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sail booms, having but few left of those which he had 1967. brought from England.

Auguft. English Cove lies N. E. Į N. three or four miles from Wallis's Illand; there is a small shoal on the starboard hand going in, which will be easily seen by the sea's breaking upon it. The water ebbs and flows once in four and twenty hours; the flood came in about nine or ten o'clock, and it was high water between three and four in the afternoon, after which it ebbed all night, and was low water about six in the morning. The water rises and falls between eight or nine feet, sometimes more, fometimes less ; but I doubt whether this fluctuation is not rather the effect of the lea and land breeze, than of a regular tide. We anchored here with our best bower in twenty-seven fathoms water, with a bottom of sand and mud; we veered into the cove a cable and a half from the anchor, moored head and stern with the stream anchor, and steadied with hawsers on each bow; the ship then lay in 1o fathoms, at the distance of a cable's length from the shore at the bottom of the Cove, Wallis's Point bearing S. W.

S. distant about three or four miles, At this place there is plenty of excellent wood and water, and good shingle ballast. The variation was 60 E.

On Monday the 7th of September, I weighed an- September. chor, but before I failed, I took posseffion of this coun- Monday 7try, with all its islands, bays, ports, and harbours, for his Majesty George the Third, King of GreatBritain ; and we nailed upon a high tree a piece of board, faced with lead, on which was engraved the English Union, with the name of the ship, and her Commander, the name of the Cove, and the time of her coming in and sailing out of it. While we lay here, I sent the boat out to examine the harbours upon the coast, from one of which expeditions she returned with a load of cocoa-nuts, which she procured in a fine little harbour, about four leagues W. N. W. from the {tation we were in. The officer on board reported that the trees grew where he had gathered the fruit in great plenty ; but as he had observed that several of them were marked, and that there were many huts of the natives near them, I did not think it proper that the boat should return: but the refreshment which now offered was of such importance to the sick, that I

determined

for his than all its inland. I took pomer, I weigh

of whicetaminof it. W, and

hore, his many cood;

1769. determined to go into the harbour with the ship, and September.

place her so as to protect the men who should be employed to fell the trees, and cut off the cabbages and the fruit. We sailed from English Cove with the land breeze early in the morning, and in the evening secured the ship a-breast of the grove, where the cocoanuts had been gathered, at a very little distance from the shore. Here we procured above a thousand cocoanuts, and as many of the cabbages as we could use while they were good ; and I would have staid long enough to have given my people all the refreshments they wanted, but the season of the year made the shorteft delay dangerous. There was too much reason to suppose that the lives of all on board depended upon our getting to Batavia while the monsoon continued to blow from the eastward ; there was indeed time enough for any other ship to have gone three times the distance, but I knew it was scarcely sufficient for the Swallow in her present condition: and that if we should be obliged to continue here another season, it would probably become impossible to navigate her at all, especially as the had but a single sheathing, and her bottom was not filled with nails, so that the worms would have eaten through it; besides that our provision would long before that time have been totally exhausted. I therefore weighed anchor and quitted this station, which was

much the best that had been our lot during the whole Wednes. 9. run from the Streight of Magellan, on the gth in the

morning, at break of day, with a light breeze from the land.

To this place we gave the name of CARTERET's HARBOUR ; it is about W. N. W. four leagues from

English Cove, and formed by two islands and the main ; Cocoa-nat the largest, which is to the N. W. we called CocoaInand

NUT ISLAND, and the other, which is to the S. E. we Leigh's Iland.

called LEIGH's ISLAND. Between these two islands there is shoal water, and each of them forms an entrance into the harbour; the south-east or weather entrance is formed by Leigh's Island, and in this there is a rock that appears above water, to which we gave the name of BooBy Rock; the passage is between the rock and the island, nor is the rock dangerous, there being deep water close to it. The north-west, or lee-entrance, is formed by Cocoa-nut Iland,

and

1767.

and this is the best, because there is good anchorage in it, the water in the other being too deep: we entered the harbour by the south-east passage, and went out of it by the north-west. At the south-east end of the harbour there is a large cove, which is secure from all winds, and fit to haul a fhip into. Into this cove a river seemed to empty itself, but our boat did not examine it. In the north-west part of the harbour there is another cove, which our boat did examine, and from which she brought us very good water . this also is fit for a ship to haul into, and very convenient for wooding and watering : she may lie in any depth from thirty to five fathoms, and any distance from the shore, with a bottom of soft mud. The harbour runs about S. E. by S. and N. W. by N. and is about three miles long, and four cables length broad. We anchored in thirty fathoms, near the north-west entrance, and a-breast of the trees on Cocoa-nut Island.

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Discovery of a Streight dividing the Land calléd Nova

Britannia into two Ipands, with a Description of leveral small Isands that lie in the Pasage, and the Land on each side, with the Inhabitants.

THEN we got about four leagues off the land,

after leaving this harbour, we met with a strong gale at E. S. Ē. a direction just contrary to that which would have favoured our getting round the land and doubling Cape Saint Maria. We found at the fame time a strong current, setting us to the N. W. into a deep bay or gulph, which Dampier calls Saint George's Bay, and which lies between Cape Saint George and Cape Orford. As it was impossible to get round the land, against both the wind and current, and follow the track of Dampier, I was under the neceflity of attempting a passage to the westward by this gulph, and the current gave me hopes that I should succeed. When I had got, therefore, about five miles to the south-west of Cocoa-nut Island, I steered to the N. W. and the N. N. W. as the land trends, and had soon good reason to believe that what has been called Saint George's Bay, and thought to be formed by two

points

Orrietty large idaka we found the proved it.

1767. points of the same island, was indeed a channel beSeptember.

tween two islands, and so the event proved it to be.

Before it was dark, we found this channel divided by a pretty large island, which I called the DUKE OF York's ISLAND, and some smaller islands that were scattered about it. On the southermost side of the main, or the largest of the two islands that are divided by the channel or streight, which I left in possession of its ancient name, New Britain, there is some high land, and three remarkable hills close to each other, which I called the MOTHER AND Daughters. The Mother is the middlemoft and largest, and behind them we saw a vast column of smoke, so that probably one of them is a volcano : they are easily seen in clear weather at the distance of twenty leagues, and will then, by those who do not know them, be taken for islands : they seem to lie far inland, and the Mother bears about west from the Duke of York's Island. To the east of these hills there is a point making like a cape land, which I called CAPE PALLISER ; and another to the westward, which I called CAPE STEPHENS. Cape Stephens is the northermost part of New Britain.

North of this Cape is an island, which I called the Ine of Isle of Man. Cape Palliser and Cape Stephens bear

about N. W. and S. E. of each other ; and between
them is a bay, the land of which near the water-side is
low, pleasant, and level, and gradually rises, as it re- .
tires towards the Mother and Daughters, into very
lofty hills, in general covered with vast woods, but
having many clear spots like plantations intermixed.
Upon this part of the country we saw many fires in the
night, and have therefore reason to suppose that it is
well inhabited. The Duke of York's Iland lies be-
tween the two points, Cape Palliser and Cape Stephens.
As it was not safe to attempt either of the passages into
which the Streight was divided by this island in the
dark, we brought to for the night, and kept sounding,
but had no ground with one hundred and forty fa-
thoms. The Streight here, including the two passages,
is about fifteen leagues broad. The land of the Duke
of York's Island is level, and has a delightful appear-
ance : inland it is covered with lofiy woods, and near
the water-side are the houses of the natives, which stand

not

Map.

ber.

them came at that time in and is fenty leagues Britai

not far from each other, among groves of cocoa-nut 1767. trees, so that the whole forms a prospeet the most septem beautiful and romantic that can be imagined. We saw many of their canoes, which are very neatly made, and in the morning, soon after I made fail, some of them came off towards the ship; but as we had a fresh gale at that time, we could not stay for them. Thursd. 10. The latitude of this island is 4° 9' S. longitude 151° 20' E. and it is five and twenty leagues distant from Cape George. As I coasted not New Britain, but the northermost coast of the Streight, I passed through the passage that is formed by that coast, and the corresponding side of the Duke of York's Island, which is about eight leagues broad, and may be considered as the First Narrow of the Streight ; and then steering N. W. by W. all night, we found at day-break Friday 1é. that we had loft sight of the southermost island, or New Britain, and having now ascertained the suppo ed bay to be a streight, I called it SAINT GEORGE's St. Geor. CHANNEL, and to the northern island I gave the Channel. name of Nova HIBERNIA, or New IRELAND. New The weather being hazy, with a strong gale and sud- Irelan den gusts, I continued to steer along the coast of New Ireland, at about the distance of six leagues from the shore, till I came off the west end of it, and then, altering our course, I steered W. N. W. I could plainly perceive, that we were set along the shore by a strong westerly current. At noon, we found by observation that we were much to the northward of the log ; but as it was impossible the current could set due north, as that would be right against the land, I was obliged, for the correction of my account, to allow no less than four and twenty miles W. N. W. which is nearly as the land lies along the shore. At this time we had about half a point east variation ; and at night we discovered a fine large island, forming a streight or passage with New Ireland. As it was very dark and squally, with rain, we brought to, not knowing to what danger the navigation of this Streight might expose us. The night was tempestuous, with much thunder and lightning, but about two in the morning Saturd. 12. the weather cleared : the gusts settled into a light breeze, and the moon shone very bright. At this time VOL. I.

therefore

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