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1767. July.

were never nearer than a mile, we saw them with our
glasses as distin@ly as if we had been upon the spot.

The plank of which these vessels are constructed, is
made by splitting a tree, with the grain, into as many
thin pieces as they can. They first fell the tree with
a kind of hatchet, or adze, made of a tough greenish
kind of stone, very dexterously fitted into a handle ; it
is then cut into such lengths as are required for the
plank, one end of which is heated till it begins to
crack, and then with wedges of hard wood they split
it down : some of these planks are two feet broad, and
from 15 to 20 feet long. The sides are finoothed with
adzes of the same materials and construction, but of a
smaller size. Six or eight men are sometimes at work
upon the same plank together, and, as their tools pre-
sently lose their edge, every man has by him a cocoa
nut-shell filled with water, and a flat stone, with whiclı
he sharpens his adze almost every minute. These
planks are generally brought to the thickness of about
an inch, and are afterwards fitted to the boat with the
fame exa&tness that would be expe&ted from an expert
joiner. To fasten these planks together, holes are bor-
ed with a piece of bone that is fixed into a stick for
that purpose, a use to which our nails were afterwards
applied with great advantage, and through these holes
a kind of plaited cordage is passed, so as to hold the
planks strongly together: the seams are caulked with
dried rushes, and the whole outside of the vessel is payed
with a gummy juice, which some of their trecs produce
in great plenty, and which is a very good succedaneum

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for pitch.

The wood which they use for their large canoes, is
that of the apple-tree, which grows very tail and strait.
Several of them, that we measured, were near eight
feet in the girth, and from 20 to 40 to the branches,
with
very

little dimination in the size. Our carpenter
said, that in other respects it was not a good wood for
the purpose, being very light. The small canoes are
nothing more than the hollowed trunk of the bread-
fruit tree, which is still more light and spongy. The
trunk of the bread-fruit tree is six feet in girth, and
about 20 feet to the branches.

1767. July

Their principal weapons are stones, thrown either with the hand or fling, and bludgeons; for though they have bows and arrows, the arrows, are only fit to knock down a bird, none of them being pointed, but headed only with a round stone.

I did not see one turtle all the while I lay off this island; but upon Thewing some small ones which I brought from Queen Charlotte's Island, to the inhabitants, they made signs that they had them of a much larger fize. I very much regretted my having lost our he-goat, which died soon after we left Saint Iago, and that neither of our the-goats, of which we had two, were with kid. If the he-goat had lived, I would have put them all on shore at this place, and I would have left a she-goat here if either of them had been with kid; and I doubt not, but that in a few years they would have stocked the island.

The climate here appears to be very good, and the island to be one of the most healthy as well as delightful spots in the world. We saw no appearance of difease' among the inhabitants. The hills are covered with wood, and the vallies with herbage, and the air in general is fo pure, that notwithstanding the heat, our flesh meat kept very well two days, and our fish one. We met with no frog, toad, scorpion, centipied, or serpent of any kind; and the only troublesome infects that we saw were ants, of which there were but few.

The south-east part of the island seems to be better cultivated and inhabited than where we lay; for we faw every day boats come round from thence laden with plantains and other fruit, and we always found greater plenty, and a lower price, foon after their arrival than before.

The tide rises and falls very little, and being governed by the winds, is very uncertain; though they generally blow from the É. to the S.S. E. and for the most part pleasant breeze,

The benefit that we received while we lay off this island, with respect to the health of the ship's company, was beyond our most fanguine expectations, for we had not now an invalid on board, except the two Lieutenants and myself, andwe were recovering, though Atill in a very feeblc condition.

It is certain that none of our people contracted the

1767.

July. venereal disease here, and therefore, as they had free commerce with great numbers of the women, there is the greatest probability that it was not then known in the country. It was, however, found here by Captain Cook, in the Endeavour; and as no European vessel is known to have visited this island before Captain Cook's arrival, but the Dolphin, and the Boudeuse and Etoil, commanded by M. Bougainville, the reproach of having contaminated with that dreadful peft a race of happy people, to whom its miseries had till then been unknown, must be due either to him or to me, to England or to France; and I think myself happy to be able to exculpate myself and my country beyond the poflibility of doubt.

It is well known, that the Surgeon on board his Majesty's ships keeps a list of the persons who are sick on board, specifying their diseases, and the time when they came under his care, and when they were discharged. It happened that I was once at the pay-table on board a ship, when several sajlors objected to the payment of the Surgeon, alledging, that although he had discharged them from the list, and reported them to be cured, yet their cure was incomplete. From this time, it has been my constant pradice when the Surgeon reported a man to be cured, who had been upon the fick ļist, to call the man before me, and ask him whether the report was true: if he alledged that any symptoms of his complaint remained, I continued him upon the lift; if not, I required him, as a confirmation of the Surgeon's report, to sign the book, which was always done in my presence. A copy of the sick lint, on board the Dolphin, during this voyage, signed by every man in my presence, when he was discharged well, in confirmation of the Surgeon's report, written in my own hand, and confirmed by my affidavit, I have deposited in the Admiralty ; by which it appears, that the last man on board the ship, in her voyage outward, who was upon the sick list for the vemereal disease, except one who was sent to England in the Store ship, was discharged cured, and signed the book on the 27th of December, 1766, near six months before our arrival at Otaheite, which was on the 19th of

June,

1767. June, 1767, and that the first man who was upon the July.

list for that disease, in our return home, was entered on the 26th of February, 1768, fix months after we left the island, which was on the 26th of July 1767; so that the ship's company was entirely free fourteen months within one day, the very middle of which time we spent at Oiaheite; and the man who was first entered as a venereal patient, on our return home, was known to have contracted the disease at the Cape of Good Hope, where we then lay.

сн А Р. IX.

Pasage from Otaheite to Tinian, with some Account of several other Islands that were disccvered in the South Seas.

H Η

Monday 27. AVING made fail from King George the

Third's Island, we proceeded along the shore of the Duke of York's Island, at the distance of about two miles. There appeared to be good bays in every part of it, and in the middle a fine harbour; but I did not think it worth while to go on shore. The middle and west end is very mountainous, the east end is lower, and the coast just within the beach is covered

with cocoa-nut, bread-fruit, apple, and plantain trees. Tuesd. 28. At day-light, the next morning, we saw land, for

which we made fail, and ran along the lee-fide of it. On the weather fide there were very great breakers, and the lee-side was rocky, but in many places there appeared to be good anchorage. We saw but few inhabitants, and they appeared to live in a manner very different from those of King George's Island, their habitations being only small huts. We saw many cocoanut and other trees upon the shore; but all of them had their heads blown away, probably in a hurricane. This island is about six miles long, and has a mountain of confiderable height in the middle, which seems

to be fertile. It lies in latitude 17° 28' S. and longiSir Char, tude, by our last observation, 151° 4' W. and I callSaunders's ed it Sir Charles SAUNDERS'S ISLAND. Iland.

On the 29th, the variation of the coinpass, by azimuth, was 7° 52' E; and carly the next morning,

at

Wedn. 29

at day-break, we saw land bearing from N. by E. 10 1767. N. W. We stood for it, but could find no anchor

July. age, the whole island being surrounded by breakers. Thursd. 30. We saw smoke in two places, but no inhabitants. A few cocoa-nut trees were growing on the lee-part of it, and I called it Lord How's ISLAND. It is about ten Lord How's miles long, and four broad, and lies in latitude 169 Illand. 46' S. longitude, by observation, 154° 13' W.

In the afternoon we saw land bearing W. by N. and stood for it. At five o'clock, we saw breakers running a great way out to the southward, and soon after, low land to the S. W. and breakers all about it in

every direction.

lands.

Thurf. 13

We turned to windward all night, and as soon as it was light, crowded fail to get round thee shoals. At nine we got round them, and named them Scilly Scilly IlISLANDS. They are a group

of islands or shoals extremely dangerous; for in the night, however clear the weather, and by day, if it is hazey, a ship may run upon them without seeing land. They lie in latitude 16° 28' S. longitude 155° 30' W.

We continued to steer our course westward till day- Auguft. break on the 13th of August, when we saw land bearing W. by S. and hauled towards it. At 11 o'clock in the forenoon, we saw more land in the W. S. W. At noon, the first land that we saw, which proved to be an island, bore W. 1S. diftant about five leagues, and had the appearance of a fugar loaf; the middle of the other land, which was also an island, and appeared in a peak, bore W.S. W. diftant fix leagues. To the first, which is nearly circular, and three miles over, I

gave the name of BOSCAWEN'S ISLAND; and the Boscawen’s other, which is three miles and a half long, and two broad, I called KEPPEL's Isle. Port Royal at this Keppel's time bore E. 4° 10'S. diftant 478 leagues.

At two o'clock, being about two miles distant from Bofcawen's Illand, we faw several of the inhabitants; but Keppel's Isle being to windward, and appearing more likely to afford us anchorage, we hauled up for it. At Yix it was not more than a niile and a half distant, and, with our glasses, we faw many of the inhabitants upon the beach; but there being breakers

at

Iland.

Ille.

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