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1969. January

fire ready at the first convenient place they could find; and himself with four others, remained with the Docfor and Richmond, whom partly by persuasion and en treaty, and partly by force, they brought on; but when they had got through the greatest part of the birch' and swamp, they both declared they could go no farther. Mr. Banks had recourse again to entreaty and expoftulation, but they produced no effect: when Richmond was told, that if he did not go on he would in a short time be frozen to death ; he answered, That he desired nothing but to lie down and die. The Doctor did not so explicitly renounce his life; he said he was willing to go on, but that he must first take some sleep, though he had before told the company that to sleep was to perish. Mr. Banks and the rest found it impossible to carry them, and there being no remedy, they were both suffered to sit down, being partly supported by the bushes, and in a few minutes they fell into a profound Neep : soon after, some of the people who had been sent forward returned, with the welcome news that a fire was kindled about a quarter of a mile farther on the way. Mr. Banks then endeavoured to wake Dr. Solander, and happily fucceeded; but, though he had not slept five minutes, he had almost lost the use of his limbs, and the muscles were fo shrunk, that his shoes fell from off his feet ; he consented to go forward with such assistance as could be given him, but no attempts to relieve poor Richmond were successful. It being found impossible to make him stir, after some time had been lost in the attempt, Mr. Banks left his other black servant and a seaman, who seemed to have suf fered least from the cold, to look after him ; promil. ing, that as soon as two others should be sufficiently warmed, they should be relieved. Mr. Banks, with much difficulty, at length got the Doctor to the fire ; and soon after sent two of the people who had been refreshed, in hopes that, with the assistance of those who had been left behinit, they would be able to bring Richmond, even though it should still be found impossible to wake him. In about half an hour, however, they had the mortification to see these two men return alone; they said, that they had been all round the place to which they had been directed, but

ing, that they thouldeheth got the ople who hof those

Tento hal hamond, chim

cation to had been ded, buld hopes of secinued inceffano her failed have ance. Mint the fire, ut twelve corrain, at lege hours,

could neither find Richmond nor those who had been 1769. left with him; and that though they had shouted many, January, times, no voice had replied. This was matter of equal surprise and concern, particularly to Mr. Banks, who, while he was wondering how it could happen, misled a bottle of rum, the company's whole stock, which they now concluded to be in the knapsack of one of the absentees. It was conjectured that with this Richmond had been roused by the two persons who had been left with him, and that, having perhaps drank too freely of it themselves, they had all rambled from the place where they had been left, in search of the fire, instead of waiting for those who should have been their assiltants and guides. Another fail of snow now came on, and continued incessantly for two hours, so that all hopes of seeing them again, at least aliye, were given up; but about twelve o'clock, to the grear joy of those at the fire, a shouting was heard at some distance. Mr. Banks, with four more, immediately went out, and found the seaman with just strength enough left to stagger along, and call out for asistance: Mr. Banks Sent him immediately to the fire, and by his direction, proceeded in search of the other tivo, whom he soon after found. Richmond was upon his legs, but not able to put one before the other ; his companion was lying upon the ground, as insensible as a stone. All hands were now called from the fire, and an attempt was made to carry them to it; but this, notwithstanding the united efforts of the whole company, was found to be impossible. The night was extremely dark, the snow was now very deep, and, under these additional disadvantages, they found it very difficult to make way through the bushes and the bog for themselves, all of them getting many falls in the attempt. The only alternative was to make a fire upon the spot ; but the snow which had fallen, and was Itill falling, besides what was every moment Thaken in flakes from the trees, rendered it equally impracticable, to kindle one there, and to bring any part of that which had been kindled in the wood thither : they were, therefore, reduced to the sad necessity of leaving the unhappy wretches to their fate; having first made them a bed of boughs from the trees, and

,1769. spread a covering of the same kind over-them to a conmuary. fiderable height.

Having now been exposed to the cold and the snow near an hour and a half, some of the rest began to lose their sensibility ; and one Briscoe, another of Mr. Banks's feryants, was so ill, that it was thought he must die before he could be got to the fire. t. At the fire, however, at length they arrived; and passed the night in a situation, which, however dreadful in itself, was rendered more ami&ting by the remembrance of what was past, and the uncertainty of what was to come. Of twelve, the numbes that set out together in health and spirits, two were supposed to be already dead; a third was so ill, that it was very doubtfut whether he would be able to go forward in the morning; and a fourth, Mr. Buchan, was in danger of a return of his fits, by a fresh fatigue after so uncomfortable a night: 'they were distant from the ship a long day's journey, through pathless woods, in which it was too probable they might be bewildered till they were overtaken by the next night ; and not having prepared for a journey of more than eight or ien hours, they were wholly deftitute of provisions, except a vulture which they happened to mool while they were out, and which if equally divided, would not afford each of them half a meal; and they knew not how much more they might suffer from the cold, as the snow ftill continued to fall. A dreadful testimony of the leverity of the clinate, as it was now the midit of summer in this part of the world, the twenty-firit of De. cember being here the longest day į and every thing might justly be dreaded from a phænomenon which, in the corresponding season, is unknown even in Nor

way and Lapland. Tuesday 17. When the morning dawned, they saw nothing round

them as far as the eye could reach, but snow, which seemed to lie asthick upon the trees as upon the ground; and the blasts returned so frequentiy, and with such violence, that they found it impossible for them to set out : how long this might last they knew not, and they had but too much reaion to apprehend that it would confine them in that desolate forest till they perished with hunger and cold.



. After having suffered the misery and terror of this 1769. situation till six o'clock in the morning, they conceived Janus some hopes of deliverance by discovering the face of the sun through the clouds, which were become thinner, and began to break away.; Their first care was to see whether the poor wretches whom they had been obliged to leave among the bushes were yet alive ; three ef the company were dispatched for that purpose, and very soon afterwards returned with the melancholy news, that they were dead.

Notwithstanding the flattering appearance of the fky, the snow continued to fall so thick that they could not venture out upon their journey to the ship; but about 8 o'clock a small regular breeze sprung up, which, with the prevailing influence of the sun, at length cleared the air ; and they soon after, with great joy, saw the snow fall in large flakes from the trees, a certain sign of an approaching thaw : they now examined more critically the state of their invalids ; Briscoe was still very ill, but said, that he thought himself able to walk; and Mr. Buchan was much better than either he or his friends had any reason to expect. They were now, however, pressed by the calls of hunger, to which, after long fasting, every consideration of future good or evil immediately gives way. Before they set forward, therefore, it was unanimously agreed, that they should eat their vulture; the bird was accordingly skinned, and, it being thought best to divide it belore it was fit to be eaten, it was cut into ten portions, and every man cooked his own as he thought fit. After this repast, which furnished each of them with about ilzee mouthfuls, they prepared to set out; but it was ten o'clock before the snow was sufficiently gone off to render a march practicable. After a walk of about three hours, they were very agreeably surprized to find theniselves upon the beach, and much nearer to the ship than they had any reason to expect. Upon reviewing their track from the vessel, they perceived, that, instead of ascending the hill in a line, so as to penetrate into the country, they had made almost a circle round it. When they came on board, they congratulated each other upon their safety, with a joy that no man can feel who has not been exposed to


1769. cqual danger ; and as I had suffered great anxiety at January.

their not returning in the evening of the day on which they set out, I was not wholly without my share.

CH A P. V.

The Passage through the Streight of Le Maire, and a fur

ther Description of the Inhabitants of Terra del Fuego, and its Productions.

6.18. O n the 18th and 1gth we were delayed in getting Thurf. 19. u on board our wood and water by a swell : but on Friday 20. the 20th, the weather being more moderate, we again

sent the boat on shore, and Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander went in it. They landed in the bottom of the bay, and while my people were employed in cutting brooms, they pursued their great object, the improvement of natural knowlege, with fuccefs, collecting many shells and plants which hitherto have been altogether unknown: they came on board to dinner, and afterwards went again on shore to visit an Indian town, which some of the people had reported to lie about two miles up the country. They found the distance not more than by the account, and they approached it by what appeared to be the common road, yet they were above an hour in getting thither, for they were frequently up to their knees in mud; when they got within a small distance, two of the people came out to meet them, with such state as they could assumc; when they joined them, they began to hollow as they had done on board the ship, without addressing themselves either to the strangers or their companions ; and having continued this strange vociferation some time, they conducted them to the town. It was situated on a dry knoll, or small hill, covered with wood, none of which seemed to have been cleared away, and consisted of about twelve or fourteen hovels, of the most rude and inartificial structure that can be imagined. They were nothing more than a few poles set up, so as to incline towards each other, and meet at the top, forming a kind of a cone, like some of our bee-hives : on the weather side they were covered with a few boughs, and a little grass; and on the lee side about one eighth of the circle


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