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events, whether the preservation or destruction of particular parts, tends ultimately to the good of the whole? The fame voice commissions the winds to plough up the deep, which at the appointed time rebukes them, faying, " Peace, be still." If the adorable Author and Preserver of Nature was such a being as Baal is represented to have been by the Prophet, when he derided his worshippers; if he was sometimes on a journey, and sometimes asleep, we might with propriety fay, that a fire, happened to break out, or a storm to risir, but that by the interposition of Providence lise was preserved; expressions which imply that the mischief had one origin, and the remedy another; but such language certainly derogates from the honour of the great Univerfal Cause, who, acting through all duration, and subsisting in all space, fills immensity with his presence, and eternity with his power.

It will perhaps be faid, that in particular instances evil necesfarily results from that constitution of things which is best upon the whole, and that Providence occasionally interseres, and supplies the desects of the constitution in these particulars: but this notion will appear not to be supported by those facts which are faid to be providential: it will always be found that Providence interposes too late, and only moderates the mischief which it might have prevented. But who can suppose an extraordinary interposition of Providence to supply particular defects in the constitution of nature, who sees those desects supplied but in part? It is true that when the Endeavour was upon the rock off the coast of New Holland, the wind ceased, and that otherwise she must have been beaten to pieces; but either the subsiding of the wind was a mere natural event or not. If it Was a natural event, Providence is out of the question; at least we can with no more propriety fay, that providentially the wind cealed, than that providentially the sun rose in the morning. If it was not a mere natural event, but produced by an extraordinary interposition, correcting a desect in the constitution of nature, tending to mischief, it will lie upon those who maintain the position to shew, why .an extraordinary interposition did not take place rather

to to prevent the ship's striking, than to prevent her being beaten to pieces aster she had struck: a very slight impulse upon the ship's course would have caused her to steer clear of the rock; and if all things were not equally easy to Omnipotence, we should say that this might have been done with less difficulty than a calm could be produced by suspending the general laws of Nature, which had brought on the gale.

I have, however, paid my homage to the Supreme Being, consonant to my own ideas of his agency and perfections; and those, who are of opinion that my notions are erroneous, must allow, that he, who does •what he thinks to be right, and abstains from what he thinks to be wrong, acquits himself equally of morals obligation, whether his opinions are false or true.


EXPLANATION of the NAUTICAL TERMS, not generally understood, which occur in this Work.


ABACK, the situation of the fails when their surfaces are flatted against the masts by the force of the wind. The fails are faid to be taken aback, when they are brought into this situation, either by a sudden change of the wind, or by an alteration in the ship's course. They are laid aback, to effect an immediate retreat, without turning to the right or left i in order to avoid some danger.

ABAFT, the hinder part of a ship.

AFT, behind, or near the stern of the ship.

ANCHOR, the principal are the sheet anchor, the best bower, and the small bower, so called from the ship's bows. The smaller anchors are, the stream anchor, the kedge anchor, and the grappling.

AWNING, a canopy of canvass extending over the decks of a ship in hot weather:

AZIMUTH-Comp Ass, an instrument employed todiscover the magnetical azimuth or amplitude of any heavenly object. This operation is performed at sea, to find the exact variation of the magnetical needle. B

To BALANCE, to contract a fail into a narrower compass in a storm, by retrenching or folding up a part of it at one corner.

BEAMS, strong thick pieces of timber, stretching across the ship from side to side, to support the decks, and retain the sides at their proper distance. On the weather beam, is on the weather side of the ship.

To BELAY} to fasten a rope, by winding it several times round a cleat, belaying-pin, or kevel.

BENDING a sail, fastening it to its yard, or stay.

BIGHT, the double part of the rope when it is folded in contradistinction to the end.

Bight, is also a small bay between two points of land.

BULGE, or Bilce, that part of the floor of a ship, on either side of the keel, which approaches nearer to an horizontal than a perpendicular direction, and on which the ship would rest if laid on the ground; or, more particularly, those parts of the bottom which are opposite to the heads of the floor-timbers, amidships on each side of

the the keel. Hence, when a ship receives a fracture in this place, she is faid to be bilged.

BIRTH, the station in which a sliip rides at anchor.

Birth, also signifies the room or apartment where any particular number of the officers or ship's company usually mess and reside.

BOARD, the line over which the ship runs between tack and tack, when she is turning to windward, or failing against the direction of the wind.

BOW, the rounding part of a ship's side forward, beginning at the place where the planks arch inwards, and terminating where they close at the stem or prow.

BREAKERS, billows that break violently over rocks lying under the surface of the sea.

To BRING-TO, to check the course of a sliip when she is advancing, by arranging the fails in such a manner as that they shall counteract each other, and prevent her either from retreating or moving forward. In this situation the ship is faid to lie-by, or lie-to.

BULK-HEADS, certain partitions, or walls, built up in several places of a ship between two decks, either lengthways or across, to form and separate the various apartments.

BUOY, a fort of close cask, or block of wood, fastened by a rope to the anchor, to determine the place where the anchor is situated.


CABLE'S length, an hundred-and-twenty fathoms.

CAP, a strong, thick block of wood, used to confine two masts together, when the one is erected at the head of the other, in order to lengthen it. It is for this purpose furnished with two holes perpendicular to its length and breadth, and parallel to its thickness; one of these is square, and the other round; the former being solidly fixed upon the upper end of the lower mast, whilst the latter receives the mast employed to lengthen it, and secures it in this position.

CAPSTERN, or Capstan, a strong massy column of limber, formed like a truncated cone, and having its upper extremity pierced with a number of holes to receive the bars or levers. It is let down perpendicularly through the decks of a ship, and is fixed in such manner that the men, by turning it horizontally with their bars, may perform any work which requires an extraordinary effort.

CASTING, the motion of falling off, so as to bring the direction of the wind on either side of the ship, after it had blown for some time right-a-head.


CHAINS, strong links, or plates of iron, the lower -ends of which are bolted through the ship's side to the timbers. They are placed at short distances from each other on the ship's outside, as being used to contain the blocks called dead eyes, by which the Jbrouds of the masts are extended.

CHEEKS of the mast, the faces, or projecting parts on each side of the masts, used to sustain the frame of the top, together with the top-mast, which rests immediately upon them.

CLAWING, or Clawi Ng-ofp, the act of btating or turning to windward from a lee shore, so as to acquire a sufficient distance from it, to escape the dangers of ship' wreck.

CLEATS, pieces of wood of different shapes, used occasionally to fasten ropes upon in a ship.

CLENCH, orCuNCH, that part of a cable, or other rope, which is fastened to the ring of the anchor. • CLOSE up on œ ,wind, or Close-haulep, the general arrangement or trim of a ship's fails, when she endeavours to make a progress in the nearest direction possible, towards that point of the compass from which the wind blows.

To CLEW, or Clue-up, to truss the fails up to the yards by tackles fastened to their lower corners, called their clues.

COCKSWAIN, or Coxen, the officer who manage: and steers a boat, and has the command of the boat's crew.

COMPANION, a fort of wooden porch placed over the entrance or stair-case of the master's cabin in a merchant ship.

COURSES, a name by which the principal sails of a ship are usually distinguished, viz. the main-sail, fore-sail, and mizen.

CRANK, the quality of a ship which, for want of a sufficient quantity of ballast or cargo, is rendered incapable of carrying fail without being exposed to the danger of overturning.


Half-DECK, a space under the quarter-deck of a ship of war, contained between the foremost bulkhead of the fiterage and the fore-part of the quarter-deck.

DRIVING, the state of being carried at random along the surface of the water, by a storm or current; it is gecerally expressedof a ship when broken loose from her anchors or moorings.

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