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. To EDGE atvay, to decline gradually from the shore,
or from the line of the course which the ship formerly
FALL, the loose end of a tackle, or that part upon .which the people pull, or hoist, to produce the desired .effect.
To' FILL, to brace the sails in such a manner as that the wind, entering their cavities from behind, dilates them so as to advance the ship in her course.
FISH, is a long piece of oak, convex on one side, and concave on the other. It is used to fasten upon the outside of the lower masts, as an additional security, to strengthen them, when it becomes necessary to carry an extraordinary pressure of fail. The fishes are' also employed for the fame purpose on any yard, which happens to be sprung or fractured.
FLAW, a sudden breeze, or gust of wind.
FLOOR, the bottom of a ship.
FOOT of a sail, lower edge or bottom.
Foot-rope, the rope to which the foot of a sail is sewed.
FORE, all that part of a ship's frame and machinery which lies near the head.
GAFF, a sort of boom, or pole, used to extend the upper edge of the mizen. The foremost, or inner extremity of it, is furnished with two cheeks, forming a semicircle, which inclose the aster part of the mast so as to confine the gaff close to its respective mast, whilst the sail is hoisting or lowering.
GANGWAY, a narrow platform, or range of planks, laid horizontally along the upper part of a ship's side, from the quarter-deck to the fore-castle, for the convenience of walking more expeditiously fore and aft, than by descending into the waist.
Gangway, is also that part of a ship's side, both . within and without, by which the passengers enter and depart. It is for this purpose provided with a sufficient number of steps, or cleats, nailed upcm the (hip's side, nearly as low as the surface of the water j and sometimes turnished with a railed accommodation-ladder, whose lower end projects from the ship's side, being secured in this position by iron braces, so as to render the ascent and descent convenient.
GRAPPLING, a small anchor, fitted with four or five slukes, or claws, commonly used to ride a boat, or other linall vessel.
GUNNEL, or Gunwale, the upper edge of a ship's side.
HANDING the sails, "rolling them up close to the yard or mast lo which they belong.
HAMMACOES, ihe fame with hammoc.
To HAUL, an expression peculiar to seamen, implying to pull a single rope, without the assistance of blocks, or other mechanical powers.
To Haul the .wind, to direct the ship's course nearer to that point of the compass from which the wind arises.
HAWSER, a large rope which holds the middle degree between the cable and tow-line.
HEAVING-yW/, is the drawing so much of the cable into the ship, by means of the capltern or windlass, as that, by advancing, she will be almost perpendicularly above the anchor, and in a proper situation lo set sail.
HEAVlNG-taugbt, the act of heaving about the cap* stern, till the rope applied thereto becomes streight, and ready for action.
To HEEL, to stoop or incline to either side.
HUMMOCK, a little hill.
JERKED, cured with salt.
JIB, or Gib, Jib-boom, a boom run out from the - extremity of the bowsprit, - parallel to its length, and serving to extend the bottom of the jib, and the stay of the fore-top-gallant-mast.
K. KEDGE, a small anchor, used to keep a ship steady whilst she rides in a harbour or river."
False KEEL, a strong thick piece of timber, bolted to the main keel, to preserve its lower side.
KNEE, a crooked piece of timber, having two branches or arms, and generally used to connect the beams of a Ihip with her sides or timbers.
LARBOARD, the left side ef a ship when the eye of a spectator is directed forward.
LASHING, a piece of rope employed to fasten or secure any moveable body in a ship, or about her masts, , fails, or rigging; also the act of fastening or securing any thing by means of the rope used for this purpose.
LOG, a machine used to measure the ship's head-way,
or the rate of her velocity as she advances through the sea.
It is composed.of a reel and line, to which is fixed a small
piece of wood, forming the quadrant of a circle. The
c z term
term log, however, is more particularly applied to the latter. The log is generally about a quarter of an inch thick, and five or six inches from the angular point to the circumference. It is balanced by a thin plate of lead, nailed upon the arch, so as to swim perpendicularly in the water, with about two-thirds impressed under the surface. The line is fastened to the I'og by means of two legs, one of which passes through a hole at the corner, and is knotted on the opposite side; whilst the other leg is attached to the arch by a pin, fixed in another hole, so as to draw out occasionally. By these legs the log is hung in equilibrio, and the line, which is united to it, is divided into certain spaces, which are in proportion to an equal number of geographical miles, as a half minute or quarter minute is to an hour of time.
LUG-SAIL, a square sail, hoisted occasionally on the mast of a boat, or small vessel, upon a yard which hangs nearly at right angles with the mast. M.
To MAKE the land, is to discover it from a distant situation, in consequence of approaching it after a sea voyage.
MIZEN, the astermost or hindmost of the fixed sails of a ship.
MOORING, the act of confining and securing a ship in a particular station, by chains or cables, which areeither fastened to the adjacent shore,' or to anchors in the bottom. N.
NEAPED, the situation of a ship which is left a-ground on the height of a spring tide, so that she cannot be sloated off till the return of the next spring. O.
OFFING, implies out at sea, or at a competent distance from the shore, and generally out of anchor-ground.
OPEN, is expressed of any distant object, to which the fight or passage is not intercepted by something lying or coming between. Thus, to be open with any place, is to be opposite to it; as the entry of a port, road, or haven.
OVER-HAULING, the act of opening and extending the several parts of a tackle, or other assemblage of ropes, communicating with blocks or dead-eyes. It is used to remove those blocks to a sufficient distance from each other, that they may be again placed in a state of action, so as to produce the effect required. P.
PAINTER, a rope employed to fasten a boat either along-side of the ship to which she belongs, or to some wharf or key.
PALM os the anchor, the same with sluke, the broad barbed ends of the two arms at the bottom of the slunk.
PARCELING, certain long narrow slips of canvas daubed with tar, and frequently bound about a rope, in the fame manner as bandages are applied to a broken limb in surgery.
To PAY, to daub or anoint the surface of any body, in order to preserve it from the injuries of the water and weather, &c.
PORTS, the embrasures or openings in the side of a (hip of war, wherein the artillery is ranged in battery upon the decks above and below.
Half-ports, are what stops that part of the port which when the gun is pushed out is left open.
PURCHASE, any mechanical power employed in raising or removing heavy bodies, or in fixing or extending the ship's rigging.
QUARTER, that part of a ship's fide which lies towards the stern.
Quarter-cloths, longpieces of painted canvass, extended on the outside of the quarter-netting, from the upper part of the gallery to the gang-way. R.
RANGE, a sufficient length of the cable drawn up on the deck, before the anchor is cast loose from the bow, to let it sink to the bottom, without being interrupted, that the slukes may be forced the deeper into the ground, by the additional weight which the anchor acquires in sinking.
REEF, a certain, portion of a fail, comprehended between the top or bottom, and a row of eyelet-holes parallel thereto.
To Reef, is to reduce the surface of the sail in proportion to the increase of the wind.
Reef also implies a chain of rocks, lying near the surface of the water.
RIGGING, a general name given to all the ropes employed to support the masts, and to extend or reduce the fails, or arrange them to the disposition of the wind.
RIGHTING, the act of restoring a ship to her upright position, aster she has been laid on a careen. A ship is also said to right at sea when she rises, with her masts erected, after having been pressed down on one side by the efforts of her fails, or a heavy squall of wind. S.
SCARFING, when two pieces of timber are to be joined together by the ends, if the ends are cut square, another piece is laid upon and fastened to both, and this is called scarfing. SETTING,
SETTING, the act of observing the situation of any distant object by the compass, in order to discover the angle which it makes with the nearest meridian.
SHEliT, a rope fastened to one or both the lower corners of a fail, to extend and retain it in a particular station.
SHROUDS, a range of large ropes, extended from the mast heads to the right and left side of the ship, to support the masts, and enable them to carry fail.
SKIDS, orSKEEDS, are long com palling pieces of timber, formed so as to answer the vertical curve of a ship's side. They are notched below so as to sit closely upon the wales; and as they are intended to preserve the planks of the side, when any weighty body is hoisted or lowered, they extend from the main-wale to the top of the side, and they are retained in this position by bolts or spike-nails.
SPRING, a crack or breach running transversely or obliquely through any part of a mast or yard, so as to render it unfase to carry the usual quantity of fail thereon.
Spring is also a rope passed out of one extremity of a ship, and attached to a cable proceeding from the other, when stie lies at anchor. It is usually done to bring the ship's broad-side, or battery of cannon, to bear upon some distant object.
SPRITSAIL, a fail attached to a yard which hangs under the bowsprit.
SQUALL, a sudden and violent blast of wind, usually occasioned by the interruption and reverberation of the wind from high mountains.
STANCHION, a sort of small pillar of wood or iron, used for various purposes in a ship; as, to support the decks, the quarter-rails, the nettings, and warnings.
STANDING, the movement by which the ship advances towards a certain object, or departs from it.
STARBOARD, the right side of a ship when the eye of the spectator is directed forward.
To STAY, the fame as to tack; the contrary to wear, which see; hence the phrase to miss stays, when Hie fails in the operation.
STIFF, the quality by which a ship is enabled to carry a sufficient quantity of fail, without hazard of oversetting.
STREAKS, or STRAKES, the uniform ranges of planks on the bottom and sides of a ihip.
To STRIKE, to run a-shore, or to beat upon the ground in passing over a bank or shallow.
STUDDING-SAILS, certain light fails extended, in moderate and steady breezes, beyond the skirts of the principal fails, where they appear as wings upon the yard-arms,