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Island.

1767. therefore we made fail again, and found a strong curSeptember.

rent setting us to the westward, through the passage of the Second Narrow, which is about five leagues wide.

The island, which has a pleasant appearance, and is Sandwich very populous, I called SANDWICH ISLAND, in ho

nour of the Earl, now first Lord of the Admiralty : it is larger than the Duke of York's Island, and there feem to be some good bays and harbours upon the coast. On the north part of it there is a remarkable peak, like a sugar loaf; and oppofite to it, upon the coast of New Ireland, there is just such another: they are distant about five leagues, in the direction of S. by E. I E. and N. by W. { W. All the while we lay to off this island, we heard an incessant noise in the night, like the beating of a drum : and being becalmed just as we got through the Streight, ten canoes put off from New Ireland, with about one hundred and fifty niem on board, and rowed towards the ship; they came near enough to exchange some trifles with us, which were conveyed at the end of a long stick, but none of them would venture on board. They seemed to prefer such iron as we gave them to every thing else, though none of it was manufactured except nails; for, as I observed before, we had no cutlery ware on board. The canoes were very long and very narrow, with an outrigger, and some of them were very neatly made : one of them could not be less than ninety feet long, for it was very little shorter than the ship ; it was, notwithstanding, formed of a single tree ; it had some carved ornaments about it, and was rowed or paddled by three and thirty men : we saw no appearance of fails

. The people are black, and woolly-headed, like Negroes, but have not the flat nose and thick lips ; and we thought them much the same people as the inhabitants of Egmont's Illand : like them, they were all stark naked, except a few ornaments made of shells upon their arms and legs. They had, however, adopted a practice without which none of our belles and beaus are supposed to be completely drest, for the hair, or rather the wool upon their heads, was very abundantly powdered with white powder : the fathion of wearing powder, therefore, is probably of higher antiquity than it is generally supposed to be, as well as of more extensive influence ; it is indeed carried farther among these people than 1767. among any of the inhabitants of Europe, for they pow- September

. der not only their heads but their beards too.

Their heads however were decorated with more showy ornaments, for I observed that most of them had, just above one ear, stuck a feather, which appeared to have been taken from the tail of the common dunghill cock; so that these gentlemen are not without poultry for their table. They were armed with spears, and long sticks or poles, like the quarter-staff; but we did not see any bows and arrows among them: possibly they might have them on board, and think proper to keep them out of sight. On my part, I kept every body at their quarters while they were hovering about the ship, and I observed that they had a very watchful eye upon our guns, as if they apprehended danger from them; so that possibly they are not wholly unacquainted with the effects of fire-arms. They had fishing nets with them, which, as well as their cordage, seemed to be very well made. After they had been some time with us, a breeze sprung up, and they returned to the shore.

The peak upon Sandwich Inand lies in latitude 2° 53' S. longitude 149° 17' E. After the Indians had left us, we steered nearly west, and soon after saw a point of land, which proved to be the south-west ex. tremity of New Ireland, to which I gave the name of CAPE BYRON : it lies in latitude 20 30' S. longitude Cape Byron. 149° 2' E. Over-against the coast of New Ireland, to the westward of Cape Byron, lies a fine large island, to which I gave the name of New HANOVER. Be- New Hanotween this island and New Ireland there is a streight or passage, which turns away to the N. E. In this passage lie several small islands, upon one of which there is a remarkable peak : this island. I called BYRON'S Byron's ISLAND, and the passage, or streight, I called Byron's Iland. STREIGHT. The land of New Hanover is high ; it is finely covered with trees, among which are many plantations, and the whole has a most beautiful appearance. The south-west point of it, which is a high bluff point, I called QUEEN CHARLOTTE's FORELAND, in honour of her majetty. This foreland, and the land about it, is remarkable for a great number of little hummocks or hills, but night coming on,

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1766. September.

Sunday 13

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Duke of
Portland's
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with thick weather, hard squalls, and much rain, we could not see more of it diftinctly enough to describe its appearance.

We steered westward all night, and in the morning, the weather being still thick, our view of New Hanover was very imperfect ; but we saw, about eight leagues to the westward of it, six or feven small islands, which I called the DUKE OF PORTLAND'S ISLANDS, two of which are pretty large. I now perceived by the swell of the sea that we were clear of all the land, and I found' Saint George's Channel to be a much better and shorter passage, whether from the eastward or the westward, than round all the land and islands to the northward; the distress therefore which pushed me upon this discovery, may probably be, in its confequences, of great advantage to future navigators, especially as there can be no doubt but that refreshments of every kind may easily be procured from the natives who inhabit either of the coasts of the channel, or the islands that lie near them, for beads, ribbands; lookingglasses, and especially iron tools and cutlery-ware, of which they are immoderately fond, and with which, to our great misfortune, we were not furnished.

Queen Charlotte's Foreland, the fouth-west part of New Hanover, lies in latitude 20 29' S. longitude 148° 27' E. and the middle of Portland's Islands in latitude 2° 27' S. longitude 148° 3' E. The length of this streight or channel, from Cape Saint George to Cape Byron, the south-west extremity of New Ireland, is above eighty leagues; the distance from Cape Byron to Queen Charlotte's Foreland is about twelve leagues, and from the Foreland to Portland's Islands about eight leagues ; so that the whole length of Saint George's Channel is about one hundred teagues, or three hundred miles.

Though we cleared the Streight in the morning of Sunday the 13th of September, we had no obfervation of the sun till the 15th, which I could not but greatly regret, as it prevented my being so exact in my latitude and longitude as might be expected. The description also of the country, its productions and people, would have been much more full and circumitantial, if I had not been fo much infeebled and dispirited by Tickness, as almost to sink under the duty that for 1767.

fickness,

September. want of officers devolved upon me, being obliged, when I was scarcely able to crawl, to keep watch and fhare other duties with my Lieutenant, whose health also was greatly impaired.

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The Passage from St. George's Channel to the Island of

Mindanao, with an Account of many Islands that were
feen, and Incidents that happened by the Way.

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S soon as we had cleared Saint George's Chan

nel, we steered westward, and the next day we discovered land bearing W. N. W. and hauled up for it ; it proved to be an island of considerable extent, and soon afterwards we saw another to the north-east of it, but this appeared to be little more than a large rock above water. As I had here strong currents, and for several days had not been able to get an observation of the sun, I cannot so exactly ascertain the situation of these islands as I might otherwise have done. As we proceeded to the westward, we discovered more land, consisting of many islands lying to the southward of the large one which we had first discovered. As the nights were now moon-light, we kept on till eleven o'clock, and the Lieutenant, who was then officer of the watch, finding that the course we were steering would carry us among them, and not being willing to awaken me till it was my turn to watch, hauled off S. by E. and S. S. E. I came upon deck about midnight, and at one in ihe morning, perceiving that we were clear of Tuesd. 18. them, I bore away again to the westward with an easy fail : the islands, however, were not far distant, and about six o'clock, a considerable number of canoes, with several hundred people on board, came off, and paddled towards the ship: one of them, with seven men on board, came near enough to hail us, and made us several signs which we could not perfectly understand, but repeated, as near as we could, to shew that whatever they meant to us we meant to them: however, the better to bespeak their good-will, and invite them to come on board, we held up to them several

of

1767. September.

of the few trifles we had: upon this they drew nearer to the ship, and I Aattered myself that they were coming on board; but on the contrary, as soon as they came within reach of us they threw their lances, with great force, where we stood thickest upon the deck. As I thought it better to prevent than repress a general attack, in which, as the number would be more, the mischief would be greater, and having no doubt of their hostile intentions, I'fired some muskets and one of the swivel guns, upon which, some of them being killed or wounded, they rowed off and joined the other canoes, of which there were twelve or fourteen, with several hundred men on board. I then brought to, waiting the issue, and had the satisfaction to fee, that, after having long consulted together, they made for the shore: that I might still farther intimidate them, and more effectually prevent their return, I fired a round shot from one of my fix pounders, so as to fall into the water beyond them: this seemed to haye a good effect, for they not only used their paddles more nimbly, but hoisted fail, still standing towards the shore. Soon after, however, several more canoes put off from another part of the island, and came towards us very fast : they stopped at about the same distance as the others had done, and one of them also in the same manner came forward : to the people on board this vessel we made all the signs of friendship we could devise, shewing them every thing we had which we thought would please them, opening our arms and inviting them on board : but our rhetoric was to no effect, for ss soon as they came within a cast of the ship, they poured in a shower of darts and lances, which, however, did us no harm. We returned the assault by firing some muskets, and one man being killed, the rest precipitately leaped into the sea, and swimming to the others who waited at a distance, all returned together from whence they came. As soon as the canoe was deserted, we got out our boat and brought it on board: it was full fifty feet long, though one of the smallest that came against us; it was very rudely made out of one tree, but had an outrigger. We found in it fix fine fith, and a turtle, ļome yams, one cocoa-nut, and a bag full of a small

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