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us without opposition, as they were already acquaint- 1769. ed with our strength, and might also procure us a . If^J. ready and peaceable reception among the neighbouring people, if we should desire it.
To these islands we gave the name of The Groups.
On the 7th, about half an hour aster six in the Friday 7morning, being just at day-break, we discovered ano-Blrd^^i. ther island to the northward, which we judged to be about four miles in circumference. The land lay very low, and there was a piece of water in the middle of it; there seemed to be some wood upon it, and it looked green and pleasant; but we saw neither cocoa trees nor inhabitants: it abounded, however, with birds, and we therefore gave it the name of Bird-island.
It lies in latitude 1 7° 48' S. and longitude 1430 35' W. at the distance of ten leagues, in the direction W. I N. from the west end of the Groups. The variation here was 6° 32' E.
On the 8th, about two o'clock in the asternoon, we s,,,,^ g saw land to the northward, and about sun-set came Chain a-breast of it, at about the distance of two leagues. It andappeared to be a double range of low woody islands joined together by reefs, so as to form one island, in the form of an ellipsis or oval, with a lake in the middle of it. The small islands and reefs that circumscribe the lake have the appearance of a chain, and we therefore gave it the name of Chain Island. Its length seemed to be about five leagues, in the direction of N. W. and S. E. and its breadth about five miles. The trees upon it appeared to be large, and we saw smoke rising in different parts of it from among them, a certain sign that it was inhabited. The middle of it lies in latitude 170 23' S. and longitude 1450 54' W. and is distant from Bird-Island forty-five leagues in thedirection of W. by N. The variation here was, by several azimuths, found to be 40 54' E.
On the 10th, having had a tempestuous night withMonday 10. thunder and rain, the weather was hazy till about nine o'clock in the morning, when it cleared up, and we saw the island to which Captain Wallis, who first discovered it, gave the name of Ostiaburgh Island, called by the natives Maitea, bearing N. W. by W. distant
1769. about five leagues. It is a high round istand, not above A}"'1, | a league in circuit; in some parts it is covered with v"~~v~w trees, and in others a naked rock. In this direction it looked like a high crown'd hat; but when it bears north, the top of it has more the appearance of the roof of a house. We made its latitude to be 1 7° 48'S. its longitude 1480 10' W. and its distance from Chain Island 44 leagues-, in the direction of W. by S.
The Arrival of the Endeavour at Otaheite, called by Captain Wallis King George the IHd's Island. Rules established for Traffic with the Natives, and an Account of several Incidents which happened in a Visit to Tootahah and Toubourai Tamaida, two Chiefs.
Monday 10. A BOUT one o'clock, on Monday the 10th of JTx. April, some of the people who were looking out for the island to which we were bound, said they saw land a-head, in that part of the horizon where it was expected to appear; but it was so faint that, whether there was land in sight or not, remained a
Tuesday n. matter of dispute till sun-set. The next morning, however, at six o'clock, we were convinced that those who said they had discovered land, were not mistaken; it appeared to be very high and mountainous, extending from W. by S. £ S. to W. by N. £ N. and we knew it to be the fame that Captain Wallis had called King George the IHd's Island. We were delayed in our approach to it by light airs and calms, so that in the
WeJa. iz. morning of the 12th we were but little nearer than we had been the night before; but about seven a breeze sprung up, and before eleven several canoes were seen making towards the (hip: there were but few of them, however, that would come near; and the people in those that did, could not be persuaded to come on board. In every canoe there were young plantains, and branches of a tree which the Indians call E'Midha; these, as we asterwards learnt, were brought as tokens of peace and amity, and the people in one of the canoes handed them up the ship's side, making signals at the fame time with great earnestness, which we did not
immediately" immediately understand; at length we guessed that they 1769. wished these symbols should be placed in some conspi-, '_f
cuous part of the ship; we, therefore, immediately stuck them among the rigging, at which they expressed the greatest satisfaction. We then purchased their cargoes, consisting of cocoa-nuts, and various kinds of fruit, which aster our long voyage were very acceptable. We stood on with an easy sail all night, with soundings from 22 fathoms to 12, and about seven o'clock in the morning we came to anchor in 13 fathoms, irfThurH. I}. Port-royal bay, called by the natives Matavai. We were immediately surrounded by the natives in their canoes, who gave us cocoa-nuts, fruit resembling apples, bread-fruit, and some small fishes, in exchange for beads and other trisles. They had with them a pig, which they would not part with for any thing but a 'hatchet, and therefore we refused to purchase it; betause, if we gave them a hatchet for a pig now, we knew they would never asterwards sell one for less, and we could not afford to buy as many as it was probable we should want at that price. The bread-fruit grows on a tree that is about the size of a middling oak: its leaves are frequently a foot and an half long, of an oblong shape, deeply sinuated like those of the fig-tree, which they resemble in consistence and colour, and in the exuding of a white milky juice upon being broken. The fruit is about the size and shape of a child's head, and the surface is reticulated not much unlike a truffle: it is covered with a thin (kin, and has a core about as big as the handle of a small knife; the eatable part lies between the skin and the core; it is as white as snow, and somewhat of the consistence of new bread: it must be roasted before it is eaten, being first divided into three or four parts: its taste is insipid, with a slight sweetness somewhat resembling that o£ the crumb of, wheaten-bread mixed with a Jerusalem artichoke. - Among others who came off to the (hip was an elderly man, wlIose name, as we learnt asterwards, was Owhaw, and who was immediately known to Mr. Gore, and several others who had been here with Captain Wallis; as I was informed that he had been very useful to them, I took him on board the ship with
176?- some others, and was particularly attentive to gratify w__^__. him, as I hoped he might also be useful to us.
As our stay here was not likely to be very short, and as it was necessary that the merchandise which we had brought for traffic with the natives should not diminish m its value, which it would certainly have done, if every person had been left at liberty to give what he pleased for such things as he should purchase; at the same time that confusion and quarrels must necessarily have arisen from there being no standard at market: I drew up the following rues, and ordered that they should be punctually observed.
Rules to be observed by every person in er belonging to his Majesty's Bark the Endeavour',for the better establishing a regular and uniform trait for proviston, &c. with the inhabitants of George's Island.
"I. To endeavour, by every fair means, to culri"vate a friendship with the natives; and to treat them *' with all imaginable humanity.
"H. A proper person, or persons, will be appoint"ed to trade with the natives for all manner of provi"sions, fruit, and other productions of the'earth; "and no officer or seaman, or other person belonging "to the ship, excepting such as are so appointed, "shall trade or offer to trade for any sort of provision, "fruit, or other productions of the earth, unless they "have leave so to de.
"HI. Every person employed on more, on any "duty whatsoever, *k strictly to attend to the fame; -" and if by any neglect he loseth any of his arms, "or working tools, or suffers them to be stolen, the "full value thereof will be charged against his pay, •** according to the custom of the navy in such cases, "and he shall receive such farther punishment as the "nature of the offence may deserve.
"IV. The same penalty will be inslicted on every "person who is found to embezzle, trade, or offer to •" trade, with any part of the (hip's stores of what "nature sower.
"V. No sort of iron, or any thing that is made of
"iron, or any sort of cloth, or other useful or necessary
. "articles, "articles, are to be given in exchange for any thing 17^9. "but provision. J. Cook."'
As soon as the (hip was properly secured, I went on shore with Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, a party of men under arms, and our friend Owhaw. We were received from the boat by some hundreds of the inhabitants, whose looks at least gave us a welcome, though ihey were struck with such awe, that the first who approached us crouched so low that he almost crept on his hands and knees. It is remarkable tha't he, like the people in the canoes, presented to us the fame symbol of peace that is known to have been in use among the ancient and mighty nations of the northern hemisphere, the green branch of a tree We received it with looks and gestures of kindness and satisfaction; and observing that each of them held one in his hand, we immediately gathered every one a bough, and carried it in our hands in the fame manner.
They marched with us about half a mile towards the place where the Dolphin had watered, conducted by Owhaw; they then made a full stop, and having laid the ground bare, by clearing away all the plants that grew upon it, the principal persons among them threw their green branches upon the naked spot, and made signs that we should do the same ; we immediately shewed our readiness to comply, and to give a greater solemnity to the rite, the marines were drawn up, and marching in order, each dropped his bough upon those of the Indians, and we followed their example. We then proceeded, and when we came to the wateringplace, it was iatimated to us by signs, that we might occupy that ground, but it happened not to be fit for our purpose. During our walk they had shaken off their first timid sense of our superiority, and were become familiar: they went with us from the wateringplaceand took a circuit through the woods: as we went along, we distributed beads and other small presents among them, and had the satisfaction to fee that they were much gratified. Our circuit was not less than four or five miles, through groves of trees, which were loaded with cocoa-nuts and bread-fruit, and afforded the most grateful shade. Under these trees