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leagues : at half an hour after five it bore S. S. E. dif- 1765. tant two leagues : and we then steered from it E. S. E. January. five leagues, to three low rocky islands which lie about two miles from the main. From these islands we steered S.S.E. four leagues, to two other low islands, which lie at the distance of about one mile from the main. Between these islands the land forms a very deep sound, which I called BERKELEY'S SOUND. In the south part of this found there is an opening, which has the appearance of a harbour ; and about three or four miles to the southward of the south point of it, at the distance of about four miles from the main, some rocks appear above the water, upon which the sea breaks very high, there being here a great swell from the southward. When we were a-breast of these breakers, we steered S. W. by S. about two leagues, when the southermost land in sight, which I took to be the southermost part of Falkland's Islands, bore W. S. W. distant five leagues. The coast now began to be very dangerous, there being, in all dire&tions, rocks and breakers at a great distance from the shore. The country also inland had a more rude and desolate appearance; the high ground, as far as we could see, being all barren, craggy rocks, very much resembling that part of Terra del Fuego which lies near Cape Horn. As the sea now rose every moment, I was afraid of being caught here upon a lee shore, in which case there would have been very little chance of my getting off, and therefore I tacked and stood to the northward; the latitude of the southermost point in fight being about 520 3' S. As we had now run no less than seventy leagues along the coast of this island it must certainly be of very considerable extent. It has been said by some former navigators to be about two hundred miles in circumference, but I made no doubt of its being nearer seven. Having hauled the wind, I stood to the northward about noon; the entrance of Berkeley's Sound at three o'clock bore S. W. by W. diftant about six leagues. At eight in the evening, the wind thifting to the S.W. we stood to the westward.

C H A P.

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The Passage through the Streights of Magellan as far as

Cape Monday, with a Description of several Bays and
Harbours, formed by the Coast on each side.

1765. February

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Wedn. 6.

Thurs. 7.

E continued to make fail for Port Desire till

Wednesday the 6th day of February, when about one o'clock in the afternoon we saw land, and stood in for the Port. During the run from Falkland's Illands to this place, the number of whales about the fhip was so great as to render the navigation dangerous; we were very near striking upon one, and another blew the water in upon the quarter deck : they were much larger than any we had seen. As we were standing in for Port Desire, we faw the Florida, a store-ship that we expected froin England; and at four we came to an anchor off the harbour's mouth.

The next morning, Mr. Dean, the master of the store-ship, came on board; and finding from his report that his foremast was sprung, and his ship little better than a wreck, I determined to go into the harbour, and try to unload her there, although the narrowness of the place, and the rapidity of the tides, rendered it a very dangerous situation. We got in in the evening, but it blowing very hard in the night, both the Tamar and the storeship made signals of distress; I immediately sent my boats to their assistance, who found that notwithstanding they were moored, they had been driven up the harbour, and were in the greatest danger of being on shore. They were got off, not without great difficulty, and the very fiext night they drove again, and were again saved by the same efforts, from the same danger. As I now found that the storeship was continually driving about the harbour, and every moment in danger of being loft, I gave up, with whatever reluctance, my design of taking the provisions out of her, and sent all our carpenters on board, to fith the mast, and make such other repairs as they could. I also lent her my forge to complete such iron work as they wanted, and determined, the moment she was in a condition to put to sea, to take herwith us into the Streight



of Magellan, and unload her there. While this was 1765

February. doing, Captain Mouat, who commanded the Tamar, informed me that his rudder was sprung, and that he had reason to fear it would in a short time become wholly unserviceable. Upon this I ordered the Carpenter of the Dolphin on board the Tamar, to examine the rudder, and he reported it to be so bad, that in his opinion the vessel could not proceed in her voyage without a new

A new one however it was not in our power to procure at this place, and I therefore desired Captain Mouat to get his forge on shore, and secure his rudder with iron clamps in the best manner he could, hoping that in the Streight a piece of timber might be found which would furnish him with a better.

On Wednesday the 13th, the store-ship being ready Wednes. 13 • for sea; I put on board her one of my petty officers, who was well acquainted with the Streight, and three or four of my seamen to assist in navigating her ; I also lent her two of my boats, and took those belonging to her, which were staved, on board to get them repaired, and then I ordered her Master, to put to sea directly, and make the best of his way to Port Famine ; though I did not doubt but that I should come up with her long tefore she got thither, as I intended to follow her as soon as the Tamar was ready, and Captain Mouat had told me, that the rudder having been patched together by the joint labour and skill of the carpenter and smith, he should be in a condition to proceed with me the next morning.

The next morning we accordingly put to sea, and Thurfd. 14. a few hours afterwards, being a-breast of Penguin Isand, we saw the store-ship a long way to the eastward.

On Saturday the 16th, about fix o'clock in the Saturd. 16. morning, we saw Cape Fairweather bearing W.S. W. at the distance of five or six leagues, and at nine, we saw a strange fail to the N. W. ftanding after us.

On the 17th, at fix in the morning, Cape Virgin Sunday 17. Mary bearing fouth, distant five miles, we hauled in for the Streight, and the strange ship still followed

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On the 18th, we passed the first Narrow, and as I perceived the strange ship to have shaped the same


1765. January

on the starboard side, where ships may anchor in great safety, and in each of which there is a fine rivulet of fresh water.

Soon after we entered an harbour of much greater extent, which I called Port EGMONT, in honour of the earl, who was then First Lord of the Admiralty; and I think it is one of the finest harbours in the world. The mouth of it is S. E. diftant seven leagues from the low rocky island, which is a good mark to know it by: within the island, and at the distance of about two miles from the shore, there is between seventeen and eighteen fathom water; and about three leagues to the westward of the harbour, there is a remarkable white sandy beach, off which a ship may anchor till there is an opportunity to run in. In standing in for this sandy beach, the two low rocky islands, which we found it difficult to clear when the weather obliged us to stand off, appear to the eastward, and Port Egmont is about fixteen leagues from the north end of these islands. We moored in ten fathom, with fine holding ground. The northermost point of the western shore was distant two miles and an half, the watering-place on that shore bore W. N. W. { W. and was distant half a mile, and the islands on the east fide bore E. by S. and were distant four miles. The whole navy of England might ride here in perfect security from all winds. Soon after the fhip came to an anchor, the other boat which had remained on shore when Mr. Hindman put off, came on board. In the southermost part of the harbour there are several islands, but there is no passage out for a ship ; I went, however through in my boat, about, seven leagues distant from where the ship lay, and entered a large found, which is too much exposed to a westerly wind for ships to lie in it fafely ; and the master of the Tamar, who had been round in her boat, and entered this found from without, reported that many shoals lay off it, so that if the harbour was ever so good, it would not be prudent to attempt getting in. In every part of Port Egmont there is fresh water in the greateit plenty, and geese, ducks, snipes, and other birds are so numerous that our people grew tired of then : it was a common thing for a boat to bring off fixty or seventy fine geefs, withcui expending a fingle charge of powder and


shot, for the men knocked down as many as they pleased 1765. with stones : wood, however, is wanting here, except

January a little that is found a-drift along the shore, which I imagined came from the Streight of Magellan. Among other refreshments, which are in the highest degree falutary to those who have contra&ted scorbutic disorders, during a long voyage, here are wild celery and wood forrel, in the greatest abundance ; nor is there any want of muscles, clams, cockles, and limpets : the feals and penguins are innumerable, so that it is imposible to walk on the beach without first driving them away and the coast abounds with sea lions, many of which are of an enormous size. We found this animal very formidable ; I was once attacked by one of them very unexpectedly, and it was 'with the utmost difficulty that I could disengage myself from him : at other times we had many battles with them, and it has fometimes afforded a dozen of us an hour's work to dispatch one of them; I had with me a very fine mastiff dog, and a bite of one of these creatures almost tore him to pieces. Nor were these the only dangerous animals that we found here ; for the Master having been sent out one day to found the coast upon the south shore, reported, at his return, that four creatures of great Fierceness, resembling wolves, ran up to their bellies in the water to attack the people in his boat, and that as they happened to have no fire-arms with them, they had imme. diately put the boat off into deep water. The next morning after this happened, I went upon the southern shore myself, where we found one of the largest sea lions I had ever seen : as the boat's crew were now well armed, they immediately engaged him, and during the contest one of the other animals was seen running towards us : he was fired at before he came up, and was presently killed, though I afterwards wished that we had endeavoured to take him alive, which, if we had been aware of his attack, I dare say might easily have been done. When any of these creatures got fight of our people, though at ever so great a distance, they ran directly at them; and no less than five of them were killed this day. They were always called wolves by the ship’s company, but except in their size, and the shape of the tail, I think they bore a greater


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