stood along the
shore for Rio de Janeiro, and at nine the next morning Sunday 13.
made fail for the harbour. I then sent Mr. Hicks,
my first Lieutenant, before us in the pinnace, up to the
city, to acquaint the Governor, that we put in there to
procure water and refreshments; and to desire the ar.
sistance of a pilot to bring us into proper anchoring
ground. I continued to stand up the river, trusting to
Mr. Bellille's draught, published in the Petit Atlas
maritime, Vol. II. No. 54. which we found very good,
till five o'clock in the evening, expecting the return of
my Lieutenant; and just as I was about to anchor,
above the island of Cobras, which lies before the city,
the pinnace came back without him, having on board
a Portuguese officer, but no pilot. The people in the
boat told that

my Lieutenant was detained by the
Viceroy till I should go on shore. We came immedi-
ately to an anchor; and almost at the same time, a ten
oared boat, full of soldiers, came up and kept rowing
round the ship, without exchanging a word: in less
than a quarter of an hour, another boat came on board
with several of the Viceroy's officers, who asked,
Whence we came? what was our cargo? the number
of men and guns on board ? the obje&t of our voyage ?
and several other questions, which we dire@ly and truly
answered. They then told me, as a kind of apology for
detaining my Lieutenant, and putting an officer on board

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me,

1768.

my pinnace, that it was the invariable custom of the Novembor.

place, to detain the, first officer who came on shore from any ship on her arrival, till a boat from the Viceroy had visited her, and to suffer no boat to go either from or to a ship, while she lay there, without having a soldier on board. They said that I might go on shore when I pleased; but wished that every other person might remain on board till the paper which they should draw up had been delivered to the Vice. roy, promising that, immediately upon their return,

the Lieutenant fhould be sent on board. Monday 14.

This promise was performed; and on the next morn-ing, the 14th, I went on shore, and obtained leave of the Viceroy to purchase provisions and refreshments for the thip, provided I would employ one of their own people as a factor, but not otherwise. I made fome objections to this, but he insisted upon it as the custom of the place. I objected also against the putting a soldier into the boat every time she went between the ship and the shore; but he told me, that this was done by the exprefs orders of his court, with which he could in no case dispense. I then requested, that the gentlemen whom I had on board might reside on shore during our stay, and that Mr. Banks might go up the country to gather plants; but this he absolutely refused. I judged from his extreme caution, and the severity of these restrictions, that he suspected we were come to trade; I therefore took some pains to convince him of the contrary. I told him, that we were bound to the southward, by the order of his Britannic Majesty, to observe a tranfit of the planet Venus over the Sun, an astronomical phænomenon of great importance to navigation. Of the transit of Venus, however, he could form no other conception, than that it was the pafling of the North Star through the South Pole; for these are the very words of his interpreter, who was a Swede, and spoke English very well. I did not think it necessary to ask permission for the Gentlemen to come on shore during the day, or that, when I was on shore myself, I might be at liberty, taking for granted that nothing was intended to the contrary; but in this I was unfortunately mistaken. As soon as I took leave of his Excellency, I found an officer who had orders to attend me wherever I went; of this I desired an explanation, and was told that it was meant as a compliment; I earnestly de- 1768.

that attended

November. fired to be excused from accepting such an honour, but the good Viceroy would by no means suffer it to be dispensed with.

With this officer, therefore, I returned on board, about twelve o'clock, where I was impatiently expected by Mr.Banks and Dr. Solander, who made no doubt but that a falr account of us having been given by the officers who had been on board the evening before, in their paper called a practica, and every scruple of the Viceroy removed in my conference with his Excellency, they should immediately be at liberty to go on fhore, and dilpose of themselves as they pleased. Their disappointment, at receiving my report, may easily be conceived: and it was still increased by an account, that it had been resolved, not only to prevent their residing on shore, and going up the country, but even their leaving the ship; orders having been given, that no person except the Captain, and such common failors as were required to be upon duty, should be permitted to land; and that there was probably a particular view to the passengers in this prohibition, as they were reported to be Gentlemen sent abroad to make observations and discoveries, and were uncommonly qualified for that purpose. In the evening however, Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander dressed themselves, and attempted to go on shore, in order to make a visit to the Viceroy ; but they were stopped by the guard-boat which had come off with our pinnace, and which kept hovering round the ship all the while she lay here, for that purpose; the officer on board saying, that he had particular orders, which he could not disobey, to suffer no passenger, nor any officer, except the Captain, to pass the boat. After much expoftulation to no purpose, they were obliged, with whatever reluctance and mortification, to return on board. I then went on Thore myself, but found the Viceroy inflexible; he had one answer ready for every thing I could say, That the restrictions under which he had laid us, were in obedience to the King of Portugal's command, and therefore indispensible.

In this situation I determined, rather than be made a prisoner in my own boat, to go on shore no more; for the officer who, under the pretence of a compliment,

1968.

attended me when I was ashore, insisted also upon going November.

with me to and from the ship: but still imagining, that the scrupulous vigilance of the Viceroy must proceed from some mistaken notion about us, which might more easily be removed by writing than in conversation, I drew up a memorial, and Mr. Banks drew up another, which we sent on shore. These memorials were both answered, but by no means to our satisfaction; we therefore replied: in consequence of which, several other papers were interchanged between us and the Viceroy, but still without effe&t. However as I thought some degree of force, on the part of the Viceroy, to enforce these restri&tions, necessary to justify my acquiescence in them to the admiralty, I gave orders to my

Lieutenant, Mr. Hicks, when I sent him with our last Sunday 20. reply on Sunday the 20th, in the evening, not to suffer

a guard to be put into his boat. When the officer on board the guard boat found that Mr. Hicks was determined to obey my orders, he did not proceed to force, but attended him to the landing-place, and reported the matter to the Viceroy. Upon this his Excellency refused to receive the memorial, and ordered Mr. Hicks to return to the ship: when he came back to the boat, he found that a guard had been put on board in his absence, but he absolutely refused to return till the soldier was removed; the officer then proceeded to enforce the Viceroy's orders; he seized all the boat's crew, and fent them under an armed force to prison, putting Mr. Hicks at the same time into one of their own boats, and fending him under a guard back to the ship As soon as he had reported these particulars, I wrote again to the Viceroy, demanding my boat and crew, and in my letter inclosed the memorial which he had refused to receive from Mr. Hicks: these papers I sent by a petty officer, that I might wave the dispute about a guard, against which I had never obje&ed except when there was a commissioned officer on board the boat. The petty officer was permitted to go on fhore with his guard, and, having delivered his letter, was told that an answer would be sent the next day.

About eight o'clock this evening it began to blow very hard in sudden gufts from the South, and our longboat coming on board just at this time with four pipes of rum, the rope which was thrown to her from 1968.

November. the ship, and which was taken hold of by the people on board, unfortunately broke, and the boat, which had come to the ship before the wind, went adrift to windward of her, with a small skiff of Mr. Banks's that was fastened to her stern. This was a great misfortune, as the pinnace being detained on shore, we had no boat on board but a tour oar'd yawl: the yawl, however, was immediately manned and sent to her assistance; but, notwithstanding the utmost efforts of the people in both boats, they were very soon out of sight: far indeed we could not fee at that time in the evening, but the distance was enough to convince us that they were not under command, which gave us great uneasiness, as we knew they must drive dire&ly upon a reef of rocks which ran out just to leeward of where we lay: after waiting fome hours in the utmost anxiety, we gave them over for loft, but about three o'clock the next morning had the fatisfaction to see all the people come on board in the yawl. From them we learnt, that the long-boat having filled with water, they had brought her to a grappling and left her; and that, having fallen in with the reef of rocks in their return to the ship, they had been obliged to cut Mr. Banks's little boat adrift. As the loss of our longboat, which we had now too much reason to apprehend would have been an unspeakable disadvantage to us, considering the nature of our expedition, I sent another letter to the Viceroy, as soon as I thought he could be seen, acquainting him with our misfortune, and requesting the aflistance of a boat from the shore for the recovery of our own; I alio renewed my demand that the pinnace and her crew should be no longer detained: after fome delay, his Excellency thought fit to comply both with my request and demand; and the same day we happily recovered both the long-boat and skiff, with the ruris put every thing else that was on board was lost. On thed, ihe Viceroy, in his answer to my remon- Wedn. 23. strance of seizing my men and detaining the boat, acknowicid that I had been treated with forne incivility, bui !...at the resistance of my officers, to what he had deci, to be the King's orders, made it absolutely necesy; he also expressed fome doubts whether the Enjeavour, considering her ftru&ure and

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