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events, whether the preservation or destruction of particular parts, tends ultimately to the good of the whole? The same voice commissions the winds to plough up the deep, which at the appointed time rebukes them, saying, “ Peace, be still.” If the adorable Author and Preserver of Nature was such a being as Baal is represented to have been by the Prophet, when he derided his worshippers; if he was sometimes on a journey, and sometimes asleep, we might with propriety say, that a fire, happened to break out, or a storm to rife, but that by the interposition of Providence life was preserved; expreslions which imply that the mischief had one origin, and the remedy another; but such language certainly derogates from the honour of the great Universal Çause, who, acting through all duration, and sublisting in all space, fills immensity with his presence, and eternity with his power.
It will perhaps be said, that in particular instances evil necessarily results from that constitution of things which is best upon the whole, and that Providence occafionally interferes, and supplies the defects of the conftitution in these particulars : but this notion will appear not to be supported by those facts which are said to be providential : it will always be found that Providence interposes too late, and only moderates the mischief which it might have prevented. But who can suppose an extraordinary interposition of Providence to supply particular defects in the constitution of nature, who sees those defects supplied but in part? It is true that when the Endeavour was upon the rock off the coast of New Holland, the wind ceased, and that otherwise she must have been beaten to pieces ; but either the subsiding of the wind was a mere natural event or not. If it was a natural event, Providence is out of the question; at least we can with no more propriety say, that providentially the wind ceased, than that providentially the sun rose in the morning. If it was not a mere natural event, but produced by an extraordinary interposition, correcting a defect in the conftitution of nature, tending to mischief, it will lie upon those who maintain the position to thew, why .an extraordinary interposition did not take place rather
to prevent the ship's striking, than to prevent her being beaten to pieces after she had struck: a very slight impuise upon the ship's course would have caused her to steer clear of the rock; and if all things were not equally easy to Omnipotence, we should say that this might have been done with less difficulty than a calm could be produced by suspending the general laws of Nature, which had brought on the gale.
I have, however, paid my homage to the Supreme Being, confonant to my own ideas of his agency and perfections; and those, who are of opinion that
my notions are erroneous, must allow, that he, who does what he thinks to be right, and abstains from what he thinks to be wrong, acquits himself equally of moral obligation, whether his opinions are false or true.
EXPLANATION of the NAUTICAL TERMS, not generally understood, which occur in this work.
faces are fatted against the masts by the force of the wind. The fails are said to be taken aback, when they are brought into this situation, either by a sudden change of the wind, or by an alteration in the ship's course. They are laid aback, to effect an immediate retreat, without turning to the right or left; in order to avoid some danger. ABAFT, 'the hinder part of a ship. AFT, behind, or near the stern of the ship.
ANCHOR, the principal are the feet anchor, the best bower, and the finall bower, so called from the ship’s bows. The smaller anchors are, the stream anchor, the kedge anchor, and the grappling.
AWNING, a canopy of canvass extending over the decks of a ship in hot weather:
AZIMUTH-COMPASS, an instrument employed to discover the magnetical azimuth or amplitude of any heavenly object. This operation is performed at sea, to find the exact variation of the magnetical needle.
B To BALANCE, to contract a fail into a narrower compass in a storm, by retrenching or folding up a part of it at one corner.
BEAMS, strong thick pieces of timber, itretching across the ship from side to side, to support the decks, and retain the sides at their proper distance. On the weather beam, is on the weather side of the ship.
To BELAY; to faften a rope, by winding it several times round a cleat, belaying-pio, or kevel.
BENDING a fail, fastening it to its yard, or stay.
BIGHT, the double part of ihe rope when it is folded in contradiftinction to the end.
Bight, is also a small bay between two points of land.
BULGE, or Bilge, that part of the foor of a ship, on either side of the keel, which approaches nearer to an horizontal than a perpendicular direction, and on which the ship would rest if laid on the ground; or, more particularly, those parts of the bottom which are opposite to the heads of the floor-timbers, amidships on each side of
the keel. Hence, when a ship receives a fracture in this place, she is said to be bilged.
BIRTH, the station in which a ship rides at anchor.
Birth, also signifies the room or aparțment where any particular number of the officers or ship's company usually mess and reside.
BOARD, the line over which the ship runs between tack and lack, when she is turning to windward, or failing against the direction of the wind.
BOW, the rounding part of a ship's side forward, beginning at the place where the planks arch inwards, and Terminating where they close at the stem or prow.
BREAKERS, billows that break violently over rocks lying under the surface of the sea.
TO BRING-TO, to check the course of a ship when she is advancing, by arranging the fails in such a manner as that they shall counteract each other, and prevent her either from retreating or moving forward. In this situation the ship is said to lie-by, or lie-to.
BULK-HEADS, certain partitions, or walls, built up in several places of a ship between two decks, either lengthways or across, to form and separate the various apartments.
BUO Y, a sort of close calk, or block of wood, fastened by a rope to the anchor, to determine the place where the anchor is situated.
с CABLE's length, an hundred-and-twenty fathoms.
CAP, a strong, thick block of wood, used to confine two matts together, when the one is erected at the head of the other, in order to lengthen it. It is for this purpose furnished with two holes perpendicular to its length and breadth, and parallel to its thickness; one of these is square, and the other round; the former being solidly fixed upon the upper end of the lower mast, whilft the latter receives the mast employed to lengthen it, and secures it in this position.
CAPSTERN, or CAPSTAN, a strong maffy column of timber, formed like a truncated cone, and having its upper extremity pierced with a number of holes to receive the bars or levers. It is let down perpendicularly Through the decks of a ship, and is fixed in such manner that the men, by iurning it horizontally with their bars, may perform any work which requires an extraordinary effort.
CASTING, the morion of falling off, so as to bring the direction of the wind on either side of the thip, after it had blown for some time right-a-head.
CHAINS, strong links, or plates of iron, the lower ends of which are bolted through the ship's side to the timbers. They are placed at short distances from each other on the ship’s outside, as being used to contain the blocks called dead eyes, by which the fbrouils of the masts are extended.
CHEEKS of the mast, the faces, or projecting parts or each side of the masts, used to sustain the frame of the top, together with the top-mast, which refts immediately upon them.
CLAWING, or CLAWING-OFF, the act of beating or turning to windward from a lee shore, so as to acquire a sufficient distance from it, to escape the dangers of thip wreck,
CLEATS, pieces of wood of different shapes, used occasionally to fasten ropes upon in a ship.
CLENCH, or CLINCH, that part of a cable, or other rope, which is fastened to the ring of the anchor..
CLOSE upon a wind, or CLOSE-HAULED, the general artangeinent or trim of a ship's fails, when she endeavours to make a progress in the nearest direction possible, towards that point of the compass from which the wind blows.
To CLEW, or Clue-UP, to truss the fails up to the yards by tackles fastened to their lower corners, called their clues.
COCKSWAIN, or Coxen, the officer who manages and steers a boat, and has the command of the boat's crew,
COMPANION, a sort of wooden porch placed over the entrance or stair-case of the master's cabin in a merchant ship.
COURSES, a name by which the principal fails of a Phip are usually diftinguished, viz. the main-lail, fore-fail, and mizen.
CRANK, the quality of a ship which, for want of a sufficient quantity of ballaft or cargo, is rendered incapable of carrying fail without being exposed to the danger of overturning.
D. Half-DECK, a space under the quarter-deck of a ship of war, contained between the foremost bulkhead of the fteerage and the fore-part of the quarter-deck.
DRIVING, the state of being carried at random along the surface of the water, by a storm or current; it is gecerally expressed of a ship when broken loose from her anchors or nioorings.