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CH A P. II.
The Passage from Madeira to Rio de Janeiro, with
fome Account of the Country, and the Incidents that
bappened there. 1968.
O N the 21st of September we saw the islands called September. U the Salvages, to the north of the Canaries ; Wednes.21.
. when the principal of these hore S. Į W. at the distance
of about 5 leagues, we found the variation of the compass by an azimuth to be 17° 50'. I make these islands to lie in latitude 30o II' North, and distant 58 leagues from Funchiale in Madeira, in the direction of
S. 16 E. Friday 23. · On Friday the 23d we saw the Peak of Teneriffe,
bearing W. by S. 1S. and found the variation of the compass to be from 17° 22' to 16° 30'. The height of this mountain, from which I took a new departure, has been determined by Dr. Heberden, who has been upon it, to be 15,396 feet, which is but 148 yards less than three miles, reckoning the mile at 1760 yards. Its appearance at sunset was very striking ; when the sun was below the horizon, and the rest of the island
appeared of a deep black, the mountain still reflected · his rays, and glowed with a warmth of colour which
no painting can express. There is no eruption of visible fire from it, but a heat issues from the chinks near the top, too strong to be borne by the hand when it is held near them. We received from Dr. Heberden, among other favours, fome salt which he collected on the top of the mountain, where it is found in large quantities, and which he supposes to be the true natrum or nitrum of the antients: he gave us also some native sulphur exceedingly pure, which he had likewise found upon
the surface in great plenty. Satur. 24.
On the next day, Saturday the 24th, we came into Friday 30. the north-east trade wind, and on Friday the 30th saw
Bona Vista, one of the Cape de Verd Illands; we ranged the east side of it, at the distance of three or four miles from the shore, till we were obliged to haul off to avoid a ledge of rocks which stretch out S. W. by W. from the body, or S. E. point of the island, to the extent of a league and an half. Bona Vista by 1768.
October: our observation lies in latitude 16 N. and longitude 210 m 51 Weft.
On the first of October, in latitude 140 6' N. and Saturday 1. longitude 220 10 W. we found the variation by a very good azimuth to be 10° 37 W. and the next morning Sunday 2. it appeared to be 100. This day we found the ship five miles a-head of the log, and the next day seven. On the third hoisted out the boat to discover whether Monday 9: there was a current, and found one to the eastward, at the rate of three quarters of a mile an hour.
During our course from Teneriffe to Bona Vista we saw great numbers of Aying fish, which from the cabin windows appear beautiful beyond imagination, their sides having the colour and brightness of burnished filver; when they are seen from the deck they do not appear to so much advantage, because their backs are of a dark colour. We also took a shark, which proved to be the Squalus Charearias of Linnæus.
Having lost the trade wind on the third, in latitude 120 14' and longitude 22° 10', the wind became somewhat variable, and we had light airs and calms by turns.
On the seventh, Mr. Banks went out in the boat, Friday 9. and took what the seamen call a Portuguese man of war; it is the Holothuria Physalis of Linnæus, and a species of the Mellusca. It consisted of a small bladder about seven inches long, very much resembling the airbladder of fishes, from the bottom of which descended a number of strings, of a bright blue and red, some of them three or four feet in length, which upon being touched fting like a nettle, but with much more force. On the top of the bladder is a membrance which is used as a sail, and turned so as to receive the wind which way soever it blows: this membrane is marked in fine pink coloured veins, and the animal is in every respect an object exquisitely curious and beautiful.
We also took several of the thell-fishes, or testaceous animals which are always found floating upon the water, particularly the Helix Janthina and Violacea : they are about the size of a snail, and are supported upon the surface of the water by a small clusterof bubbles, which are filled with air, and consist of a tenaceous flimy
17€8, substance, that will not easily part with its contents;
the animal is oviparous, and these bubbles serve also as a nidus for its eggs. It is probable that it never goes down to the bottom, nor willingly approaches any fhore; for the ihell is exceedingly brittle, and that of few fresh water snails is so thin : every shell contains about a teaspoonful of liquor, which it easily discharges upon being touched, and which is of the most beautiful red purple that can be conceived. It dies linnen cloth, and it may perhaps be worth enquiry, as the shell is certainly found in the Mediterranean, whether it be not the Purpura of
the ancients. Saturday 8. On the 8th, in latitude 80 25' North, longitude 220
4 West, we found a current setting to the southward, which the next day in latitude 70 58' longitude 220 shifted to the N. N W . W. at the rate of one mile and a furlong an hour. The variation here, by the mean
of several azimuths, appeared to be 80 39 Weft. Monday 10. On the tenth, Mr. Banks shot the black-toed gull,
pot yet described according to Linnæus's system; he gave it the name of Larus crepidatus : it is remarkable that the dung of this bird is of a lively red, somewhat like that of the liquor procured from the shells, only not so full; its principal food therefore is probably
the Helix just mentioned. A current to the N. W. Monday 24. prevailed more or less till Monday the 24th, when
we were in latitude 10 7 N. and longitude 28° 50'. Tuesday 25. On the 25th, we crossed the line with the usual
ceremonies in longitude 29° 30', when, by the result of several very good azimuths, the variation
was 20 24. Friday 28. On the 28th, at noon, being in the latitude of Fer
dinand Noronha, and, by the mean of several observations by Mr. Green and myself, in longitude 32° 5' 16" W. which is to the westward of it by some charts, and to the eastward by others, we expected to see the island, or some of the shoals that are laid down in the charts between it and the main, but we saw neither one nor the other. ;.
. Saturday 29. In the evening of the 29th, we observed that lumi
nous appearance of the fea which has been so often
causes have been assigned ; some supposing it to be oc- 1768.
October. casioned by fish, which agitated the water by darting at their prey, some by the putrefa&tion of fish and other marine animals, some by electricity, and others referring it into a great variety of different causes. It appeared to emit flashes of light exactly resembling those of lightning', only not so considerable, but they were so frequent that sometimes eight or ten were visible almost at the same moment. We were of opinion that they proceeded from some luminous animal, and upon throwing out the casting net our opinion was confirmed: it brought up a species of the Medusa, which when it came on board had the appearance of metal violently heated, and emitted a white light: with these animals were taken some very small crabs, of three different species, each of which gave as much light as a glowworm, though the creature was not so large by nine tenths : upon examination of these animals, Mr. Banks had the satisfaction to find that they were allentirely new.
On Wednesday the 2d of November, about noon, November. being in the latitude of 10° 38' S. and longitude 32° 13' W
Uoncitude ono, Wednes. 2. 43" W. we passed the line in which the needle at this time would have pointed due north and south, without any variation: for in the morning, having decreased gradually in its deviation for some days, it was no more than 18'W. and in the afternoon it was 34' East.
. On the 6th, being in latitude 19° 3' South, longitude Sunday 6. 35° 50' West, the colour of the water was observed to change, upon which we founded, and found ground at the depth of 32 fathoms; the lead was cast three times within about four hours, without a foot difference in the depth or quality of the bottom, which was coral rock, fine fand, and shells; we therefore supposed that we had passed over the tail of the great shoal which is laid down in all our charts by the name of Abrothos, on which Lord Anson Qruck soundings in his passage outwards : at four the next morning we had no ground Monday 7. with 100 fathom3.
As several articles of our stock and provisions now began to fall short, I determined to put into Rio de Janeiro, rather than at any other port in Brazil or Falkland's Illands, knowing that it could better supply us with what we wanted, and making no doubt but that we should be well received.
On the 8th at day-break, we saw the coast of BraNovember.
uti zil, and about ten o'clock we brought to, and spoke Tuesd. 8. - with a fishing boat; the people on board told us that
the land which we saw, lay to the southward of Santo . Esperito, but belonged to the captainship of that place.
Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander went on board this vessel, in which they found eleven men, nine of whom were Blacks; they all fished with lines, and their fresh cargo, the chief part of which Mr. Banks bought, consisted of dolphins, large pelagiac scombers of two kinds, fea bream, and some of the fish which in the West Indies are called Welshmen. Mr. Banks had taken Spanish silver with him, which he imagined to be the currency of the continent, but to his great surprise the people asked him for English shillings; he gave them two which he happened to have about him, and it was not without some dispute they took the rest of the money in pistereens. Their business seemed to be to catch large fish at a good distance from the shore, which they falted in bulk, in a .place made for that purpose in the middle of the boat: of this merchandize they had about two quintals on board, which they offered for about sixteen shillings, and would probably have sold for half the money. The fresh fish, which was bought for about nineteen shillings and sixpence, served the whole ship's company; the salt was not wanted.
The fea provisions of these fishermen consisted of nothing more than a cask of water, and a bag of Cassada flour, which they called Furinha de Pao,or wooden flour, which indeed is a name which very well suits its taste and appearance. Their water-calk was large, as wide as their boat, and exactly fitted a place that was made for it in the ballast; it was impossible therefore to draw out any of its contents by a tap, the sides being, from the bottom to the top, wholly inaccessable; neither could any be taken out by dipping a vessel in at the head, for an opening fufficiently wide for that purpose would have endangered the loss of great part of it by the rolling of the vessel: their expedient to get at their water so situated, was curious; when one of them wanted to drink, he applied to his neighbour, who accompanied him to the water-calk with a hollow cane about